ResearchPad - mucin https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Structure and functional analysis of the <i>Legionella pneumophila</i> chitinase ChiA reveals a novel mechanism of metal-dependent mucin degradation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14652 A broad range of organisms produce chitinase enzymes that digest chitin, the second most abundant carbohydrate on earth. Chitinases have also been identified that are important factors in major bacterial diseases but it is unclear how. Legionella pneumophila causes Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of pneumonia, and its chitinase ChiA is essential for the survival of L. pneumophila during infection of the lung. Using structural biology and microbiology methods we have determined that ChiA can associate with the L. pneumophila surface and along with other outer membrane proteins can also bind mammalian mucins. We also identified a new and unique enzyme mechanism where L. pneumophila ChiA can hydrolyse the peptide bonds of mucin-like proteins. Mucins are major components of the mucous that lines the surface of the respiratory, digestive, and urogenital tracts and acts as a first line of defence during infection. This is the first mechanistic understanding of how a chitinase can promote disease through additional peptidase activity and suggests that L. pneumophila ChiA can modulate host immune responses and disperse host mucosa during infection.

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<![CDATA[MUC1 is a receptor for the Salmonella SiiE adhesin that enables apical invasion into enterocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e93fd5eed0c48496fa96

The cellular invasion machinery of the enteric pathogen Salmonella consists of a type III secretion system (T3SS) with injectable virulence factors that induce uptake by macropinocytosis. Salmonella invasion at the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells is inefficient, presumably because of a glycosylated barrier formed by transmembrane mucins that prevents T3SS contact with host cells. We observed that Salmonella is capable of apical invasion of intestinal epithelial cells that express the transmembrane mucin MUC1. Knockout of MUC1 in HT29-MTX cells or removal of MUC1 sialic acids by neuraminidase treatment reduced Salmonella apical invasion but did not affect lateral invasion that is not hampered by a defensive barrier. A Salmonella deletion strain lacking the SiiE giant adhesin was unable to invade intestinal epithelial cells through MUC1. SiiE-positive Salmonella closely associated with the MUC1 layer at the apical surface, but invaded Salmonella were negative for the adhesin. Our findings uncover that the transmembrane mucin MUC1 is required for Salmonella SiiE-mediated entry of enterocytes via the apical route.

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<![CDATA[Interleukin-13 maintains the stemness of conjunctival epithelial cell cultures prepared from human limbal explants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2698d5eed0c484289d28

To use human limbal explants as an alternative source for generating conjunctival epithelium and to determine the effect of interleukin-13 (IL-13) on goblet cell number, mucin expression, and stemness. Human limbal explants prepared from 17 corneoscleral rims were cultured with or without IL-13 (IL-13+ and IL-13-, respectively) and followed up to passage 2 (primary culture [P0]–P2). Cells were characterized by alcian blue/periodic acid–Schiff (AB/PAS) staining (goblet cells); immunofluorescent staining for p63α (progenitor cells), Ki-67 (proliferation), MUC5AC (mucin, goblet cells), and keratin 7 (K7, conjunctival epithelial and goblet cells); and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of the p63α (TP63), MUC5AC, MUC4 (conjunctival mucins), K3, K12 (corneal epithelial cells), and K7 genes. Clonogenic ability was determined by colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay. Using limbal explants, we generated epithelium with conjunctival phenotype and high viability in P0, P1, and P2 cultures under IL-13+ and IL-13- conditions, i.e., epithelium with strong K7 positivity, high K7 and MUC4 expression and the presence of goblet cells (AB/PAS and MUC5AC positivity; MUC5AC expression). p63α positivity was similar in IL-13+ and IL-13- cultures and was decreased in P2 cultures; however, there was increased TP63 expression in the presence of IL-13 (especially in the P1 cultures). Similarly, IL-13 increased proliferative activity in P1 cultures and significantly promoted P0 and P1 culture CFE. IL-13 did not increase goblet cell number in the P0–P2 cultures, nor did it influence MUC5AC and MUC4 expression. By harvesting unattached cells on day 1 of P1 we obtained goblet cell rich subpopulation showing AB/PAS, MUC5AC, and K7 positivity, but with no growth potential. In conclusion, limbal explants were successfully used to develop conjunctival epithelium with the presence of putative stem and goblet cells and with the ability to preserve the stemness of P0 and P1 cultures under IL-13 influence.

