ResearchPad - mycelium https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Mycelial biomass estimation and metabolic quotient of <i>Lentinula edodes</i> using species-specific qPCR]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15715 Lentinula edodes, commonly known as shiitake, is an edible mushroom that is cultivated and consumed around the globe, especially in Asia. Monitoring mycelial growth inside a woody substrate is difficult, but it is essential for effective management of mushroom cultivation. Mycelial biomass also affects the rate of wood decomposition under natural conditions and must be known to determine the metabolic quotient, an important ecophysiological parameter of fungal growth. Therefore, developing a method to measure it inside a substrate would be very useful. In this study, as the first step in understanding species-specific rates of fungal decomposition of wood, we developed species-specific primers and qPCR procedures for L. edodes. We tested primer specificity using strains of L. edodes from Japan and Southeast Asia, as well as related species of fungi and plant species for cultivation of L. edodes, and generated a calibration curve for quantification of mycelial biomass in wood dust inoculated with L. edodes. The qPCR procedure we developed can specifically detect L. edodes and allowed us to quantify the increase in L. edodes biomass in wood dust substrate and calculate the metabolic quotient based on the mycelial biomass and respiration rate. Development of a species-specific method for biomass quantification will be useful for both estimation of mycelial biomass and determining the kinetics of fungal growth in decomposition processes.

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<![CDATA[Thermotolerant isolates of Beauveria bassiana as potential control agent of insect pest in subtropical climates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df31dd5eed0c484580d3c

The use of Beauveria bassiana in biological control of agricultural pests is mainly hampered by environmental factors, such as elevated temperatures and low humidity. These limitations, further amplified in a global warming scenario, could nullify biological control strategies based on this fungus. The identification of thermotolerant B. bassiana isolates represents a possible strategy to overcome this problem. In this study, in order to maximize the probability in the isolation of thermotolerant B. bassiana, soil samples and infected insects were collected in warm areas of Syria. The obtained fungal isolates were tested for different biological parameters (i.e., growth rate, sporulation and spore germination) at growing temperatures ranging from 20°C to 35°C. Among these isolates (eight from insects and 11 from soil samples), the five with the highest growth rate, spore production and germination at 30°C were tested for their entomopathogenicity through in vivo assays on Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Insect mortality induced by the five isolates ranged from 31% to 100%. Two isolates, one from Phyllognathus excavatus and one from soil, caused 50% of the larval mortality in less than four days, reaching values exceeding 92% in ten days. These two isolates were molecularly identified as B. bassiana sensu stricto by using three markers (i.e., ITS, Bloc and EF1-α). Considering these promising results, further studies are ongoing, testing their efficiency in field conditions as control agents for agricultural insect pests in Mediterranean and Subtropical regions.

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<![CDATA[The wood decay fungus Cerrena unicolor adjusts its metabolism to grow on various types of wood and light conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633975d5eed0c484ae67e0

Cerrena unicolor is a wood-degrading basidiomycete with ecological and biotechnological importance. Comprehensive Biolog-based analysis was performed to assess the metabolic capabilities and sensitivity to chemicals of C. unicolor FCL139 growing in various sawdust substrates and light conditions. The metabolic preferences of the fungus towards utilization of specific substrates were shown to be correlated with the sawdust medium applied for fungus growth and the light conditions. The highest catabolic activity of C. unicolor was observed after fungus precultivation on birch and ash sawdust media. The fungus growing in the dark showed the highest metabolic activity which was indicated by capacity to utilize a broad spectrum of compounds and the decomposition of 74/95 of the carbon sources. In all the culture light conditions, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the most readily metabolized compound. The greatest tolerance to chemicals was also observed during C. unicolor growth in darkness. The fungus was the most sensitive to nitrogen compounds and antibiotics, but more resistant to chelators. Comparative analysis of C. unicolor and selected wood-decay fungi from different taxonomic and ecological groups revealed average catabolic activity of the fungus. However, C. unicolor showed outstanding capabilities to catabolize salicin and arbutin. The obtained picture of C. unicolor metabolism showed that the fungus abilities to decompose woody plant material are influenced by various environmental factors.

