ResearchPad - myopia https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Hemisphere opposite to vascular trunk deviation is earlier affected by glaucomatous damage in myopic high-tension glaucoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15760 To investigate whether the position of the central vascular trunk, as a surrogate of lamina cribrosa (LC) shift, is associated with the initial hemisphere of visual field defect in myopic high-tension glaucoma (HTG) eyes.MethodsThe deviation of the central vascular trunk was measured from the center of the Bruch’s membrane opening (BMO), which was delineated by OCT imaging. The angular deviation was measured with the horizontal nasal midline as 0° and the superior location as a positive value. The initial hemisphere developing visual field defect was defined as three connected abnormal points (having a P value with less than 0.5% probability of being normal) appearing in only one hemisphere in pattern deviation plots. If those points were observed in both hemispheres initially, the eye was classified as bi-hemispheric visual field defect.ResultsInitially, 36 eyes (44%) had superior visual field defects, 27 (33%) inferior visual field defects, and 18 (22%) bi-hemispheric visual field defects. After a mean follow-up of 5 years, the number of bi-hemispheric visual field defects had increased to 34 (42%). A logistic regression analysis revealed that inferior deviation of vascular trunk was the only factor associated with initial inferior visual field defect (P = 0.001), while initial bi-hemispheric visual field defects were associated with worse mean deviation at initial visits (P<0.001). A conditional inference tree analysis showed that both the angular deviation (P<0.001) and initial mean deviation (P = 0.025) determined the initial hemispheres developing visual field defect.ConclusionsAlthough both hemispheres were involved as glaucoma progression, the axons on the side counter to the vascular trunk deviation were damaged earlier in HTG. This finding implies the LC shift could add additional stress to axons exposed to high intraocular pressure. ]]> <![CDATA[Axial length and its associations in a Russian population: The Ural Eye and Medical Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df355d5eed0c484581168

Purpose

To assess the normal distribution of axial length and its associations in a population of Russia.

Methods

The population-based Ural Eye and Medical Study included 5,899 (80.5%) individuals out of 7328 eligible individuals aged 40+ years. The participants underwent an ocular and systemic examination. Axial length was measured sonographically (Ultra-compact A/B/P ultrasound system, Quantel Medical, Cournon d'Auvergne, France).

Results

Biometric data were available for 5707 (96.7%) individuals with a mean age of 58.8±10.6 years (range:40–94 years; 25%, 50%, 75% quartile: 51.0, 58.0, 66.0 years, respectively). Mean axial length was 23.30±1.10 mm (range: 19.02–32.87mm; 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.36–25.89; 25%, 50%, 75% quartile: 22.65mm, 23.23mm, 23.88mm, resp.). Prevalences of moderate myopia (axial length:24.5-<26.5mm) and high myopia (axial length >26.5mm) were 555/5707 (8.7%;95%CI:9.0,10.5) and 78/5707 (1.4%;95%CI:1.1,1.7), respectively. Longer axial length (mean:23.30±1.10mm) was associated (correlation coefficient r2:0.70) with older age (P<0.001;standardized regression coefficient beta:0.14), taller body height (P<0.001;beta:0.07), higher level of education (P<0.001;beta:0.04), higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001;beta:0.03), more myopic spherical refractive error (P<0.001;beta:-0.55), lower corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:-0.44), deeper anterior chamber depth (P<0.001;beta:0.20), wider anterior chamber angle (P<0.001;beta:0.05), thinner peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (P<0.001;beta:-0.04), higher degree of macular fundus tessellation (P<0.001;beta:0.08), lower prevalence of epiretinal membranes (P = 0.01;beta-0.02) and pseudoexfoliation (P = 0.007;beta:-0.02) and higher prevalence of myopic maculopathy (P<0.001;beta:0.08). In that model, prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (any type: P = 0.84; early type: P = 0.46), diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.16), and region of habitation (P = 0.27) were not significantly associated with axial length.

Conclusions

Mean axial length in this typically multi-ethnic Russian study population was comparable with values from populations in Singapore and Beijing. In contrast to previous studies, axial length was not significantly related with the prevalences of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy or region of habitation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Myopia is associated with education: Results from NHANES 1999-2008]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fecad5eed0c484135472

Purpose

Myopia is increasing worldwide and possibly linked to education. In this study, we analyse the association of myopia and education in the U.S. and investigate its age-dependency.