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<![CDATA[TIM family gene polymorphism and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis: Systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcedd5eed0c484dec596

Background

TIM-family proteins are expressed on different immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, type 1 and 2 T helper (Th) cells. Therefore, they have the ability to contribute to the various intracellular signals and immune responses, importantly the regulation of Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation, which plays a remarked role in fight against inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Association of TIM family gene polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been frequently investigated. The findings however are not entirely consistent. Therefore, we carried out the present meta-analysis to examine the association between RA and the following TIM family gene polymorphisms: rs41297579, rs1036199, rs10515746, and rs7700944.

Methods

A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was conducted through December 2018. Combined odds ratios (OR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated under different possible genetic models.

Results

A total of eight case-control studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The results demonstrated significant association of RA with TIM-3 rs1036199 polymorphism under dominant (OR, 1.93, 95% CI, 1.43–2.61) and allelic models (OR, 1.74, 95% CI, 1.31–2.30). None of the other examined polymorphisms indicated significant association with RA.

Conclusions

The present meta-analysis revealed that the TIM-3 rs1036199 polymorphism might confer susceptibility to RA. Further studies are required to reassert our findings.

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<![CDATA[Bovine milk-derived exosomes enhance goblet cell activity and prevent the development of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5251d5eed0c4842bc640

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by intestinal injury and impaired mucin synthesis. We recently showed that breast milk exosomes from rodents promote intestinal cell viability, epithelial proliferation, and stem cell activity, but whether they also affect mucus production is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine milk-derived exosomes on goblet cell expression in experimental NEC and delineate potential underlying mechanisms of action. Exosomes were isolated from bovine milk by ultracentrifugation and confirmed by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and through the detection of exosome membrane markers. To study the effect on mucin production, human colonic LS174T cells were cultured and exposed to exosomes. Compared to control, exosomes promoted goblet cell expression, as demonstrated by increased mucin production and relative expression levels of goblet cell expression markers trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and mucin 2 (MUC2). In addition, exosome treatment enhanced the expression of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), the most abundant intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein that aids in protein synthesis. Furthermore, experimental NEC was induced in mouse pups by hyperosmolar formula feeding, lipopolysaccharide administration and hypoxia exposure on postnatal days 5–9. Milk exosomes were given with each gavage feed. NEC was associated with ileal morphological injury and reduction in MUC2+ goblet cells and GRP94+ cells per villus. Exosome administration to NEC pups prevented these changes. This research highlights the potential novel application of milk-derived exosomes in preventing the development of NEC in high-risk infants when breast milk is not available.

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<![CDATA[Improved and semi-automated reductive β-elimination workflow for higher throughput protein O-glycosylation analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61b7c0d5eed0c484937ef2

Protein O-glycosylation has shown to be critical for a wide range of biological processes, resulting in an increased interest in studying the alterations in O-glycosylation patterns of biological samples as disease biomarkers as well as for patient stratification and personalized medicine. Given the complexity of O-glycans, often a large number of samples have to be analysed in order to obtain conclusive results. However, most of the O-glycan analysis work done so far has been performed using glycoanalytical technologies that would not be suitable for the analysis of large sample sets, mainly due to limitations in sample throughput and affordability of the methods. Here we report a largely automated system for O-glycan analysis. We adapted reductive β-elimination release of O-glycans to a 96-well plate system and transferred the protocol onto a liquid handling robot. The workflow includes O-glycan release, purification and derivatization through permethylation followed by MALDI-TOF-MS. The method has been validated according to the ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines for the validation of analytical procedures. The semi-automated reductive β-elimination system enabled for the characterization and relative quantitation of O-glycans from commercially available standards. Results of the semi-automated method were in good agreement with the conventional manual in-solution method while even outperforming it in terms of repeatability. Release of O-glycans for 96 samples was achieved within 2.5 hours, and the automated data acquisition on MALDI-TOF-MS took less than 1 minute per sample. This largely automated workflow for O-glycosylation analysis showed to produce rapid, accurate and reliable data, and has the potential to be applied for O-glycan characterization of biological samples, biopharmaceuticals as well as for biomarker discovery.

