ResearchPad - multiplexing https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A Photonic crystal fiber with large effective refractive index separation and low dispersion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14637 A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) structure with a ring-core and 5 well-ordered semiellipse air-holes has been creatively proposed. Through a comparison between the structures with a high refractive index (RI) ring-core and the structure without, it conclude that a PCF with a high RI ring-core can work better. Schott SF57 was elected as the substrate material of ring-core. This paper compares the effects of long-axis and short-axis changes on the PCF and selects the optimal solution. Especially TE0,1 mode’s dispersion is maintained between 0 and 3 ps / (nm · km) ranging from 1.45 μm to 1.65 μm. This property can be used to generate a supercontinuum with 200 μm long zero dispersion wavelength (ZDM). In addition, Δneff reaches up to 10−3, which enables the near -degeneracy of the eigenmodes to be almost neglected. The proposed PCF structure will have great application value in the field of optical communications.

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<![CDATA[Multiplexing polysome profiling experiments to study translation in Escherichia coli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac71d5eed0c484d087b8

Polysome profiling is a widely used method to monitor the translation status of mRNAs. Although it is theoretically a simple technique, it is labor intensive. Repetitive polysome fractionation rapidly generates a large number of samples to be handled in the downstream processes of protein elimination, RNA extraction and quantification. Here, we propose a multiplex polysome profiling experiment in which distinct cellular extracts are pooled before loading on the sucrose gradient for fractionation. We used the multiplexing method to study translation in E. coli. Multiplexing polysome profiling experiments provided similar mRNA translation status to that obtained with the non-multiplex method with comparable distribution of mRNA copies between the polysome profiling fractions, similar ribosome occupancy and ribosome density. The multiplexing method was used for parallel characterization of gene translational responses to changing mRNA levels. When the mRNA level of two native genes, cysZ and lacZ was increased by transcription induction, their global translational response was similar, with a higher ribosome load leading to increased ribosome occupancy and ribosome densities. However the pattern and the magnitude of the translational response were gene specific. By reducing the number of polysome profiling experiments, the multiplexing method saved time and effort and reduced cost and technical bias. This method would be useful to study the translational effect of mRNA sequence-dependent parameters that often require testing multiple samples and conditions in parallel.

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<![CDATA[Unequal error protection technique for video streaming over MIMO-OFDM systems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c5ad5eed0c484bd1c4d

In this paper, a novel unequal error protection (UEP) technique is proposed for video streaming over multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems. Based on the concept of hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulation (HQAM) UEP and multi-antenna UEP, the proposed technique combines the relative protection levels (PLs) of constellation symbols and the differentiated PLs of the transmit antennas. In the proposed technique, standard square quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations are used instead of HQAM so that the QAM mapper at the transmitter side and the soft decision calculation at the receiver side remain unchanged, but the UEP benefit of HQAM is retained. The superior performance of the proposed technique is explained by the improved connections between data with various priorities and data paths with various PLs. The assumed video compression method is H.264/AVC, which is known to be commercially successful. The IEEE802.16m system is adopted as a data transmission system. With the aid of realistic simulations in strict accordance with the standards of IEEE802.16m systems and H.264/AVC video compression systems, the proposed technique HQAM-multi-antenna UEP is shown to improve the video quality significantly for a given average bit error rate when compared with previous techniques.

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<![CDATA[Rapid and highly-specific generation of targeted DNA sequencing libraries enabled by linking capture probes with universal primers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117be8d5eed0c48469adc4

Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is being adopted increasingly broadly in many research, commercial and clinical settings. Currently used target capture methods, however, typically require complex and lengthy (sometimes multi-day) workflows that complicates their use in certain applications. In addition, small panels for high sequencing depth applications such as liquid biopsy typically have low on-target rates, resulting in unnecessarily high sequencing cost. We have developed a novel targeted sequencing library preparation method, named Linked Target Capture (LTC), which replaces typical multi-day target capture workflows with a single-day, combined ‘target-capture-PCR’ workflow. This approach uses physically linked capture probes and PCR primers and is expected to work with panel sizes from 100 bp to >10 Mbp. It reduces the time and complexity of the capture workflow, eliminates long hybridization and wash steps and enables rapid library construction and target capture. High on-target read fractions are achievable due to repeated sequence selection in the target-capture-PCR step, thus lowering sequencing cost. We have demonstrated this technology on sample types including cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) derived DNA, capturing a 35-gene pan-cancer panel, and therein detecting single nucleotide variants, copy number variants, insertions, deletions and gene fusions. With the integration of unique molecular identifiers (UMIs), variants as low as 0.25% abundance were detected, limited by input mass and sequencing depth. Additionally, sequencing libraries were prepared in less than eight hours from extracted DNA to loaded sequencer, demonstrating that LTC holds promise as a broadly applicable tool for rapid, cost-effective and high performance targeted sequencing.

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<![CDATA[An Improved Mathematical Scheme for LTE-Advanced Coexistence with FM Broadcasting Service]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da99ab0ee8fa60ba2f1d

Power spectral density (PSD) overlapping analysis is considered the surest approach to evaluate feasibility of compatibility between wireless communication systems. In this paper, a new closed-form for the Interference Signal Power Attenuation (ISPA) is mathematically derived to evaluate interference caused from Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced into Frequency Modulation (FM) broadcasting service. In this scheme, ISPA loss due to PSD overlapping of both OFDM-based LTE-Advanced and FM broadcasting service is computed. The proposed model can estimate power attenuation loss more precisely than the Advanced Minimum Coupling Loss (A-MCL) and approximate-ISPA methods. Numerical results demonstrate that the interference power is less than that obtained using the A-MCL and approximate ISPA methods by 2.8 and 1.5 dB at the co-channel and by 5.2 and 2.2 dB at the adjacent channel with null guard band, respectively. The outperformance of this scheme over the other methods leads to more diminishing in the required physical distance between the two systems which ultimately supports efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum.

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<![CDATA[Concurrent Codes: A Holographic-Type Encoding Robust against Noise and Loss]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da36ab0ee8fa60b86255

Concurrent coding is an encoding scheme with ‘holographic’ type properties that are shown here to be robust against a significant amount of noise and signal loss. This single encoding scheme is able to correct for random errors and burst errors simultaneously, but does not rely on cyclic codes. A simple and practical scheme has been tested that displays perfect decoding when the signal to noise ratio is of order -18dB. The same scheme also displays perfect reconstruction when a contiguous block of 40% of the transmission is missing. In addition this scheme is 50% more efficient in terms of transmitted power requirements than equivalent cyclic codes. A simple model is presented that describes the process of decoding and can determine the computational load that would be expected, as well as describing the critical levels of noise and missing data at which false messages begin to be generated.

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<![CDATA[Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc25a

We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification—an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC), is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC), which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps) for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel.

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<![CDATA[Two-Level Scheduling for Video Transmission over Downlink OFDMA Networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da13ab0ee8fa60b7a3ca

This paper presents a two-level scheduling scheme for video transmission over downlink orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) networks. It aims to maximize the aggregate quality of the video users subject to the playback delay and resource constraints, by exploiting the multiuser diversity and the video characteristics. The upper level schedules the transmission of video packets among multiple users based on an overall target bit-error-rate (BER), the importance level of packet and resource consumption efficiency factor. Instead, the lower level renders unequal error protection (UEP) in terms of target BER among the scheduled packets by solving a weighted sum distortion minimization problem, where each user weight reflects the total importance level of the packets that has been scheduled for that user. Frequency-selective power is then water-filled over all the assigned subcarriers in order to leverage the potential channel coding gain. Realistic simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art scheduling scheme by up to 6.8 dB in terms of peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR). Further test evaluates the suitability of equal power allocation which is the common assumption in the literature.

