ResearchPad - musculoskeletal-injury https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Serum glutamate dehydrogenase activity enables early detection of liver injury in subjects with underlying muscle impairments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14604 Serum activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are used as gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular injury. Since ALT and AST lack liver specificity, the diagnosis of the onset of hepatocellular injury in patients with underlying muscle impairments is severely limited. Thus, we evaluated the potential of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) as a liver specific alternative biomarker of hepatocellular injury. In our study, serum GLDH in subjects with Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) was equivalent to serum GLDH in age matched healthy subjects, while serum ALT was increased 20-fold in DMD subjects. Furthermore, serum GLDH in 131 subjects with variety of muscle impairments was similar to serum GLDH of healthy subjects while serum ALT corelated with serum creatine kinase, a widely accepted biomarker of muscle impairment. In addition, significant elevations of ALT, AST, and CK were observed in a case of a patient with rhabdomyolysis, while serum GLDH stayed within the normal range until the onset of hypoxia-induced liver injury. In a mouse model of DMD (DMDmdx), serum GLDH but not serum ALT clearly correlated with the degree of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Taken together, our data support the utility of serum GLDH as a liver-specific biomarker of liver injury that has a potential to improve diagnosis of hepatocellular injury in patients with underlying muscle impairments. In drug development, GLDH may have utility as a biomarker of drug induced liver injury in clinical trials of new therapies to treat muscle diseases such as DMD.

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<![CDATA[Concordance of tomographic ultrasound and multiplanar ultrasound in detecting levator ani muscle injury in patients with pelvic organ prolapse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a287c463d7e4513b897f6

Aim

To compare the evaluations of evaluate levator ani muscle injury (LAMI) by tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) and multiplanar (MP) ultrasound in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

Method

This retrospective analysis studied women who underwent International Continence Society POP quantification examination between October 2015 and June 2016. LAMI was assessed by both TUI and MP ultrasounds. Concordance of these two testing results was analyzed. Their correlations with clinical symptoms were also studied.

Results

A total of 135 women were included. All the patients with POP had a minimal LAMI depth ≥ 7 mm. Two examinations, TUI and MP, had satisfactory concordance (k = 0.71, P < 0.01). Depth of LAMI in the coronal plane demonstrated good agreement with TUI scores (r = 0.84; P < 0.01). After controlling for age, BMI, and parity, to have clinically significant POP and POP symptoms, the odds ratios (ORs) for the depth of LAMI in the coronal plane were 1.31 (95% CI 1.19–1.44) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.14–1.36), and for TUI scores were 1.72 (95% CI 1.37–2.17) and 1.63 (95% CI 1.31–2.03). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed a cutoff depth of 7 mm of LAMI yielded a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 80% for POP symptoms.

Conclusions

TUI and MP had satisfactory concordance in detecting LAMI and correlated with clinical symptoms of POP.

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<![CDATA[Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1cc

Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player’s perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer) club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%). It included categories with (1) history of lower extremity injuries, (2) perceptions regarding risk factors and (3) regularly used prevention strategies.

The majority of players (84.2%) had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1%) and environmental factors (25.9%). The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25%) and uninjured players (0.0%). Nearly all players (91.5%) perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%). Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

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<![CDATA[Evidence for Acute Myocardial and Skeletal Muscle Injury after Serial Transthoracic Shocks in Healthy Swine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db03ab0ee8fa60bc74ef

Background

Previous serological studies have shown controversial results whether defibrillation or cardioversion can cause myocardial injury. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) can be used to detect myocardial edema, hyperemia and capillary leak as features of acute myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to assess for myocardial and skeletal muscle injury in swine following transthoracic shocks.

Methods

Seventeen anaesthetized swine were examined, with 11 undergoing five synchronized transthoracic shocks (200J). Myocardial and skeletal muscle injury were assessed at baseline and up to 5h post-shock employing T1 mapping, T2 mapping, early and late gadolinium enhancement. Serologic markers (cFABP, TnI, CK, and CK-MB) and myocardial tissue were assessed by standard histology methods.

