ResearchPad - mutation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Bacterial phenotypic heterogeneity in DNA repair and mutagenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9188 Genetically identical cells frequently exhibit striking heterogeneity in various phenotypic traits such as their morphology, growth rate, or gene expression. Such non-genetic diversity can help clonal bacterial populations overcome transient environmental challenges without compromising genome stability, while genetic change is required for long-term heritable adaptation. At the heart of the balance between genome stability and plasticity are the DNA repair pathways that shield DNA from lesions and reverse errors arising from the imperfect DNA replication machinery. In principle, phenotypic heterogeneity in the expression and activity of DNA repair pathways can modulate mutation rates in single cells and thus be a source of heritable genetic diversity, effectively reversing the genotype-to-phenotype dogma. Long-standing evidence for mutation rate heterogeneity comes from genetics experiments on cell populations, which are now complemented by direct measurements on individual living cells. These measurements are increasingly performed using fluorescence microscopy with a temporal and spatial resolution that enables localising, tracking, and counting proteins with single-molecule sensitivity. In this review, we discuss which molecular processes lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in DNA repair and consider the potential consequences on genome stability and dynamics in bacteria. We further inspect these concepts in the context of DNA damage and mutation induced by antibiotics.

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<![CDATA[Substantial improvement of tetraene macrolide production in <i>Streptomyces diastatochromogenes</i> by cumulative drug resistance mutations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7861 Tetraene macrolides remain one of the most reliable fungicidal agents as resistance of fungal pathogens to these antibiotics is relatively rare. The modes of action and biosynthesis of polyene macrolides had been the focus of research over the past few years. However, few studies have been carried out on the overproduction of polyene macrolides. In the present study, cumulative drug-resistance mutation was used to obtain a quintuple mutant G5-59 with huge tetraene macrolide overproduction from the starting strain Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628. Through DNA sequence analysis, the mutation points in the genes of rsmG, rpsL and rpoB were identified. Additionally, the growth characteristic and expression level of tetrRI gene (belonging to the large ATP binding regulator of LuxR family) involved in the biosynthesis of tetraene macrolides were analyzed. As examined with 5L fermentor, the quintuple mutant G5-59 grew very well and the maximum productivity of tetramycin A, tetramycin P and tetrin B was as high as 1735, 2811 and 1500 mg/L, which was 8.7-, 16- and 25-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain 1628, respectively. The quintuple mutant G5-59 could be useful for further improvement of tetraene macrolides production at industrial level.

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<![CDATA[Genetic algorithm-based personalized models of human cardiac action potential]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7669 We present a novel modification of genetic algorithm (GA) which determines personalized parameters of cardiomyocyte electrophysiology model based on set of experimental human action potential (AP) recorded at different heart rates. In order to find the steady state solution, the optimized algorithm performs simultaneous search in the parametric and slow variables spaces. We demonstrate that several GA modifications are required for effective convergence. Firstly, we used Cauchy mutation along a random direction in the parametric space. Secondly, relatively large number of elite organisms (6–10% of the population passed on to new generation) was required for effective convergence. Test runs with synthetic AP as input data indicate that algorithm error is low for high amplitude ionic currents (1.6±1.6% for IKr, 3.2±3.5% for IK1, 3.9±3.5% for INa, 8.2±6.3% for ICaL). Experimental signal-to-noise ratio above 28 dB was required for high quality GA performance. GA was validated against optical mapping recordings of human ventricular AP and mRNA expression profile of donor hearts. In particular, GA output parameters were rescaled proportionally to mRNA levels ratio between patients. We have demonstrated that mRNA-based models predict the AP waveform dependence on heart rate with high precision. The latter also provides a novel technique of model personalization that makes it possible to map gene expression profile to cardiac function.