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<![CDATA[Defining cooperative roles for colonic microbiota and Muc2 mucin in mediating innate host defense against Entamoeba histolytica]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae453d5eed0c48458961f

Amebiasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Eh), a potentially fatal disease occurring mainly in developing countries. How Eh interacts with innate host factors in the gut is poorly understood. Eh resides and feed in/on the outer colonic mucus layer and thus share an ecological niche with indigenous microbiota. As gut microbiota regulates innate immune responses, in this study we characterized the cooperative roles that microbiota and the mucus layer play in Eh-induced pro-inflammatory responses in the colon. To study this, we used antibiotics treated and non-treated specific pathogen free Muc2-/- and Muc2+/+ littermates and germ-free mice inoculated with Eh in colonic loops as a short infection model. In antibiotic treated Muc2-/- and Muc2+/+ littermates, Eh elicited robust mucus and water secretions, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine expression with elevated MPO activity and higher pathology scores as compared to the modest response observed in non-antibiotic treated littermates. Host responses were microbiota specific as mucus secretion and pro-inflammatory responses were attenuated following homologous fecal microbial transplants in antibiotic-treated Muc2+/+ quantified by secretion of 3H-glucosamine newly synthesized mucin, Muc2 mucin immunostaining and immunohistochemistry. Eh-elicited pro-inflammatory responses and suppressed goblet cell transcription factor Math1 as revealed by in vivo imaging of Eh-colonic loops in Math1GFP mice, and in vitro using Eh-stimulated LS174T human colonic goblet cells. Eh in colonic loops increased bacterial translocation of bioluminescent E. coli and indigenous bacteria quantified by FISH and quantitative PCR. In germ-free animals, Eh-induced mucus/water secretory responses, but acute pro-inflammatory responses and MPO activity were severely impaired, allowing the parasite to bind to and disrupt mucosal epithelial cells. These findings have identified key roles for intestinal microbiota and mucus in regulating innate host defenses against Eh, and implicate dysbiosis as a risk factor for amebiasis that leads to exacerbated immune responses to cause life-threatening disease.

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<![CDATA[Preclinical mouse model to monitor live Muc5b-producing conjunctival goblet cell density under pharmacological treatments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc8f4

Purpose

Modification of mucous cell density and gel-forming mucin production are established hallmarks of mucosal diseases. Our aim was to develop and validate a mouse model to study live goblet cell density in pathological situations and under pharmacological treatments.

Methods

We created a reporter mouse for the gel-forming mucin gene Muc5b. Muc5b-positive goblet cells were studied in the eye conjunctiva by immunohistochemistry and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) in living mice. Dry eye syndrome (DES) model was induced by topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and recombinant interleukine (rIL) 13 was administered to reverse the goblet cell loss in the DES model.

Results

Almost 50% of the total of conjunctival goblet cells are Muc5b+ in unchallenged mice. The decrease density of Muc5b+ conjunctival goblet cell population in the DES model reflects the whole conjunctival goblet cell loss. Ten days of BAK in one eye followed by 4 days without any treatment induced a −18.3% decrease in conjunctival goblet cell density. A four days of rIL13 application in the DES model restored the normal goblet cell density.

Conclusion

Muc5b is a biological marker of DES mouse models. We bring the proof of concept that our model is unique and allows a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate gel-forming mucin production/secretion and mucous cell differentiation in the conjunctiva of living mice and can be used to test treatment compounds in mucosal disease models.