Results

In myocardial regions within the shock path, T1 and T2 were significantly increased compared to remote myocardium in the same animals. The early gadolinium enhancement ratio between the left-ventricular myocardium and the right pectoral muscle was also increased compared to control animals. After the shocks cFABP and CK were significantly elevated. After shock application, the regions identified as abnormal by CMR showed significantly increased interstitial and myocardial cell areas in histological analysis. This increased cell area suggests significant cellular and interstitial edema.

Conclusion

Our pilot study data indicate that serial defibrillator shocks lead to acute skeletal muscle and myocardial injury. CMR is a useful tool to detect and localize myocardial and skeletal muscle injury early after transthoracic shocks in vivo. In the future the technique could potentially be used as an additional tool for quality control such as verifying insufficient local shock application in non-responders after cardioversion or to develop safer shock forms.

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<![CDATA[Pre-Vaccination Care-Seeking in Females Reporting Severe Adverse Reactions to HPV Vaccine. A Registry Based Case-Control Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1dab0ee8fa60bce8e7

Background

Since 2013 the number of suspected adverse reactions to the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine reported to the Danish Medicines Agency (DMA) has increased. Due to the resulting public concerns about vaccine safety, the coverage of HPV vaccinations in the childhood vaccination programme has declined. The aim of the present study was to determine health care-seeking prior to the first HPV vaccination among females who suspected adverse reactions to HPV vaccine.

Methods

In this registry-based case-control study, we included as cases vaccinated females with reports to the DMA of suspected severe adverse reactions. We selected controls without reports of adverse reactions from the Danish vaccination registry and matched by year of vaccination, age of vaccination, and municipality, and obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and The National Health Insurance Service Register the history of health care usage two years prior to the first vaccine. We analysed the data by logistic regression while adjusting for the matching variables.

Results

The study included 316 cases who received first HPV vaccine between 2006 and 2014. Age range of cases was 11 to 52 years, with a peak at 12 years, corresponding to the recommended age at vaccination, and another peak at 19 to 28 years, corresponding to a catch-up programme targeting young women. Compared with 163,910 controls, cases had increased care-seeking in the two years before receiving the first HPV vaccine. A multivariable model showed higher use of telephone/email consultations (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2–3.2), physiotherapy (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.6–2.8) and psychologist/psychiatrist (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3–2.7). Cases were more likely to have a diagnosis in the ICD-10 chapters of diseases of the digestive system (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0–2.4), of the musculoskeletal system (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1–2.2), symptoms or signs not classified elsewhere (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.5) as well as injuries (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2–1.9).

Conclusion

Before receiving the first HPV vaccination, females who suspected adverse reactions has symptoms and a health care-seeking pattern that is different from the matched population. Pre-vaccination morbidity should be taken into account in the evaluation of vaccine safety signals.

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<![CDATA[A MRI-Compatible Combined Mechanical Loading and MR Elastography Setup to Study Deformation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db40ab0ee8fa60bd6645

Deformation of skeletal muscle in the proximity of bony structures may lead to deep tissue injury category of pressure ulcers. Changes in mechanical properties have been proposed as a risk factor in the development of deep tissue injury and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for early detection. MRE allows for the estimation of mechanical properties of soft tissue through analysis of shear wave data. The shear waves originate from vibrations induced by an external actuator placed on the tissue surface. In this study a combined Magnetic Resonance (MR) compatible indentation and MR Elastography (MRE) setup is presented to study mechanical properties associated with deep tissue injury in rats. The proposed setup allows for MRE investigations combined with damage-inducing large strain indentation of the Tibialis Anterior muscle in the rat hind leg inside a small animal MR scanner. An alginate cast allowed proper fixation of the animal leg with anatomical perfect fit, provided boundary condition information for FEA and provided good susceptibility matching. MR Elastography data could be recorded for the Tibialis Anterior muscle prior to, during, and after indentation. A decaying shear wave with an average amplitude of approximately 2 μm propagated in the whole muscle. MRE elastograms representing local tissue shear storage modulus Gd showed significant increased mean values due to damage-inducing indentation (from 4.2 ± 0.1 kPa before to 5.1 ± 0.6 kPa after, p<0.05). The proposed setup enables controlled deformation under MRI-guidance, monitoring of the wound development by MRI, and quantification of tissue mechanical properties by MRE. We expect that improved knowledge of changes in soft tissue mechanical properties due to deep tissue injury, will provide new insights in the etiology of deep tissue injuries, skeletal muscle damage and other related muscle pathologies.