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<![CDATA[Identification of PCNA-interacting protein motifs in human DNA polymerase δ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne353dbc7-b305-4e18-a14d-47ac10bb9e2f DNA polymerase δ (Polδ) is a highly processive essential replicative DNA polymerase. In humans, the Polδ holoenzyme consists of p125, p50, p68 and p12 subunits and recently, we showed that the p12 subunit exists as a dimer. Extensive biochemical studies suggest that all the subunits of Polδ interact with the processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to carry out a pivotal role in genomic DNA replication. While PCNA-interacting protein motif (PIP) motifs in p68, p50 and p12 have been mapped, same in p125, the catalytic subunit of the holoenzyme, remains elusive. Therefore, in the present study by using multiple approaches we have conclusively mapped a non-canonical PIP motif from residues 999VGGLLAFA1008 in p125, which binds to the inter-domain-connecting loop (IDCL) of PCNA with high affinity. Collectively, including previous studies, we conclude that similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Polδ, each of the human Polδ subunits possesses motif to interact with PCNA and significantly contributes toward the processive nature of this replicative DNA polymerase.

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<![CDATA[A novel frameshift mutation in ubiquitin-specific protease 26 gene in a patient with severe oligozoospermia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb7f3bc7a-4fae-4517-82c5-0276b01224f8 Ubiquitin-specific protease 26 (USP26) encodes a predicted protein containing his- and cys- domains that are conserved among deubiquitinating enzymes. USP26 is specifically expressed in testis tissue and is a potential infertility gene. In the present study, we performed genetic testing related to spermatogenesis impairment in a patient with idiopathic severe oligozoospermia to identify the cause. The patient underwent clinical examination and reproductive hormone testing. Genes associated with male infertility, including USP26, were assessed by targeted exome sequencing. A novel frameshift mutation, c.2195delT (p.Phe732Serfs*14), was identified in USP26. This frameshift mutation was located in residue 732 of USP26 gene, leading to loss of the conserved deubiquitinating enzyme His-domain and producing a truncated protein of 744 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed this mutation to be pathogenic. A novel framshift mutation c.2195delT (p.Phe732Serfs*14) in USP26 gene was reported to be associated with male infertility in a Chinese patient with severe oligozoospermia.

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<![CDATA[OmniChange: The Sequence Independent Method for Simultaneous Site-Saturation of Five Codons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba7f19

Focused mutant library generation methods have been developed to improve mainly “localizable” enzyme properties such as activity and selectivity. Current multi-site saturation methods are restricted by the gene sequence, require subsequent PCR steps and/or additional enzymatic modifications. Here we report, a multiple site saturation mutagenesis method, OmniChange, which simultaneously and efficiently saturates five independent codons. As proof of principle, five chemically cleaved DNA fragments, each carrying one NNK-degenerated codon, were generated and assembled to full gene length in a one-pot-reaction without additional PCR-amplification or use of restriction enzymes or ligases. Sequencing revealed the presence of up to 27 different codons at individual positions, corresponding to 84.4% of the theoretical diversity offered by NNK-degeneration. OmniChange is absolutely sequence independent, does not require a minimal distance between mutated codons and can be accomplished within a day.

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<![CDATA[Evidence for both sequential mutations and recombination in the evolution of kdr alleles in Aedes aegypti]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8479e8f6-b6ad-4aa7-91b1-bf6bde90184a

Background

Aedes aegypti is a globally distributed vector of human diseases including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are the primary means of controlling adult A. aegypti populations to suppress arbovirus outbreaks, but resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has become a global problem. Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) gene are a major mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti. Vssc resistance alleles in A. aegypti commonly have more than one mutation. However, our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of how alleles with multiple mutations arose is poorly understood.

Methodology/Principal findings

We examined the geographic distribution and association between the common Vssc mutations (V410L, S989P, V1016G/I and F1534C) in A. aegypti by analyzing the relevant Vssc fragments in 25 collections, mainly from Asia and the Americas. Our results showed all 11 Asian populations had two types of resistance alleles: 1534C and 989P+1016G. The 1534C allele was more common with frequencies ranging from 0.31 to 0.88, while the 989P+1016G frequency ranged from 0.13 to 0.50. Four distinct alleles (410L, 1534C, 410L+1534C and 410L+1016I+1534C) were detected in populations from the Americas. The most common was 410L+1016I+1534C with frequencies ranging from 0.50 to 1.00, followed by 1534C with frequencies ranging from 0.13 to 0.50. Our phylogenetic analysis of Vssc supported multiple independent origins of the F1534C mutation. Our results indicated the 410L+1534C allele may have arisen by addition of the V410L mutation to the 1534C allele, or by a crossover event. The 410L+1016I+1534C allele was the result of one or two mutational steps from a 1534C background.