Methods

We conducted a secondary data analysis using the public use files from the cross-sectional study National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the period from 1999 to 2008. 19,756 participants aged 20 to 85 years were included with data on education and ophthalmic parameters (distance visual acuity, objective refraction and keratometry). Spherical equivalent, astigmatism, corneal power and corneal astigmatism were evaluated for an association with education using linear regression analysis with adjustment of potential confounders.

Results

Analysis revealed an association between spherical equivalent and educational level in the univariate analysis (P < .001), and in the adjusted model (P < .001). Subjects who attend school to less than 9th grade had a mean spherical equivalent of 0.34 D, subjects with 9-11th grade -0.14 D, subjects that finished high school -0.33 D, subjects with partial college education -0.70 D, subjects that graduated from college or a higher formal education -1.22 D. Subjects that graduated from college or above were -1.47 D more myopic compared to subjects that completed less than 9th grade school in the adjusted analyses. Astigmatism and corneal curvature was not associated with education.

Conclusions

Myopia is associated with higher education in the U.S. Our analysis shows that corneal curvature does not contribute to this association, therefore axial elongation or lens power are likely to contribute to myopia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Environmental factors in school classrooms: How they influence visual task demand on children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7e2d5eed0c484386b6b

Background

The key visual factors in a classroom environment include the legibility, angle subtended at the eye, illumination, contrast, and colour of the visual task. The study evaluated the visual environmental factors in the school classrooms.

Materials and methods

The distance Visual Acuity (VA) demand was evaluated based on the size of visual task i.e. the smallest size of chalkboard writing and its viewing distance. The environmental factors which can have an effect on the visibility in classrooms such as illuminance on the chalkboard and at student’s desk, chalkboard contrast, light sources and the student’s perception of their classroom visual environment were measured. To quantify the distance VA demand and to compare with a standard high contrast VA chart measure, a validation of the measurements was performed by chalkboard simulation experiment. The “acuity reserve” to be included to the measured distance VA demand was evaluated.

Results

We included twenty-nine classrooms of eight schools. The median distance VA threshold demand was 0.28 logMAR(0.25,0.45). The median illuminance on front desk position and chalkboard contrast was 130 lux(92,208) and 40(36,50) respectively with 62% classrooms having low illumination (<150lux). The acuity reserve evaluated to be included to the distance VA demand was 0.13logMAR and 0.29 logMAR in classrooms with optimal and low chalkboard illumination respectively which was based on the results of the simulation experiment. The median distance VA demand including the acuity reserve was 0.09 logMAR(-0.03,0.23) [Snellen Equivalent: 20/25(20/19,20/34)].

Conclusion

The study findings highlight the increased visual task demand in school classrooms and the need for appropriate seating arrangements in classrooms based on the visual acuity of children. The study emphasises regular audit of the classroom environment along with the school eye screening.

]]>
<![CDATA[Predictive factors for efficacy and safety in refractive surgery for myopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5bced5eed0c4846eca43

Purpose

To evaluate the predictive factors for safety and efficacy in laser refractive surgery for myopia

Setting

A singular refractive surgery center, at a University-affiliated tertiary medical center.

Design

Retrospective cohort study

Methods

Study population—A total 8,775 eyes having laser refractive laser procedures for myopia (in4,623 patients).

Observation procedures–Using a prospective database of refractive procedures performed over the span of 13 years, variables such as gender, age, type of surgery, date of surgery, pre-operative corneal thickness and Spherical Equivalent (SEQ) were evaluated.

Main outcome measures—Proportion of patients with Safety index higher than 0.85 and Efficacy index higher than 0.80.

Results

91.9% and 86.0% of all evaluated eyes were above the safety and efficacy cut-off levels, respectively. Younger age was significantly correlated with safety and efficacy indices above the cut-off levels (p<0.001). Male gender was significantly correlated with efficacy above the cut-off level (p<0.001). Myopic eyes with lower SEQ were associated with both safety (p = 0.002) and efficacy (p<0.001) indices above the cut-offs. The surgical procedure was found to significantly affect the outcome only using univariate analysis: Safety was higher in Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK), while Efficacy was higher in Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) (p<0.001, respectively) but no difference was found using multivariate analysis. Safety index above the cut-off level increased over the years (p<0.001).