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<![CDATA[Nuclear arms races: Experimental evolution for mating success in the mushroom-forming fungus Schizophyllum commune]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2e7f9ed5eed0c48451a26f

When many gametes compete to fertilize a limited number of compatible gametes, sexual selection will favour traits that increase competitive success during mating. In animals and plants, sperm and pollen competition have yielded many interesting adaptations for improved mating success. In fungi, similar processes have not been shown directly yet. We test the hypothesis that sexual selection can increase competitive fitness during mating, using experimental evolution in the mushroom-forming fungus Schizophyllum commune (Basidiomycota). Mating in mushroom fungi occurs by donation of nuclei to a mycelium. These fertilizing ‘male’ nuclei migrate through the receiving ‘female’ mycelium. In our setup, an evolving population of nuclei was serially mated with a non-evolving female mycelium for 20 sexual generations. From the twelve tested evolved lines, four had increased and one had decreased fitness relative to an unevolved competitor. Even though only two of those five remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, for all five lines we found a correlation between the efficiency with which the female mycelium is accessed and fitness, providing additional circumstantial evidence for fitness change in those five lines. In two lines, fitness change was also accompanied by increased spore production. The one line with net reduced competitive fitness had increased spore production, but reduced fertilisation efficiency. We did not find trade-offs between male reproductive success and other fitness components. We compare these findings with examples of sperm and pollen competition and show that many similarities between these systems and nuclear competition in mushrooms exist.

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<![CDATA[Exploitation of Trametes versicolor for bioremediation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in bioreactors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be02bd

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmental contaminants causing increasing concerns due to their toxicity, persistence and ubiquity. In the present study, degradative capabilities of Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium to act on five EDCs, which represent different classes of chemicals (phenols, parabens and phthalate) and were first applied as single compounds, were assessed. T. versicolor was selected due to its efficiency against target EDCs and its potentialities were exploited against a mixture of EDCs in a cost-effective bioremediation process. A fed-batch approach as well as a starvation strategy were applied in order to reduce the need for input of ‘fresh’ biomass, and avoid the requirement for external nutrients. The fungus was successfully operated in two different bioreactors over one week. Semi-batch cultures were carried out by daily adding a mixture of EDCs to the bioreactors in a total of five consecutive degradation cycles. T. versicolor was able to efficiently remove all compounds during each cycle converting up to 21 mg L-1 day-1 of the tested EDCs. The maintained ability of T. versicolor to remove EDCs without any additional nutrients represents the main outcome of this study, which enables to forecast its application in a water treatment process.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of Five Novel Mitoviruses in the White Pine Blister Rust Fungus Cronartium ribicola]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e5ab0ee8fa60b6aec6

The white pine blister rust (WPBR) fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.) is an exotic invasive forest pathogen causing severe stem canker disease of native white pine trees (subgenus Strobus) in North America. The present study reports discovery of five novel mitoviruses in C. ribicola by deep RNA sequencing. The complete genome of each mitovirus was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was detected in each of the viral genomes using mitochondrial genetic codes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the C. ribicola mitoviruses (CrMV1 to CrMV5) are new putative species of the genus Mitovirus. qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analyses revealed that viral RNAs were significantly increased in fungal mycelia in cankered pine stems compared to expression during two different stages of spore development, suggesting that viral genome replication and transcription benefit from active growth of the host fungus. CrMVs were widespread with relatively high levels of minor allele frequency (MAF) in western North America. As the first report of mitoviruses in the Class Pucciniomycetes, this work allows further investigation of the dynamics of a viral community in the WPBR pathosystem, including potential impacts that may affect pathogenicity and virulence of the host fungus.

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<![CDATA[Polygalacturonase gene pgxB in Aspergillus niger is a virulence factor in apple fruit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd5b

Aspergillus niger, a saprophytic fungus, is widely distributed in soil, air and cereals, and can cause postharvest diseases in fruit. Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the main enzymes in fungal pathogens to degrade plant cell wall. To evaluate whether the deletion of an exo-polygalacturonase gene pgxB would influence fungal pathogenicity to fruit, pgxB gene was deleted in Aspergillus niger MA 70.15 (wild type) via homologous recombination. The ΔpgxB mutant showed similar growth behavior compared with the wild type. Pectin medium induced significant higher expression of all pectinase genes in both wild type and ΔpgxB in comparison to potato dextrose agar medium. However, the ΔpgxB mutant was less virulent on apple fruits as the necrosis diameter caused by ΔpgxB mutant was significantly smaller than that of wild type. Results of quantitive-PCR showed that, in the process of infection in apple fruit, gene expressions of polygalacturonase genes pgaI, pgaII, pgaA, pgaC, pgaD and pgaE were enhanced in ΔpgxB mutant in comparison to wild type. These results prove that, despite the increased gene expression of other polygalacturonase genes in ΔpgxB mutant, the lack of pgxB gene significantly reduced the virulence of A. niger on apple fruit, suggesting that pgxB plays an important role in the infection process on the apple fruit.