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<![CDATA[Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Polymorphisms Have Protective Effect against the Development of Tendinopathy in Volleyball Athletes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da93ab0ee8fa60ba0fc7

The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variants in VEGF and KDR genes can be correlated with susceptibility of tendinopathy in volleyball athletes. This study was conducted at the Brazilian Volleyball Federation, and comprised 179 volleyball athletes: 88 had a confirmed diagnosis of tendinopathy (cases), whereas 91 had no evidence of the disease (controls). The VEGF (-2578C>A, -460T>C and +936C>T) and KDR (-604C>T, 1192G>A and 1719T>A) polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using an unconditional logistic regression model. The evaluation of demographic and clinical characteristics revealed the athlete age (P < 0.001), years of practice in volleyball (P < 0.001) and presence of pain (P = 0.001) were risk factors for tendinopathy. KDR 1192 GA and GA + AA genotypes were associated with lower risk of tendinopathy (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19–0.88 and OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.98, respectively). The KDR (-604C>T, 1192G>A and 1719T>A) haplotypes CGA and CAT were associated with decreased tendinopathy risk (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–0.99 and OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07–0.76, respectively). With regards to pain, traumatic lesion and away from training due to injury, VEGF and KDR polymorphisms were not associated with clinical symptoms complaints. The present results provide evidence that the KDR polymorphisms were associated with development of tendinopathy, and can contribute to identify new therapeutic targets or personalized training programs to avoid tendinopathy development in athletes.

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<![CDATA[Activity-Limiting Musculoskeletal Conditions in US Veterans Compared to Non-Veterans: Results from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db36ab0ee8fa60bd3063

Past military service is associated with health outcomes, both positive and negative. In this study we use the 2013 National Health Interview Survey to examine the constellation of conditions referred to as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for Veterans and non-veterans with health conditions that limit their daily activities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis reveal that Veterans are more likely to report MSDs like neck and back problems, fracture bone and joint problems as an activity limiting problem compared to non-veterans. The relationship between age and reports of activity limiting MSDs is moderated by Veteran status. Veterans in this sample report more activity limiting MSDs at younger ages compared to non-veterans and fewer MSDs at older ages. This research contributes to our understanding of potentially limiting health conditions at earlier ages for Veterans.

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<![CDATA[EGR1 Regulates Transcription Downstream of Mechanical Signals during Tendon Formation and Healing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacaab0ee8fa60bb4020

Background

Tendon is a mechanical tissue that transmits forces generated by muscle to bone in order to allow body motion. The molecular pathways that sense mechanical forces during tendon formation, homeostasis and repair are not known. EGR1 is a mechanosensitive transcription factor involved in tendon formation, homeostasis and repair. We hypothesized that EGR1 senses mechanical signals to promote tendon gene expression.

Methodology/Principal findings

Using in vitro and in vivo models, we show that the expression of Egr1 and tendon genes is downregulated in 3D-engineered tendons made of mesenchymal stem cells when tension is released as well as in tendon homeostasis and healing when mechanical signals are reduced. We further demonstrate that EGR1 overexpression prevents tendon gene downregulation in 3D-engineered tendons when tension is released. Lastly, ultrasound and microbubbles mediated EGR1 overexpression prevents the downregulation of tendon gene expression during tendon healing in reduced load conditions.

Conclusion/Significance

These results show that Egr1 expression is sensitive to mechanical signals in tendon cells. Moreover, EGR1 overexpression prevents the downregulation of tendon gene expression in the absence of mechanical signals in 3D-engineered tendons and tendon healing. These results show that EGR1 induces a transcriptional response downstream of mechanical signals in tendon cells and open new avenues to use EGR1 to promote tendon healing in reduced load conditions.