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<![CDATA[Gallotannin-Enriched Extract Isolated from Galla Rhois May Be a Functional Candidate with Laxative Effects for Treatment of Loperamide-Induced Constipation of SD Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da84ab0ee8fa60b9be0e

Several natural products containing tannins are used as traditional medicines for treatment of constipation; however, their pharmacological mechanism is not well understood. The laxative effects of gallotannin-enriched extract isolated from Galla Rhois (GEGR) were investigated using a constipation model induced by loperamide (Lop) injection. After analysis for antioxidant activity of GEGR, alterations in the excretion parameters, histological structure, mucin secretion, and related protein levels were measured in the transverse colon of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with Lop-induced constipation following treatment with 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/ml of GEGR. The number and weight of feces increased significantly by 48–79% and 128–159%, respectively, in the Lop+GEGR treated group relative to the Lop+vehicle treated group, while food intake and water consumption were maintained at a constant level. The thickness of mucosa, muscle and flat luminal surface, as well as the number of goblet cells and crypt of lieberkuhn were enhanced in the Lop+GEGR treated group. Moreover, mucin secretion increased significantly in a dose dependent manner in the Lop+GEGR treated group. Furthermore, the downstream signaling pathway of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) M2 and M3 was recovered by GEGR treatment, although the expression level varied. The levels of Gα expression and inositol triphosphate (IP3) concentration were also recovered in the Lop+GEGR treated group relative to the Lop+vehicle treated group. The results of the present study provide strong evidence that tannins distributed in various medicinal plants are important candidates for improving chronic constipation induced by Lop treatment in animal models.

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<![CDATA[Active microrheology determines scale-dependent material properties of Chaetopterus mucus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0133

We characterize the lengthscale-dependent rheological properties of mucus from the ubiquitous Chaetopterus marine worm. We use optically trapped probes (2–10 μm) to induce microscopic strains and measure the stress response as a function of oscillation amplitude. Our results show that viscoelastic properties are highly dependent on strain scale (l), indicating three distinct lengthscale-dependent regimes at l1 ≤4 μm, l2≈4–10 μm, and l3≥10 μm. While mucus response is similar to water for l1, suggesting that probes rarely contact the mucus mesh, the response for l2 is distinctly more viscous and independent of probe size, indicative of continuum mechanics. Only for l3 does the response match the macroscopic elasticity, likely due to additional stiffer constraints that strongly resist probe displacement. Our results suggest that, rather than a single lengthscale governing crossover from viscous to elastic, mucus responds as a hierarchical network with a loose biopolymer mesh coupled to a larger scaffold responsible for macroscopic gel-like mechanics.

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<![CDATA[Evidence and Role for Bacterial Mucin Degradation in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf9ab0ee8fa60bc3d72

Chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are composed of complex microbial communities that incite persistent inflammation and airway damage. Despite the high density of bacteria that colonize the lower airways, nutrient sources that sustain bacterial growth in vivo, and how those nutrients are derived, are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the possibility that mucins serve as an important carbon reservoir for the CF lung microbiota. While Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to efficiently utilize mucins in isolation, we found that anaerobic, mucin-fermenting bacteria could stimulate the robust growth of CF pathogens when provided intact mucins as a sole carbon source. 16S rRNA sequencing and enrichment culturing of sputum also identified that mucin-degrading anaerobes are ubiquitous in the airways of CF patients. The collective fermentative metabolism of these mucin-degrading communities in vitro generated amino acids and short chain fatty acids (propionate and acetate) during growth on mucin, and the same metabolites were also found in abundance within expectorated sputum. The significance of these findings was supported by in vivo P. aeruginosa gene expression, which revealed a heightened expression of genes required for the catabolism of propionate. Given that propionate is exclusively derived from bacterial fermentation, these data provide evidence for an important role of mucin fermenting bacteria in the carbon flux of the lower airways. More specifically, microorganisms typically defined as commensals may contribute to airway disease by degrading mucins, in turn providing nutrients for pathogens otherwise unable to efficiently obtain carbon in the lung.

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<![CDATA[Overinterpretation is common in pathological diagnosis of appendix cancer during patient referral for oncologic care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be0446

Context

Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) and appendiceal adenocarcinoma are known to cause the majority of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, i.e. mucinous ascites); however, recognition and proper classification of these neoplasms can be difficult despite established diagnostic criteria.