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<![CDATA[A Statistical Evaluation of Methods of In-Vitro Growth Assessment for Phyllosticta citricarpa: Average Colony Diameter vs. Area]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb890

Fungal growth inhibition on solid media has been historically measured and calculated based on the average of perpendicular diameter measurements of growth on fungicide amended media. We investigated the sensitivity of the calculated area (DA) and the measured area (MA) for assessing fungicide growth inhibition of the ascomycete, Phyllosticta citricarpa on solid media. Both the calculated, DA and the actual measured area, MA were adequate for distinguishing significant treatment effects of fungicide on fungal growth, however MA was more sensitive at identifying significant differences between the controls and fungicide concentrations below 5 ppm.

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<![CDATA[Identification and Analysis of the Role of Superoxide Dismutases Isoforms in the Pathogenesis of Paracoccidioides spp.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b7805b

The ability of Paracoccidioides to defend itself against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by host effector cells is a prerequisite to survive. To counteract these radicals, Paracoccidioides expresses, among different antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SODs). In this study, we identified six SODs isoforms encoded by the Paracoccidioides genome. We determined gene expression levels of representative isolates of the phylogenetic lineages of Paracoccidioides spp. (S1, PS2, PS3 and Pb01-like) using quantitative RT-PCR. Assays were carried out to analyze SOD gene expression of yeast cells, mycelia cells, the mycelia-to-yeast transition and the yeast-to-mycelia germination, as well as under treatment with oxidative agents and during interaction with phagocytic cells. We observed an increased expression of PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 during the transition process, exposure to oxidative agents and interaction with phagocytic cells, suggesting that these proteins could assist in combating the superoxide radicals generated during the host-pathogen interaction. Using PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 knockdown strains we showed these genes are involved in the response of the fungus against host effector cells, particularly the oxidative stress response, and in a mouse model of infection. Protein sequence analysis together with functional analysis of knockdown strains seem to suggest that PbSOD3 expression is linked with a pronounced extracellular activity while PbSOD1 seems more related to intracellular requirements of the fungus. Altogether, our data suggests that P. brasiliensis actively responds to the radicals generated endogenously during metabolism and counteracts the oxidative burst of immune cells by inducing the expression of SOD isoforms.

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<![CDATA[Effects of element complexes containing Fe, Zn and Mn on artificial morel’s biological characteristics and soil bacterial community structures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1dd

This study described the effects of elements (including Fe, Zn, Mn and their complexes) on the following factors in artificial morel cultivation: the characteristics of mycelia and sclerotia, soil bacterial community structures, yields and contents of microelements. The results indicated that the groups containing Mn significantly promoted mycelia growth rates, and all the experimental groups resulted in higher yields than the control (P<0.01), although their mycelia and sclerotia did not show obvious differences. It was also found that Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroides, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae were the dominated bacterial phyla. The Zn·Fe group had an unexpectedly high proportion (75.49%) of Proteobacteria during the primordial differentiation stage, while Pseudomonas also occupied a high proportion (5.52%) in this group. These results suggested that different trace elements clearly affected morel yields and soil bacterial community structures, particularly due to the high proportions of Pseudomonas during the primordial differentiation stage.

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<![CDATA[Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf3ab0ee8fa60bc1efc

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, ‘Essex’, was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

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<![CDATA[Experimental Evolution of Trichoderma citrinoviride for Faster Deconstruction of Cellulose]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafeab0ee8fa60bc5ab0

Engineering faster cellulose deconstruction is difficult because it is a complex, cooperative, multi-enzyme process. Here we use experimental evolution to select for populations of Trichoderma citrinoviride that deconstruct up to five-fold more cellulose. Ten replicate populations of T. citrinoviride were selected for growth on filter paper by serial culture. After 125 periods of growth and transfer to fresh media, the filter paper deconstruction increased an average of 2.5 fold. Two populations were examined in more detail. The activity of the secreted cellulase mixtures increased more than two-fold relative to the ancestor and the largest increase was in the extracellular β-glucosidase activity. qPCR showed at least 16-fold more transcribed RNA for egl4 (endoglucanase IV gene), cbh1 (cellobiohydrolase I gene) and bgl1 (extracellular β-glucosidase I gene) in selected populations as compared to the ancestor, and earlier peak expressions of these genes. Deep sequencing shows that the regulatory strategies used to alter cellulase secretion differ in the two strains. The improvements in cellulose deconstruction come from earlier expression of all cellulases and increased relative amount of β-glucosidase, but with small increases in the total secreted protein and therefore little increase in metabolic cost.