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<![CDATA[iNOS as a Driver of Inflammation and Apoptosis in Mouse Skeletal Muscle after Burn Injury: Possible Involvement of Sirt1 S-Nitrosylation-Mediated Acetylation of p65 NF-κB and p53]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaeab0ee8fa60baa6f3

Inflammation and apoptosis develop in skeletal muscle after major trauma, including burn injury, and play a pivotal role in insulin resistance and muscle wasting. We and others have shown that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a major mediator of inflammation, plays an important role in stress (e.g., burn)-induced insulin resistance. However, it remains to be determined how iNOS induces insulin resistance. Moreover, the interrelation between inflammatory response and apoptosis is poorly understood, although they often develop simultaneously. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB and p53 are key regulators of inflammation and apoptosis, respectively. Sirt1 inhibits p65 NF-κB and p53 by deacetylating these transcription factors. Recently, we have shown that iNOS induces S-nitrosylation of Sirt1, which inactivates Sirt1 and thereby increases acetylation and activity of p65 NF-κB and p53 in various cell types, including skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that iNOS enhances burn-induced inflammatory response and apoptotic change in mouse skeletal muscle along with S-nitrosylation of Sirt1. Burn injury induced robust expression of iNOS in skeletal muscle and gene disruption of iNOS significantly inhibited burn-induced increases in inflammatory gene expression and apoptotic change. In parallel, burn increased Sirt1 S-nitrosylation and acetylation and DNA-binding capacity of p65 NF-κB and p53, all of which were reversed or ameliorated by iNOS deficiency. These results indicate that iNOS functions not only as a downstream effector but also as an upstream enhancer of burn-induced inflammatory response, at least in part, by Sirt1 S-nitrosylation-dependent activation (acetylation) of p65 NF-κB. Our data suggest that Sirt1 S-nitrosylation may play a role in iNOS-mediated enhanced inflammatory response and apoptotic change, which, in turn, contribute to muscle wasting and supposedly to insulin resistance after burn injury.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Treatment of Treadmill Combined with Electro-Acupuncture on Tibia Bone Mass and Substance PExpression of Rabbits with Sciatic Nerve Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabcab0ee8fa60baee29

The peripheral nervous system may play an important role in normal bone maintenance and remodeling. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide associated with bone loss and formation that may mediate the effects of the nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine if treadmill running combined with electro-acupuncture at Jiaji acupoints (Jiaji-EA) affects tibial bone mass and SP expression in rabbits with sciatic nerve injury. Twenty-four juvenile male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: sham injury control (sham), sciatic never crush control (SNCr), treadmill running (treadmill), and Jiaji-EA combined with treadmill running (ET group). The SNCr, treadmill, and ET groups all had an induced sciatic never crush injury of approximately 2mm. Control groups received no intervention; the treadmill and ET groups were trained by treadmill; the ET group also received Jiaji-EA. After the 4 weeks of treatment, toe-spreading index (TSI), BMD, bone strength, and SP expression in the tibia were significantly lower in the nerve injury groups (SNCr, treadmill, and ET) compared to the sham groups (p<0.05). Treatment (treadmill and ET groups) increased all measures compared to the SNCr group (p<0.05). Further, TSI, BMD, bone strength, and SP expression in the ET group were higher than the treadmill group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that treadmill therapy combined with electro-acupuncture at Jiaji acupoints prevents bone loss in rabbit tibias after sciatic nerve injury. This may occur in two ways: indirectly in association with axon regeneration and directly via loading on the bone mediated through increased SP expression. This study provides important evidence for the clinical treatment of bone loss after peripheral nerve injury.