Conclusions/Significance

Our data corroborated previous geographic distributions of resistance mutations and provided evidence for both recombination and sequential accumulation of mutations contributing to the molecular evolution of resistance alleles in A. aegypti.

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<![CDATA[Identification of NUDT15 gene variants in Amazonian Amerindians and admixed individuals from northern Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0a09703b-e69a-40d3-8ae4-dfe23e56b45d

Introduction

The nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15) gene acts in the metabolism of thiopurine, by catabolizing its active metabolite thioguanosine triphosphate into its inactivated form, thioguanosine monophosphate. The frequency of alternative NUDT15 alleles, in particular those that cause a drastic loss of gene function, varies widely among geographically distinct populations. In the general population of northern Brazilian, high toxicity rates (65%) have been recorded in patients treated with the standard protocol for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which involves thiopurine-based drugs. The present study characterized the molecular profile of the coding region of the NUDT15 gene in two groups, non-admixed Amerindians and admixed individuals from the Amazon region of northern Brazil.

Methods

The entire NUDT15 gene was sequenced in 64 Amerindians from 12 Amazonian groups and 82 admixed individuals from northern Brazil. The DNA was extracted using phenol-chloroform. The exome libraries were prepared using the Nextera Rapid Capture Exome (Illumina) and SureSelect Human All Exon V6 (Agilent) kits. The allelic variants were annotated in the ViVa® (Viewer of Variants) software.

Results

Four NUDT15 variants were identified: rs374594155, rs1272632214, rs147390019, andrs116855232. The variants rs1272632214 and rs116855232 were in complete linkage disequilibrium, and were assigned to the NUDT15*2 genotype. These variants had high frequencies in both our study populations in comparison with other populations catalogued in the 1000 Genomes database. We also identified the NUDT15*4 haplotype in our study populations, at frequencies similar to those reported in other populations from around the world.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that Amerindian and admixed populations from northern Brazil have high frequencies of the NUDT15 haplotypes that alter the metabolism profile of thiopurines.

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<![CDATA[Accelerated brain aging towards transcriptional inversion in a zebrafish model of the K115fs mutation of human PSEN2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N35618ab8-cca5-47c4-ba7f-8d3941adbaaf

Background

The molecular changes involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression remain unclear since we cannot easily access antemortem human brains. Some non-mammalian vertebrates such as the zebrafish preserve AD-relevant transcript isoforms of the PRESENILIN genes lost from mice and rats. One example is PS2V, the alternative transcript isoform of the PSEN2 gene. PS2V is induced by hypoxia/oxidative stress and shows increased expression in late onset, sporadic AD brains. A unique, early onset familial AD mutation of PSEN2, K115fs, mimics the PS2V coding sequence suggesting that forced, early expression of PS2V-like isoforms may contribute to AD pathogenesis. Here we use zebrafish to model the K115fs mutation to investigate the effects of forced PS2V-like expression on the transcriptomes of young adult and aged adult brains.

Methods

We edited the zebrafish genome to model the K115fs mutation. To explore its effects at the molecular level, we analysed the brain transcriptome and proteome of young (6-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) wild type and heterozygous mutant female sibling zebrafish. Finally, we used gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to compare molecular changes in the brains of these fish to human AD.