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<![CDATA[Influence of Different Nanomaterials on Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Penicillium verrucosum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacbab0ee8fa60bb4126

Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in the environment. They originate from anthropogenic or natural sources or they are intentionally produced for different purposes. There exist manifold applications of nanoparticles in modern life leading unavoidably to a confrontation and interaction between nanomaterial and living organisms. Based on their wide distribution tending to increase steadily, the influence of particles based on silica and silver, exhibiting nominal sizes between 0.65 nm and 200 nm, on the physiology of the mycotoxigenic filamentous fungus Penicillium verrucosum was analyzed. The applied concentration and time-point, the size and the chemical composition of the particles was shown to have a strong influence on growth and mycotoxin biosynthesis. On microscopic scale it could be shown that silver nanoparticles attach to the mycelial surface. Moreover, silver nanoparticles with 0.65 nm and 5 nm in size were shown to internalize within the cell, form agglomerates in the cytoplasm and associate to cell organelles.

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<![CDATA[Spiral and Rotor Patterns Produced by Fairy Ring Fungi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da77ab0ee8fa60b97356

A broad class of soil fungi form the annular patterns known as ‘fairy rings’ and provide one of the only means to observe spatio-temporal dynamics of otherwise cryptic fungal growth processes in natural environments. We present observations of novel spiral and rotor patterns produced by fairy ring fungi and explain these behaviors mathematically by first showing that a well known model of fairy ring fungal growth and the Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion model are mathematically equivalent. We then use bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations to identify the conditions under which spiral waves and rotors can arise. We demonstrate that the region of dimensionless parameter space supporting these more complex dynamics is adjacent to that which produces the more familiar fairy rings, and identify experimental manipulations to test the transitions between these spatial modes. These same manipulations could also feasibly induce fungal colonies to transition from rotor/spiral formation to a set of richer, as yet unobserved, spatial patterns.

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<![CDATA[Optimization of Mycelia Selenium Polysaccharide Extraction from Agrocybe cylindracea SL-02 and Assessment of their Antioxidant and Anti-Ageing Activities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac8ab0ee8fa60bb329b

The aim of the present study was to optimize the purification of mycelia selenium polysaccharides (MSPS) from Agrocybe cylindracea SL-02 and characterize their in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-ageing activities. The Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) was evaluated, which showed that the optimum conditions included an extraction temperature of 94.99°C, a pH of 9 and a precipitation temperature of 12°C, and the predicted yield was 11.036 ± 0.31%. The in vitro antioxidant assay demonstrated that MSPS had potential effects on scavenging and enhanced the reducing power of reactive oxygen species. The in vivo anti-ageing evaluation showed that MSPS significantly reduced the malonaldehyde (MDA) contents and total cholesterol (CHOL) levels, and remarkably improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in mice in response to D-galactose-induced ageing. Furthermore, the characteristic analysis of MSPS indicated a selenium content of 1.76 ± 0.10 mg/g at a concentration of 6 μg/mL in liquid media and a monosaccharide composition of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 29:3:1:18.8:2.7. These results suggest that MSPS might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs on preventing the ageing progress induced by toxic chemicals.

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<![CDATA[A SIX1 Homolog in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans Is Required for Full Virulence on Cabbage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1cab0ee8fa60b7d540

Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-born fungus that induces wilt and root rot on a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) can cause wilt disease on cabbage. This study showed that a homolog of SIX1 protein in the Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176 (Fo5176-SIX1) had four isoforms in the conidia of Foc by proteomic analysis. Thus, we analyzed the roles of protein Foc-SIX1. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared to the expression in mycelia, dramatically altered expression of Foc-SIX1 could be detected after infecting cabbages, and Foc-SIX1 was highly expressed in conidia under axenic culture condition. Furthermore, we knocked out the Foc-SIX1 gene and found that Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants had significantly reduced virulence compared with wild type isolate, and full virulence was restored by complementation of Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants with Foc-SIX1. Thus, we concluded that SIX1 in Foc was required for full virulence on cabbage. We also complemented Foc-ΔSIX1 with SIX1 gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and found Foc-ΔSIX1::Fol-SIX1 mutants did not affect the virulence of Foc-ΔSIX1. The results confirmed that Fol-SIX1 was not capable of replacing the role of Foc-SIX1 in Foc on the disease symptom development of cabbage. The roles of Fol-SIX1 on virulence might rely on host specificity.