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<![CDATA[Treatment with Riluzole Restores Normal Control of Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscles during Locomotion in Adult Rats after Sciatic Nerve Crush at Birth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac1ab0ee8fa60bb0e4c

The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles. S rats with 2–8 and 10–28 MUs that survived in Sol and EDL muscles respectively showed increases in the duration and duty factor of muscle EMG activity and a loss of correlation between the duty factors of muscle activity, and abnormal flexor-extensor co-activation 3 months after SNC. R rats with 5, 6 (Sol) and 15–29 MUs (EDL) developed almost normal EMG activity of both Sol and control EDL muscles, whereas EDL muscles with SNC showed a lack of recovery. R rats with 8 (Sol) and 23–33 (EDL) MUs developed almost normal EMG activities of all four muscles. A subgroup of S rats with a lack of recovery and R rats with almost complete recovery that had similar number of MUs (8 and 24–28 vs 8 and 23–26), showed that the number of MUs was not the only determinant of treatment effectiveness. The results demonstrated that rats with SNC failed to develop normal muscle activity due to malfunction of neuronal circuits attenuating EDL muscle activity during the stance phase, whereas treatment with Riluzole enabled almost normal EMG activity of Sol and EDL muscles during locomotor movement.

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<![CDATA[Time-Dependent Changes in T1 during Fracture Healing in Juvenile Rats: A Quantitative MR Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da22ab0ee8fa60b7f7ca

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) offers several advantages in imaging and determination of soft tissue alterations when compared to qualitative imaging techniques. Although applications in brain and muscle tissues are well studied, its suitability to quantify relaxation times of intact and injured bone tissue, especially in children, is widely unknown. The objective observation of a fracture including its age determination can become of legal interest in cases of child abuse or maltreatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is the determination of time dependent changes in intact and corresponding injured bones in immature rats via qMRI, to provide the basis for an objective and radiation-free approach for fracture dating. Thirty-five MR scans of 7 Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 4 weeks old, 100 ± 5 g) were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) after the surgical infliction of an epiphyseal fracture in the tibia. The images were taken at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 82 post-surgery. A proton density-weighted and a T1-weighted 3D FLASH sequence were acquired to calculate the longitudinal relaxation time T1 of the fractured region and the surrounding tissues. The calculation of T1 in intact and injured bone resulted in a quantitative observation of bone development in intact juvenile tibiae as well as the bone healing process in the injured tibiae. In both areas, T1 decreased over time. To evaluate the differences in T1 behaviour between the intact and injured bone, the relative T1 values (bone-fracture) were calculated, showing clear detectable alterations of T1 after fracture occurrence. These results indicate that qMRI has a high potential not only for clinically relevant applications to detect growth defects or developmental alterations in juvenile bones, but also for forensically relevant applications such as the dating of fractures in cases of child abuse or maltreatment.

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<![CDATA[Locally Produced BDNF Promotes Sclerotic Change in Alveolar Bone after Nerve Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1fab0ee8fa60bceee0

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is released due to nerve injury, is known to promote the natural healing of injured nerves. It is often observed that damage of mandibular canal induces local sclerotic changes in alveolar bone. We reported that peripheral nerve injury promotes the local production of BDNF; therefore, it was possible to hypothesize that peripheral nerve injury affects sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of BDNF on osteogenesis using in vitro osteoblast-lineage cell culture and an in vivo rat osteotomy model. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with BDNF and were examined for cell proliferative activity, chemotaxis and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. For in vivo study, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury experiments and mandibular cortical osteotomy were performed using a rat model. In the osteotomy model, exogenous BDNF was applied to bone surfaces after corticotomy of the mandible, and we morphologically analyzed the new bone formation. As a result, mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation marker, osteocalcin, was significantly increased by BDNF, although cell proliferation and migration were not affected. In the in vivo study, osteopontin-positive new bone formation was significantly accelerated in the BDNF-grafted groups, and active bone remodeling, involving trkB-positive osteoblasts and osteocytes, continued after 28 days. In conclusion, BDNF stimulated the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and it promoted new bone formation and maturation. These results suggested that local BDNF produced by peripheral nerve injury contributes to accelerating sclerotic changes in the alveolar bone.