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<![CDATA[Two Novel Space-Time Coding Techniques Designed for UWB MISO Systems Based on Wavelet Transform]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b78dc4

In this paper two novel space-time coding multi-input single-output (STC MISO) schemes, designed especially for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) systems, are introduced. The proposed schemes are referred to as wavelet space-time coding (WSTC) schemes. The WSTC schemes are based on two types of multiplexing, spatial and wavelet domain multiplexing. In WSTC schemes, four symbols are transmitted on the same UWB transmission pulse with the same bandwidth, symbol duration, and number of transmitting antennas of the conventional STC MISO scheme. The used mother wavelet (MW) is selected to be highly correlated with transmitted pulse shape and such that the multiplexed signal has almost the same spectral characteristics as those of the original UWB pulse. The two WSTC techniques increase the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC. The first WSTC scheme increases the data rate with a simple combination process. The second scheme achieves the increase in the data rate with a less complex receiver and better performance than the first scheme due to the spatial diversity introduced by the structure of its transmitter and receiver. The two schemes use Rake receivers to collect the energy in the dense multipath channel components. The simulation results show that the proposed WSTC schemes have better performance than the conventional scheme in addition to increasing the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC scheme.

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<![CDATA[Theta-Gamma Coding Meets Communication-through-Coherence: Neuronal Oscillatory Multiplexing Theories Reconciled]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f4ab0ee8fa60b6f668

Several theories have been advanced to explain how cross-frequency coupling, the interaction of neuronal oscillations at different frequencies, could enable item multiplexing in neural systems. The communication-through-coherence theory proposes that phase-matching of gamma oscillations between areas enables selective processing of a single item at a time, and a later refinement of the theory includes a theta-frequency oscillation that provides a periodic reset of the system. Alternatively, the theta-gamma neural code theory proposes that a sequence of items is processed, one per gamma cycle, and that this sequence is repeated or updated across theta cycles. In short, both theories serve to segregate representations via the temporal domain, but differ on the number of objects concurrently represented. In this study, we set out to test whether each of these theories is actually physiologically plausible, by implementing them within a single model inspired by physiological data. Using a spiking network model of visual processing, we show that each of these theories is physiologically plausible and computationally useful. Both theories were implemented within a single network architecture, with two areas connected in a feedforward manner, and gamma oscillations generated by feedback inhibition within areas. Simply increasing the amplitude of global inhibition in the lower area, equivalent to an increase in the spatial scope of the gamma oscillation, yielded a switch from one mode to the other. Thus, these different processing modes may co-exist in the brain, enabling dynamic switching between exploratory and selective modes of attention.

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<![CDATA[Multiplex Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance Using PlexZyme and PlexPrime Technology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da91ab0ee8fa60b9ff34

Mycoplasma genitalium is a cause of non-gonoccocal urethritis (NGU) in men and cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Recent international data also indicated that the first line treatment, 1 gram stat azithromycin therapy, for M. genitalium is becoming less effective, with the corresponding emergence of macrolide resistant strains. Increasing failure rates of azithromycin for M. genitalium has significant implications for the presumptive treatment of NGU and international clinical treatment guidelines. Assays able to predict macrolide resistance along with detection of M. genitalium will be useful to enable appropriate selection of antimicrobials to which the organism is susceptible and facilitate high levels of rapid cure. One such assay recently developed is the MG 23S assay, which employs novel PlexZyme™ and PlexPrime™ technology. It is a multiplex assay for detection of M. genitalium and 5 mutations associated with macrolide resistance. The assay was evaluated in 400 samples from 254 (186 males and 68 females) consecutively infected participants, undergoing tests of cure. Using the MG 23S assay, 83% (331/440) of samples were positive, with 56% of positives carrying a macrolide resistance mutation. Comparison of the MG 23S assay to a reference qPCR method for M. genitalium detection and high resolution melt analysis (HRMA) and sequencing for detection of macrolide resistance mutations, resulted in a sensitivity and specificity for M. genitalium detection and for macrolide resistance of 99.1/98.5% and 97.4/100%, respectively. The MG 23S assay provides a considerable advantage in clinical settings through combined diagnosis and detection of macrolide resistance.

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