Results

Young heterozygous mutant fish show transcriptional changes suggesting accelerated brain aging and increased glucocorticoid signalling. These early changes precede a transcriptional ‘inversion’ that leads to glucocorticoid resistance and other likely pathological changes in aged heterozygous mutant fish. Notably, microglia-associated immune responses regulated by the ETS transcription factor family are altered in both our zebrafish mutant model and in human AD. The molecular changes we observe in aged heterozygous mutant fish occur without obvious histopathology and possibly in the absence of Aβ.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that forced expression of a PS2V-like isoform contributes to immune and stress responses favouring AD pathogenesis. This highlights the value of our zebrafish genetic model for exploring molecular mechanisms involved in AD pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Identification of 13 novel USH2A mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome patients by targeted next-generation sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nce1d38d3-bcf8-4e5f-815d-3b8e91ff0b7d

Abstract

Background: The USH2A gene encodes usherin, a basement membrane protein that is involved in the development and homeostasis of the inner ear and retina. Mutations in USH2A are linked to Usher syndrome type II (USH II) and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Molecular diagnosis can provide insight into the pathogenesis of these diseases, facilitate clinical diagnosis, and identify individuals who can most benefit from gene or cell replacement therapy. Here, we report 21 pathogenic mutations in the USH2A gene identified in 11 Chinese families by using the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.

Methods: In all, 11 unrelated Chinese families were enrolled, and NGS was performed to identify mutations in the USH2A gene. Variant analysis, Sanger validation, and segregation tests were utilized to validate the disease-causing mutations in these families.

Results: We identified 21 pathogenic mutations, of which 13, including 5 associated with non-syndromic RP and 8 with USH II, have not been previously reported. The novel variants segregated with disease phenotype in the affected families and were absent from the control subjects. In general, visual impairment and retinopathy were consistent between the USH II and non-syndromic RP patients with USH2A mutations.

Conclusions: These findings provide a basis for investigating genotype–phenotype relationships in Chinese USH II and RP patients and for clarifying the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of the diseases associated with USH2A mutations.

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<![CDATA[Diversity of A(H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1c avian influenza viruses with evidence of reassortment in Cambodia, 2014-2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf51e501a-7d3b-493b-bbd9-bf4dbc27c932

In Cambodia, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) subtype viruses circulate endemically causing poultry outbreaks and zoonotic human cases. To investigate the genomic diversity and development of endemicity of the predominantly circulating clade 2.3.2.1c A(H5N1) viruses, we characterised 68 AIVs detected in poultry, the environment and from a single human A(H5N1) case from January 2014 to December 2016. Full genomes were generated for 42 A(H5N1) viruses. Phylogenetic analysis shows that five clade 2.3.2.1c genotypes, designated KH1 to KH5, were circulating in Cambodia during this period. The genotypes arose through multiple reassortment events with the neuraminidase (NA) and internal genes belonging to H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1a, clade 2.3.2.1b or A(H9N2) lineages. Phylogenies suggest that the Cambodian AIVs were derived from viruses circulating between Cambodian and Vietnamese poultry. Molecular analyses show that these viruses contained the hemagglutinin (HA) gene substitutions D94N, S133A, S155N, T156A, T188I and K189R known to increase binding to the human-type α2,6-linked sialic acid receptors. Two A(H5N1) viruses displayed the M2 gene S31N or A30T substitutions indicative of adamantane resistance, however, susceptibility testing towards neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, lananmivir and peramivir) of a subset of thirty clade 2.3.2.1c viruses showed susceptibility to all four drugs. This study shows that A(H5N1) viruses continue to reassort with other A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) viruses that are endemic in the region, highlighting the risk of introduction and emergence of novel A(H5N1) genotypes in Cambodia.

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<![CDATA[Autosomal recessive congenital cataracts linked to HSF4 in a consanguineous Pakistani family]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na302ecef-6336-4a97-9663-2461453833de

Purpose

To investigate the genetic basis of autosomal recessive congenital cataracts (arCC) in a large consanguineous Pakistani family.