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<![CDATA[Exploratory study on the effect of osteoactivin on muscle regeneration in a rat volumetric muscle loss model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc3cf

Wounds causing extensive injury loss of muscle, also known as volumetric muscle loss (VML), are frequently associated with high-energy civilian trauma and combat-related extremity injuries. Currently, no effective clinical therapy is available for promoting de novo muscle tissue regeneration to restore muscle function following VML. Recent studies have shown evidence that osteoactivin (OA), a transmembrane glycoprotein, has the ability to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy in response to denervation. Therefore the objective of this study is to investigate the potential regenerative effect of OA embedded and delivered via a cross-linked gelatin hydrogel within a volumetric tibialis anterior muscle defect in a rat model. After 4 weeks, however, no evidence for muscle formation was found in defects treated with either low (5 μg/ml) or high (50 μg/ml) OA. It is possible that a different delivery scaffold, delivery kinetics, or OA concentration may have yielded an alternate outcome, or it is also possible that the spaciostructural environment of VML, or the local (versus systemic) delivery of OA, simply does not support any potential regenerative activity of OA in VML. Together with prior work, this study demonstrates that an efficacious and scalable therapy for regenerating muscle volume and function in VML remains a veritable clinical challenge worthy of continued future research efforts.

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<![CDATA[Dissociation between changes in sprinting performance and Nordic hamstring strength in professional male football players]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9405fed5eed0c484539644

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the consequence of implementing a Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol during the first 15 to 17 weeks of the season to assess the effect on sprinting and NHE strength (NHEs) in professional football players. The study examined 50 healthy male professional football players (age 18.8±0.8yr; height 176.8±6.9cm; weight 71.3±5.7kg) belonging to 3 of the reserve squads of three Spanish La-Liga clubs divided in 2 intervention teams [Nordic-Group1 (NG-1) and Nordic-Group2 (NG-2, extensive experience in NHE)] and 1 team as a control-group (CG). NHEs and linear sprint (T5, T10, T20-m) were evaluated at the beginning of the season and at the end of an intervention period of conditioning and football training, supplemented with a NHE protocol (24 sessions for NG-1 and 22 sessions for NG-2) or without using the NHE at all (CG). Sprint times were substantially improved in all groups (ES from -2.24±0.75 to -0.60±0.37). NHEs was enhanced absolute and relative to body-mass only in NG-1 after the training period (ES from 0.84±0.32 to 0.74±0.26), while in the NG-2 there were only improvements in average NHEs relative to body-mass (ES = 0.39±0.36). The improvements in T20-m were substantially greater in NG-2 vs. NG-1, and there were no differences in sprint performance changes between NG-1 and CG. Changes in sprinting performance and NHEs were unrelated. NHEs was largely correlated with the body-mass of the players. Results indicate that the improvements in sprint are not dependent on the NHEs changes, with no relationships between NHEs and sprint performance, and between sprint changes and changes in NHEs.

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<![CDATA[The development and internal validation of a model to predict functional recovery after trauma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9405d3d5eed0c4845392d2

Objective

To develop and internally validate the PROgnosis of functional recovery after Trauma (PRO-Trauma) prediction model.

Design

A prospective single-center longitudinal cohort study. Patients were assessed at 6 weeks and 12 months post-injury.

Methods

Patients that presented at the emergency department with an acute traumatic injury, were prompted for participation. Patients that completed the assessments at 6 weeks and 12 months post injury were included. Exclusion criteria: age < 18, age > 65, pathologic fractures, injuries that resulted in severe neurologic deficits. The predicted outcome, functional recovery, was defined as a Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA-NL) Problems with Daily Activities (PDA) subscale ≤ 12.2 points at 12 months post-injury (Dutch population norm). Predictors were: gender, age, living with partner, number of chronic health conditions, SMFA-NL PDA score 6 weeks post-injury, ICU admission, length of stay in hospital, injury severity score, occurrence of complications and treatment type. All predictors were obtained before 6 weeks post-injury. Missing data were multiply imputed. Predictor variables were selected using backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression. Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate calibration. Bootstrap resampling was used to internally validate the final model.

Results

A total of 246 patients were included, of which 104 (44%) showed functional recovery. The predictors in the final PRO-Trauma model were: living with partner, the number of chronic health conditions, SMFA-NL PDA subscale score at 6 weeks post-injury and length of stay in hospital. The apparent R2 was 0.33 [0.33;0.34], the c-statistic was 0.79 [0.79;0.80]. Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated good calibration (p = 0.92). Optimism-corrected R2 was 0.28 [0.27;0.29] and the optimism-corrected Area Under the Curve was 0.77 [0.77;0.77].