Objective

To determine the pathological diagnostic concordance for appendix neoplasia and related lesions during patient referral to an academic medical center specialized in treating patients with PMP.

Design

The anatomic pathology laboratory information system was searched to identify cases over a two-year period containing appendix specimens with mucinous neoplasia evaluated by an outside pathology group and by in-house slide review at a single large academic medical center during patient referral.

Results

161 cases containing appendix specimens were identified over this period. Forty-six of 161 cases (28.6%) contained appendiceal primary neoplasia or lesions. Of these, the originating pathologist diagnosed 23 cases (50%) as adenocarcinoma and 23 cases (50%) as LAMN; however, the reference pathologist diagnosed 29 cases (63.0%) as LAMN, 13 cases (28.3%) as adenocarcinoma, and 4 cases (8.7%) as ruptured simple mucocele. Importantly, for cases in which the originating pathologist rendered a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, the reference pathologist rendered a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (56.5%, 13 of 23), LAMN (39.1%, 9 of 23), or simple mucocele (4.3%, 1 of 23). The overall diagnostic concordance rate for these major classifications was 71.7% (33 of 46) with an unweighted observed kappa value of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.27–0.69), consistent with moderate interobserver agreement. All of the observed discordance (28.3%) for major classifications could be attributed to over-interpretation. In addition, the majority of LAMN cases (65.5%) had potential diagnostic deficiencies including over-interpretation as adenocarcinoma and lacking or discordant risk stratification (i.e. documentation of extra-appendiceal neoplastic epithelium).

Conclusions

Appendiceal mucinous lesions remain a difficult area for appropriate pathological classification with substantial discordance due to over-interpretation in this study. The findings highlight the critical need for recognition and application of diagnostic criteria regarding these tumors. Recently published consensus guidelines and a checklist provided herein may help facilitate improvement of diagnostic concordance and thereby reduce over-interpretation and potential overtreatment. Further studies are needed to determine the extent of this phenomenon and its potential clinical impact.

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<![CDATA[Clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial neoplasms: Focus on tumors with a gastric mucin phenotype (pyloric gland-type tumors)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc98

Objective

Epithelial tumors less commonly occur in the duodenum than in the stomach or large intestine. The clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors remain a matter of debate. We therefore studied resected specimens to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of duodenal epithelial tumors.

Materials and methods

Among duodenal epithelial tumors resected endoscopically or surgically in our hospital, we studied the clinicopathological characteristics of 110 adenomas or intramucosal carcinomas. The grade of atypia of all tumors was classified into 3 groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification. The tumors were immunohistochemically evaluated to determine the frequency of differentiation toward fundic glands.

Results

As for patient characteristics, there were 76 men (75.2%) and 25 women (24.8%), with a median age of 65 years (range, 34 to 84). The tumors most commonly arose in the first to second part of the duodenum. Many lesions were flat, and the median tumor diameter was 8.0 mm. The lesions were classified into 2 types according to mucin phenotype: intestinal-type tumors (98 lesions, 89.1%) and gastric-type tumors (12 lesions, 10.9%). Intestinal-type tumors were subdivided into 2 groups: tubular-type tumors (91 lesions, 82.7%) and tubulovillous-type tumors (7 lesions, 6.4%). Gastric-type tumors were classified into 2 types: foveolar type (3 lesions, 2.7%) and pyloric gland-type (PG) tumors (9 lesions, 8.2%). The grade of atypia was significantly higher in gastric-type tumors (p<0.01). PG tumors were gastric-type tumors characterized by pyloric glands and findings suggesting differentiation toward fundic glands.

Conclusions

About 10% of the duodenal tumors had a gastric-type mucin phenotype. Gastric-type tumors showed high-grade atypia. In particular, PG tumors showed similarities to PG tumors of the stomach, such as differentiation toward fundic glands.