Methods

All participating members of family, PKCC074 underwent an ophthalmic examination. Slit-lamp photographs were ascertained for affected individuals that have not been operated for the removal of the cataractous lens. A small aliquot of the blood sample was collected from all participating individuals and genomic DNAs were extracted. A genome-wide scan was performed with polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers and the logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated. All coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of HSF4 were sequenced and expression of Hsf4 in mouse ocular lens was investigated. The C-terminal FLAG-tagged wild-type and mutant HSF4b constructs were prepared to examine the nuclear localization pattern of the mutant protein.

Results

The ophthalmological examinations suggested that nuclear cataracts are present in affected individuals. Genome-wide linkage analyses localized the critical interval to a 10.95 cM (14.17 Mb) interval on chromosome 16q with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.51 at θ = 0. Sanger sequencing identified a novel missense mutation: c.433G>C (p.Ala145Pro) that segregated with the disease phenotype in the family and was not present in ethnically matched controls. Real-time PCR analysis identified the expression of HSF4 in mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 with a steady level of expression thereafter. The immunofluorescence tracking confirmed that both wild-type and mutant HSF4 (p.Ala145Pro) proteins localized to the nucleus.

Conclusion

Here, we report a novel missense mutation in HSF4 associated with arCC in a familial case of Pakistani descent.

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<![CDATA[Integrated structural variation and point mutation signatures in cancer genomes using correlated topic models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99020ad5eed0c484b97533

Mutation signatures in cancer genomes reflect endogenous and exogenous mutational processes, offering insights into tumour etiology, features for prognostic and biologic stratification and vulnerabilities to be exploited therapeutically. We present a novel machine learning formalism for improved signature inference, based on multi-modal correlated topic models (MMCTM) which can at once infer signatures from both single nucleotide and structural variation counts derived from cancer genome sequencing data. We exemplify the utility of our approach on two hormone driven, DNA repair deficient cancers: breast and ovary (n = 755 samples total). We show how introducing correlated structure both within and between modes of mutation can increase accuracy of signature discovery, particularly in the context of sparse data. Our study emphasizes the importance of integrating multiple mutation modes for signature discovery and patient stratification, and provides a statistical modeling framework to incorporate additional features of interest for future studies.

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<![CDATA[Targeted next generation sequencing can serve as an alternative to conventional tests in myeloid neoplasms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897760d5eed0c4847d2b67

The 2016 World Health Organization classification introduced a number of genes with somatic mutations and a category for germline predisposition syndromes in myeloid neoplasms. We have designed a comprehensive next-generation sequencing assay to detect somatic mutations, translocations, and germline mutations in a single assay and have evaluated its clinical utility in patients with myeloid neoplasms. Extensive and specified bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to detect single nucleotide variations, FLT3 internal tandem duplication, genic copy number variations, and chromosomal copy number variations. This enabled us to maximize the clinical utility of the assay, and we concluded that, as a single assay, it can be a good supplement for many conventional tests, including Sanger sequencing, RT-PCR, and cytogenetics. Of note, we found that 8.4–11.6% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 12.9% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms had germline mutations, and most were heterozygous carriers for autosomal recessive marrow failure syndromes. These patients often did not respond to standard chemotherapy, suggesting that germline predisposition may have distinct and significant clinical implications.

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<![CDATA[Tailored NEOadjuvant epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and Nanoparticle Albumin-Bound paclitaxel for breast cancer: The phase II NEONAB trial—Clinical outcomes and molecular determinants of response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f152dd5eed0c48467ae8b

Background

This study evaluated the feasibility of achieving high response rates in stage II or III breast cancer by tailoring neoadjuvant therapy using clinical and histopathological features and the Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score. Genomic determinants of response and resistance were also explored.

Patients and outcome measures

Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The primary cohort comprised 40 patients: 15 human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-amplified; 15 triple-negative (TNBC); and ten hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-non-amplified tumours; with recurrence scores ≥25. Patients were treated with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, followed by nab-paclitaxel, with the addition of trastuzumab if HER2-amplified. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast. Pre- and post-treatment tumour samples underwent variant burden, gene and gene pathway, mutational signature profile and clonal evolution analyses.

