ResearchPad - muscles-gait-and-falls https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Falls Risk in Relation to Activity Exposure in High-Risk Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10135 Physical activity is linked to many positive health outcomes, stimulating the development of exercise programs. However, many falls occur while walking and so promoting activity might paradoxically increase fall rates, causing injuries, and worse quality of life. The relationship between activity exposure and fall rates remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between walking activity (exposure to risk) and fall rates before and after an exercise program (V-TIME).MethodsOne hundred and nine older fallers, 38 fallers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 128 fallers with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were randomly assigned to one of two active interventions: treadmill training only or treadmill training combined with a virtual reality component. Participants were tested before and after the interventions. Free-living walking activity was characterized by volume, pattern, and variability of ambulatory bouts using an accelerometer positioned on the lower back for 1 week. To evaluate that relationship between fall risk and activity, a normalized index was determined expressing fall rates relative to activity exposure (FRA index), with higher scores indicating a higher risk of falls per steps taken.ResultsAt baseline, the FRA index was higher for fallers with PD compared to those with MCI and older fallers. Walking activity did not change after the intervention for the groups but the FRA index decreased significantly for all groups (p ≤ .035).ConclusionsThis work showed that V-TIME interventions reduced falls risk without concurrent change in walking activity. We recommend using the FRA index in future fall prevention studies to better understand the nature of intervention programs. ]]> <![CDATA[Unraveling the Association Between Gait and Mortality—One Step at a Time]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10129 Slowness of walking is one of the very first signs of aging and is considered a marker for overall health that is strongly associated with mortality risk. In this study, we sought to disentangle the clinical drivers of the association between gait and mortality.MethodsWe included 4,490 participants of the Rotterdam Study who underwent a gait assessment between 2009 and 2015 and were followed-up for mortality until 2018. Gait was assessed with an electronic walkway and summarized into the domains Rhythm, Phases, Variability, Pace, Tandem, Turning, and Base of Support. Cox models adjusted for age, sex, and height were built and consecutively adjusted for six categories of health indicators (lifestyle, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, and neurological). Analyses were repeated in comorbidity-free individuals.ResultsMultiple gait domains were associated with an increased risk of mortality, including Pace (hazard ratio (HR) per SD worse gait, adjusted for other domains: 1.34 [1.19–1.50]), Rhythm (HR: 1.12 [1.02–1.23]) and Phases (HR: 1.12 [1.03–1.21]). Similarly, a 0.1 m/s decrease in gait speed was associated with a 1.21 (1.15–1.27) times higher hazard of mortality (HR fully adjusted: 1.14 [1.08–1.20]). In a comorbidity-free subsample, the HR per 0.1 m/s decrease in gait speed was 1.25 (1.09–1.44). Cause-specific mortality analyses revealed an association between gait speed and multiple causes of death.ConclusionsSeveral gait domains were associated with mortality risk, including Pace which primarily represents gait speed. The association between gait speed and mortality persisted after an extensive adjustment for covariates, suggesting that gait is a marker for overall health. ]]> <![CDATA[Uncontrolled Diabetes as an Associated Factor with Dynapenia in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older: Sex Differences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10127 Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between diabetes and low neuromuscular strength (NMS). However, none have grouped participants into nondiabetics (ND), undiagnosed diabetics (UDD), controlled diabetics (CD), and uncontrolled diabetics (UCD) or investigated what glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) are associated with low NMS (dynapenia) by sex.MethodsWe analyzed the association between UDD, CD, and UCD and dynapenia, the extent to which the different groupings of these individuals modifies this association and the association between HbA1c levels and NMS, by sex, in a cross-sectional study involving 5,290 participants ≥50 years from the ELSA study. In the first two analyses, logistic regression models were used with dynapenia (grip strength <26 kg in men and <16 kg in women) as outcome and diabetes (ND, UDD, CD, and UCD) as exposure. Next, linear regression was performed with grip strength as the outcome, and the participants were classified based on HbA1c level as exposure. The models were adjusted by sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics.ResultsCompared to ND, only UCD was associated with dynapenia (men OR = 2.37 95% CI 1.36–4.14; women OR = 1.67 95% CI 1.01–2.79). This association was less clear, particularly in women, when CD and UCD groups were merged. HbA1c ≥6.5% in men and ≥8.0% in women were associated with lower NMS.ConclusionsUCD increases the chance of dynapenia in both sexes. The different groupings based on diabetes status modify the association between UCD and dynapenia. The threshold of HbA1c associated with reduced NMS is lower in men compared to women. ]]>