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<![CDATA[Variation of Human Salivary O-Glycome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6dab0ee8fa60b93b2b

The study of saliva O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential of glycans for disease biomarkers, but also due to easy access and non-invasive collection of saliva as biological fluid. Saliva is rich in glycoproteins which are secreted from the bloodstream or produced by salivary glands. Mucins, which are highly O-glycosylated proteins, are particularly abundant in human saliva. Their glycosylation is associated with blood group and secretor status, and represents a reservoir of potential disease biomarkers. This study aims to analyse and compare O-glycans released from whole human mouth saliva collected 3 times a day from a healthy individual over a 5 days period. O-linked glycans were released by hydrazinolysis, labelled with procainamide and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLR) coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The sample preparation method showed excellent reproducibility and can therefore be used for biomarker discovery. Our data demonstrates that the O-glycosylation in human saliva changes significantly during the day. These changes may be related to changes in the salivary concentrations of specific proteins.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic Characterization of Middle Ear Fluid Confirms Neutrophil Extracellular Traps as a Predominant Innate Immune Response in Chronic Otitis Media]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db46ab0ee8fa60bd865f

Background

Chronic Otitis Media (COM) is characterized by middle ear effusion (MEE) and conductive hearing loss. MEE reflect mucus hypersecretion, but global proteomic profiling of the mucosal components are limited.

Objective

This study aimed at characterizing the proteome of MEEs from children with COM with the goal of elucidating important innate immune responses.

Method

MEEs were collected from children (n = 49) with COM undergoing myringotomy. Mass spectrometry was employed for proteomic profiling in nine samples. Independent samples were further analyzed by cytokine multiplex assay, immunoblotting, neutrophil elastase activity, next generation DNA sequencing, and/or immunofluorescence analysis.

Results

109 unique and common proteins were identified by MS. A majority were innate immune molecules, along with typically intracellular proteins such as histones and actin. 19.5% percent of all mapped peptide counts were from proteins known to be released by neutrophils. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in every MEE, along with MUC5B colocalization. DNA found in effusions revealed unfragmented DNA of human origin.

Conclusion

Proteomic analysis of MEEs revealed a predominantly neutrophilic innate mucosal response in which MUC5B is associated with NET DNA. NETs are a primary macromolecular constituent of human COM middle ear effusions.

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<![CDATA[Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Evokes Mucin Exocytosis from Colonic Goblet Cells via αvβ3 Integrin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba368d

Critical to the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) induces mucus hypersecretion and degrades the colonic mucus layer at the site of invasion. The parasite component(s) responsible for hypersecretion are poorly defined, as are regulators of mucin secretion within the host. In this study, we have identified the key virulence factor in live Eh that elicits the fast release of mucin by goblets cells as cysteine protease 5 (EhCP5) whereas, modest mucus secretion occurred with secreted soluble EhCP5 and recombinant CP5. Coupling of EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin on goblet cells facilitated outside-in signaling by activating SRC family kinases (SFK) and focal adhesion kinase that resulted in the activation/phosphorlyation of PI3K at the site of Eh contact and production of PIP3. PKCδ was activated at the EhCP5-αvβ3 integrin contact site that specifically regulated mucin secretion though the trafficking vesicle marker myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS). This study has identified that EhCP5 coupling with goblet cell αvβ3 receptors can initiate a signal cascade involving PI3K, PKCδ and MARCKS to drive mucin secretion from goblet cells critical in disease pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Deacetylation of sialic acid by esterases potentiates pneumococcal neuraminidase activity for mucin utilization, colonization and virulence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdcf58