Results

The pCR rates were: overall 55% (n = 22), HER2-amplified 80% (n = 12), triple-negative 46% (n = 7) and HR-positive, HER2-non-amplified 30% (n = 3). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events included febrile neutropenia (8%), neutropenia (18%), sensory neuropathy (5%), deranged transaminases (5%), fatigue (2%), diarrhoea (2%), and pneumothorax (2%). Molecular analyses demonstrated strong similarities between residual disease and matched primary tumour. ATM signalling pathway alterations and the presence of a COSMIC Signature 3 implied the majority of tumours contained some form of homologous repair deficiency. ATM pathway alterations were identified in the subset of TNBC patients who did not achieve pCR; Signature 3 was present in both pCR and non-pCR subgroups. Clonal evolution analyses demonstrated both persistence and emergence of chemoresistant clones.

Conclusions

This treatment regime resulted in a high rate of pCR, demonstrating that tailored neoadjuvant therapy using a genomic recurrence score is feasible and warrants further investigation. Molecular analysis revealed few commonalities between patients. For TNBC future clinical gains will require precision medicine, potentially using DNA sequencing to identify specific targets for individuals with resistant disease.

Trial registration

Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01830244

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<![CDATA[Generation of TGFBI knockout ABCG2+/ABCB5+ double-positive limbal epithelial stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7575d5eed0c4843cfdce

Corneal dystrophy is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI) gene on chromosome 5q31.8. This disease is therefore ideally suited for gene therapy using genome-editing technology. Here, we isolated human limbal epithelial stem cells (ABCG2+/ABCB5+ double-positive LESCs) and established a TGFBI knockout using RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing. An LESC clone generated with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exon 4 of the TGFBI gene was sequenced in order to identify potential genomic insertions and deletions near the Cas9/sgRNA-target sites. A detailed analysis of the differences between wild type LESCs and the single LESC clone modified by the TGFBI-targeting sgRNA revealed two distinct mutations, an 8 bp deletion and a 14 bp deletion flanked by a single point mutation. These mutations each lead to a frameshift missense mutation and generate premature stop codons downstream in exon 4. To validate the TGFBI knockout LESC clone, we used single cell culture to isolate four individual sub-clones, each of which was found to possess both mutations present in the parent clone, indicating that the population is homogenous. Furthermore, we confirmed that TGFBI protein expression is abolished in the TGFBI knockout LESC clone using western blot analysis. Collectively, our results suggest that genome editing of TGFBI in LESCs by CRISPR/Cas9 may be useful strategy to treat corneal dystrophy.

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<![CDATA[Presence, persistence and effects of pre-treatment HIV-1 drug resistance variants detected using next generation sequencing: A Retrospective longitudinal study from rural coastal Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9f3d5eed0c48452a5bd

Background

The epidemiology of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) determined by Sanger capillary sequencing, has been widely studied. However, much less is known about HIVDR detected using next generation sequencing (NGS) methods. We aimed to determine the presence, persistence and effect of pre-treatment HIVDR variants detected using NGS in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve participants from rural Coastal Kenya.

Methods

In a retrospective longitudinal study, samples from HIV-1 infected participants collected prior [n = 2 time-points] and after [n = 1 time-point] ART initiation were considered. An ultra-deep amplicon-based NGS assay, calling for nucleotide variants at >2.0% frequency of viral population, was used. Suspected virologic failure (sVF) was defined as a one-off HIV-1 viral load of >1000 copies/ml whilst on ART.

Results

Of the 50 eligible participants, 12 (24.0% [95% CI: 13.1–38.2]) had at least one detectable pre-treatment HIVDR variant against Protease Inhibitors (PIs, n = 6 [12%]), Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs, n = 4 [8.0%]) and Non-NRTIs (n = 3 [6.0%]). Overall, 15 pre-treatment resistance variants were detected (frequency, range: 2.3–92.0%). A positive correlation was observed between mutation frequency and absolute load for NRTI and/or NNRTI variants (r = 0.761 [p = 0.028]), but not for PI variants (r = -0.117 [p = 0.803]). Participants with pre-treatment NRTI and/or NNRTI resistance had increased odds of sVF (OR = 6.0; 95% CI = 1.0–36.9; p = 0.054).