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<![CDATA[Comparative analysis of sterol acquisition in the oomycetes Saprolegnia parasitica and Phytophthora infestans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc312

The oomycete class includes pathogens of animals and plants which are responsible for some of the most significant global losses in agriculture and aquaculture. There is a need to replace traditional chemical means of controlling oomycete growth with more targeted approaches, and the inhibition of sterol synthesis is one promising area. To better direct these efforts, we have studied sterol acquisition in two model organisms: the sterol-autotrophic Saprolegnia parasitica, and the sterol-heterotrophic Phytophthora infestans. We first present a comprehensive reconstruction of a likely sterol synthesis pathway for S. parasitica, causative agent of the disease saprolegniasis in fish. This pathway shows multiple potential routes of sterol synthesis, and draws on several avenues of new evidence: bioinformatic mining for genes with sterol-related functions, expression analysis of these genes, and analysis of the sterol profiles in mycelium grown in different media. Additionally, we explore the extent to which P. infestans, which causes the late blight in potato, can modify exogenously provided sterols. We consider whether the two very different approaches to sterol acquisition taken by these pathogens represent any specific survival advantages or potential drug targets.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Drought-Stress on Fusarium Crown Rot Development in Barley]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab2ab0ee8fa60babd00

Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a chronic disease of cereals in many semi-arid regions worldwide. To clarify what effects drought-stress may have on FCR development, visual assessment, histological analysis and quantitative PCR were used to analyse the infection process of F. pseudograminearum in barley. This study observed for the first time that the severity of FCR symptom reflects the quantity of pathogens in infected tissues of barley under both drought-stressed and well-watered conditions. Drought-stress prolongs the initial infection phase but enhances the proliferation and spread of Fusarium pathogens after the initial infection phase. Under drought-stressed conditions, the invading hyphae were frequently observed to re-emerge from stomata and invade again the surrounding epidermis cells. Under the well-watered conditions, however, very few hyphae re-emerged from stomata and most infection was caused by hyphae intracellularly grown. It was also observed that drought-stress increased the length and density of trichomes dramatically especially in the susceptible genotypes, and that the length and density of trichomes were positively related to fungal biomass of F. pseudograminearum in plants.

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<![CDATA[Comparative Validation of Conventional and RNA-Seq Data-Derived Reference Genes for qPCR Expression Studies of Colletotrichum kahawae ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da77ab0ee8fa60b96f61

Colletotrichum kahawae is an emergent fungal pathogen causing severe epidemics of Coffee Berry Disease on Arabica coffee crops in Africa. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the Coffea arabica—C. kahawae interaction are still poorly understood, as well as the differences in pathogen aggressiveness, which makes the development of functional studies for this pathosystem a crucial step. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) has been one of the most promising approaches to perform gene expression analyses. However, proper data normalization with suitable reference genes is an absolute requirement. In this study, a set of 8 candidate reference genes were selected based on two different approaches (literature and Illumina RNA-seq datasets) to assess the best normalization factor for qPCR expression analysis of C. kahawae samples. The gene expression stability of candidate reference genes was evaluated for four isolates of C. kahawae bearing different aggressiveness patterns (Ang29, Ang67, Zim12 and Que2), at different stages of fungal development and key time points of the plant-fungus interaction process. Gene expression stability was assessed using the pairwise method incorporated in geNorm and the model-based method used by NormFinder software. For C. arabica—C. kahawae interaction samples, the best normalization factor included the combination of PP1, Act and ck34620 genes, while for C. kahawae samples the combination of PP1, Act and ck20430 revealed to be the most appropriate choice. These results suggest that RNA-seq analyses can provide alternative sources of reference genes in addition to classical reference genes. The analysis of expression profiles of bifunctional catalase-peroxidase (cat2) and trihydroxynaphthalene reductase (thr1) genes further enabled the validation of the selected reference genes. This study provides, for the first time, the tools required to conduct accurate qPCR studies in C. kahawae considering its aggressiveness pattern, developmental stage and host interaction.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8eab0ee8fa60b9f0ee

Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8–15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before.

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