Pneumococcal neuraminidase is a key enzyme for sequential deglycosylation of host glycans, and plays an important role in host survival, colonization, and pathogenesis of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. One of the factors that can affect the activity of neuraminidase is the amount and position of acetylation present in its substrate sialic acid. We hypothesised that pneumococcal esterases potentiate neuraminidase activity by removing acetylation from sialic acid, and that will have a major effect on pneumococcal survival on mucin, colonization, and virulence. These hypotheses were tested using isogenic mutants and recombinant esterases in microbiological, biochemical and in vivo assays. We found that pneumococcal esterase activity is encoded by at least four genes, SPD_0534 (EstA) was found to be responsible for the main esterase activity, and the pneumococcal esterases are specific for short acyl chains. Assay of esterase activity by using natural substrates showed that both the Axe and EstA esterases could use acetylated xylan and Bovine Sub-maxillary Mucin (BSM), a highly acetylated substrate, but only EstA was active against tributyrin (triglyceride). Incubation of BSM with either Axe or EstA led to the acetate release in a time and concentration dependent manner, and pre-treatment of BSM with either enzyme increased sialic acid release on subsequent exposure to neuraminidase A. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression level of estA and axe increased when exposed to BSM and in respiratory tissues. Mutation of estA alone or in combination with nanA (codes for neuraminidase A), or the replacement of its putative serine active site to alanine, reduced the pneumococcal ability to utilise BSM as a sole carbon source, sialic acid release, colonization, and virulence in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia.

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<![CDATA[Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fcab0ee8fa60b7257f

Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making “soy slime”, a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products.

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<![CDATA[A Deep Insight into the Sialome of Male and Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf6ab0ee8fa60bc324e

Only adult female mosquitoes feed on blood, while both genders take sugar meals. Accordingly, several compounds associated with blood feeding (i.e. vasodilators, anti-clotting, anti-platelets) are found only in female glands, while enzymes associated with sugar feeding or antimicrobials (such as lysozyme) are found in the glands of both sexes. We performed de novo assembly of reads from adult Aedes aegypti female and male salivary gland libraries (285 and 90 million reads, respectively). By mapping back the reads to the assembled contigs, plus mapping the reads from a publicly available Ae. aegypti library from adult whole bodies, we identified 360 transcripts (including splice variants and alleles) overexpressed tenfold or more in the glands when compared to whole bodies. Moreover, among these, 207 were overexpressed fivefold or more in female vs. male salivary glands, 85 were near equally expressed and 68 were overexpressed in male glands. We call in particular the attention to C-type lectins, angiopoietins, female-specific Antigen 5, the 9.7 kDa, 12–14 kDa, 23.5 kDa, 62/34 kDa, 4.2 kDa, proline-rich peptide, SG8, 8.7 kDa family and SGS fragments: these polypeptides are all of unknown function, but due to their overexpression in female salivary glands and putative secretory nature they are expected to affect host physiology. We have also found many transposons (some of which novel) and several endogenous viral transcripts (probably acquired by horizontal transfer) which are overexpressed in the salivary glands and may play some role in tissue-specific gene regulation or represent a mechanism of virus interference. This work contributes to a near definitive catalog of male and female salivary gland transcripts from Ae. aegypti, which will help to direct further studies aiming at the functional characterization of the many transcripts with unknown function and the understanding of their role in vector-host interaction and pathogen transmission.

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<![CDATA[Poorer Prognosis of Primary Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Breast Compared with Mucinous Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2cab0ee8fa60bd16ae

Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (PSRCC) of the breast is a rare entity and classified under mucin producing tumors in the WHO classification. However, little is known about the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of PSRCC as opposed to mucinous carcinoma. Eleven patients with PSRCC in our center from 1995 to 2010 were evaluated in this study, as compared to 50 cases of mucinous breast cancer (MBC) during the same period. The clinicopathologic features of PSRCC compared to MBC were assessed. Furthermore, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated at 5 years of follow up. Patients with PSRCC showed more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index and more advanced stage disease than that of MBC (P = 0.018, p = 0.023, P = 0.000, respectively), although there was no difference in age, tumor size, and ER, PR expression between PSRCC and MBC. In addition, PSRCC was associated with simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. The 5-year OS of PSRCC (54.5%) was significantly lower than that of MBC (88%) (P = 0.004). Similarly, the DFS of PSRCC was poorer than that of MBC significantly (5-year DFS: 27.3% vs. 80%, P = 0.000).

Conclusions

Our results confirmed the more aggressive behavior of PSRCC compared to MBC. This tumor is frequently associated with more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index, more advanced stage disease as well as simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. Different management guidelines should be considered for the two types.

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