Conclusion

The PRO-Trauma prediction model can be used to obtain valid predictions of attaining functional recovery after trauma at 12 months post-injury. The PRO-Trauma prediction model showed acceptable calibration and discrimination.

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<![CDATA[A Comparison of Four-Year Health Outcomes following Combat Amputation and Limb Salvage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc974

Little research has described the long-term health outcomes of patients who had combat-related amputations or leg-threatening injuries. We conducted retrospective analysis of Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs health data for lower extremity combat-injured patients with (1) unilateral amputation within 90 days postinjury (early amputation, n = 440), (2) unilateral amputation more than 90 days postinjury (late amputation, n = 78), or (3) leg-threatening injuries without amputation (limb salvage, n = 107). Patient medical records were analyzed for four years postinjury. After adjusting for group differences, early amputation was generally associated with a lower or similar prevalence for adverse physical and psychological diagnoses (e.g., pain, osteoarthritis, posttraumatic stress disorder) versus late amputation and/or limb salvage. By contrast, early amputation was associated with an increased likelihood of osteoporosis during the first year postinjury. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder increased for all patient groups over four years postinjury, particularly in the second year. The different clinical outcomes among combat extremity injured patients treated with early amputation, late amputation, or limb salvage highlight their different healthcare requirements. These findings can inform and optimize the specific treatment pathways that address the physical and psychological healthcare needs of such patients over time.

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<![CDATA[Association of frailty status with acute kidney injury and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdfeae

Objective

Frailty is a common condition in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The aim of this systematic review was to assess the impact of frailty status on acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality after TAVR.

Methods

A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from the inception through November 2016. The protocol for this study is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42016052350). Studies that reported odds ratios, relative risks or hazard ratios comparing the risk of AKI after TAVR in frail vs. non-frail patients were included. Mortality risk was evaluated among the studies that reported AKI-related outcomes. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method.

Results

Eight cohort studies with a total of 10,498 patients were identified and included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of AKI after TAVR among the frail patients was 1.19 (95% CI 0.97–1.46, I2 = 0), compared with non-frail patients. When the meta-analysis was restricted only to studies with standardized AKI diagnosis according to Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 criteria, the pooled RRs of AKI in frail patients was 1.16 (95% CI 0.91–1.47, I2 = 0). Within the selected studies, frailty status was significantly associated with increased mortality (RR 2.01; 95% CI 1.44–2.80, I2 = 58).

Conclusion

The findings from our study suggest no significant association between frailty status and AKI after TAVR. However, frailty status is associated with mortality after TAVR and may aid appropriate patient selection for TAVR.

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<![CDATA[Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da63ab0ee8fa60b915f9

Background

Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys.

Methods

We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.

Findings

Data are presented on 446 males aged 10–58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%), manufacturing (19.1%) and begging (5.2%). Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9) and factory workers worked on average 11.9 hours/day (SD 2.9). 35.5% of male survivors had been injured while trafficked; 29.4% received no personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves). The most commonly reported injuries among all males were deep cuts (61.8%) and skin injuries (36.7%), injuries for which fewer than one-quarter reported receiving medical care. Six fishermen lost body parts, none of whom received medical care. Most males (80.5%) had no or very few rest breaks. One-third (37.8%) experienced severe violence. Work-related injuries were associated with severe violence (AOR 3.44, CI:1.63–7.26), being in the fishing sector, (AOR 4.12, CI:2.39–7.09) and threats (AOR 2.77, CI:1.62–4.75). Experiencing any violence was associated with threats (AOR 26.86, CI:14.0–51.23), being in the fishing sector (AOR 18.53, CI:8.74–39.28) and fluency in language of destination country (AOR 0.39, CI:0.20–0.75).

Conclusion

This study highlights the abuse and extreme occupational hazards suffered by trafficked men and boys. Occupational health and safety interventions are urgently needed to protect male migrant labourers working in high-risk sectors, particularly fishing.

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