Conclusions

Using NGS, pre-treatment resistance variants were common, though observed PI variants were unlikely transmitted, but rather probably generated de novo. Even when detected from a low frequency, pre-treatment NRTI and/or NNRTI resistance variants may adversely affect treatment outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Convergent perturbation of the human domain-resolved interactome by viruses and mutations inducing similar disease phenotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9afd5eed0c484529ff0

An important goal of systems medicine is to study disease in the context of genetic and environmental perturbations to the human interactome network. For diseases with both genetic and infectious contributors, a key postulate is that similar perturbations of the human interactome by either disease mutations or pathogens can have similar disease consequences. This postulate has so far only been tested for a few viral species at the level of whole proteins. Here, we expand the scope of viral species examined, and test this postulate more rigorously at the higher resolution of protein domains. Focusing on diseases with both genetic and viral contributors, we found significant convergent perturbation of the human domain-resolved interactome by endogenous genetic mutations and exogenous viral proteins inducing similar disease phenotypes. Pan-cancer, pan-oncovirus analysis further revealed that domains of human oncoproteins either physically targeted or structurally mimicked by oncoviruses are enriched for cancer driver rather than passenger mutations, suggesting convergent targeting of cancer driver pathways by diverse oncoviruses. Our study provides a framework for high-resolution, network-based comparison of various disease factors, both genetic and environmental, in terms of their impacts on the human interactome.

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<![CDATA[Comparative analysis of mutational robustness of the intrinsically disordered viral protein VPg and of its interactor eIF4E]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f148fd5eed0c48467a2e5

Conformational intrinsic disorder is a feature present in many virus proteins. Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) have weaker structural requirement than ordered regions and mutations in IDRs could have a lower impact on the virus fitness. This could favor its exploration of adaptive solutions. The potyviral protein VPg contains IDRs with determinants for adaptation to its host plant. To experimentally assess whether IDRs are more resistant to mutations than ordered regions, the biologically relevant interaction between mutant libraries of both VPg and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and their respective wild type partner was examined using yeast two hybrid assay. Our data shows that VPg is significantly more robust to mutations than eIF4E and as such belongs to a particular class of intrinsically disordered proteins. This result is discussed from the standpoint of IDRs involvement in the virus adaptive processes.

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<![CDATA[Role of SpaO in the assembly of the sorting platform of a Salmonella type III secretion system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c486d5eed0c4845e8885

Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts use type III secretion machines to interact with their hosts by injecting bacterial effector proteins into host target cells. A central component of this complex machine is the cytoplasmic sorting platform, which orchestrates the engagement and preparation of type III secreted proteins for their delivery to the needle complex, the substructure of the type III secretion system that mediates their passage through the bacterial envelope. The sorting platform is thought to be a dynamic structure whose components alternate between assembled and disassembled states. However, how this dynamic behavior is controlled is not understood. In S. Typhimurium a core component of the sorting platform is SpaO, which is synthesized in two tandemly translated products, a full length (SpaOL) and a short form (SpaOS) composed of the C-terminal 101 amino acids. Here we show that in the absence of SpaOS the assembly of the needle substructure of the needle complex, which requires a functional sorting platform, can still occur although with reduced efficiency. Consistent with this observation, in the absence of SpaOS secretion of effectors proteins, which requires a fully assembled injectisome, is only slightly compromised. In the absence of SpaOS we detect a significant number of fully assembled needle complexes that are not associated with fully assembled sorting platforms. We also find that although binding of SpaOL to SpaOS can be detected in the absence of other components of the sorting platform, this interaction is not detected in the context of a fully assembled sorting platform suggesting that SpaOS may not be a core structural component of the sorting platform. Consistent with this observation we find that SpaOS and OrgB, a component of the sorting platform, share the same binding surface on SpaOL. We conclude that SpaOS regulates the assembly of the sorting platform during type III secretion.

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