Conclusions

Efficacy in refractive surgery for myopia is correlated with younger age, male gender and low myopia. Safety is correlated with younger age, low myopia and increases over the years. Multivariate analysis found no differences between PRK and LASIK regarding safety and efficacy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Macular Bruch’s membrane defect and dome-shaped macula in high myopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0178

Purpose

To examine an association between macular Bruch’s membrane defects (MBMD) and a dome-shaped appearance of the macula (DSM).

Design

Retrospective, observational case series study.

Methods

The study included highly myopic individuals who were consecutively examined between May 2014 and December 2015. The patients underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) for visualization of DSM and MBMDs defined as Bruch´s membrane defects located at a distance of maximal 1500 μm from the foveola.

Results

Out of 1983 highly myopic eyes (1057 patients), 166 eyes (8.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI):7.2%,9.6%)) showed a DSM and 534 eyes showed a MBMD. In multivariate binary regression analysis, higher prevalence of DSM was associated with a higher prevalence of a MBMD (P<0.001; OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.40, 2.75) after adjusting for longer axial length (P<0.001; odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95%CI: 1.16, 1.38). In eyes with a DSM partially surrounded by a MBMD, the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid appeared relatively unchanged in the central region with Bruch´s membrane (BM) preserved. In the ring-like BM-free region surrounding the central prominent island of the DSM, the RPE, the outer and middle retinal layers, the choriocapillaris and the middle-sized choroidal vessel layer were absent. In association with a DSM, three MBMD types were differentiated: MBMDs in patchy chorioretinal atrophy, MBMDs in choroidal neovascularization-related macular atrophy, and MBMDs as temporally extending large parapapillary gamma zone.

Conclusions

Presence of a DSM was significantly associated with the presence of MBMDs. The morphology of the DSM in association with MBMDs may be associated with a focal relaxation of the posterior sclera, no longer pushed outward by an expanding BM but allowed to partially bulge inward, leading to the formation of a DSM.

]]>
<![CDATA[Factors Influencing Contrast Sensitivity Function in Myopic Eyes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab6ab0ee8fa60bad0f7

Purpose

To evaluate the factors affecting the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) in healthy myopic eyes.

Methods

We retrospectively examined 201 eyes of 201 consecutive subjects (age, 31.8±7.4 years (mean ± standard deviation)) with myopic refractive errors of −1.25 to −8.25 diopters (D). From the contrast sensitivity data, the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) was calculated. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the factors affecting the AULCSF.

Results

The mean AULSCF was 1.09±0.09 (0.89 to 1.55). Explanatory variables relevant to the AULCSF were, in order of influence, the objective scattering index (OSI) (p = 0.018, partial regression coefficient B = –0.032) and logMAR CDVA (p = 0.022, B = –0.209) (adjusted R2 = 0.231). No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors such as gender, manifest refraction, pupil size, lens density, corneal HOAs, or ocular HOAs.

Conclusions

Although the great majority of the variance remains unexplained, eyes with lower OSI and better CDVA are more predisposed to show higher contrast sensitivity function. These results indicate that not only CDVA but also intraocular forward scattering may play some role in predicting the contrast sensitivity function in myopic subjects.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Novel Organ Culture Model to Quantify Collagen Remodeling in Tree Shrew Sclera]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9eeab0ee8fa60b6d646

Increasing evidence suggests that unknown collagen remodeling mechanisms in the sclera underlie myopia development. We are proposing a novel organ culture system in combination with two-photon fluorescence imaging to quantify collagen remodeling at the tissue- and lamella-level. Tree shrew scleral shells were cultured up to 7 days in serum-free media and cellular viability was investigated under: (i) minimal tissue manipulations; (ii) removal of intraocular tissues; gluing the eye to a washer using (iii) 50 μL and (iv) 200 μL of cyanoacrylate adhesive; (v) supplementing media with Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture; and (vi) culturing eyes subjected to 15 mmHg intraocular pressure in our new bioreactor. Two scleral shells of normal juvenile tree shrews were fluorescently labeled using a collagen specific protein and cultured in our bioreactor. Using two-photon microscopy, grid patterns were photobleached into and across multiple scleral lamellae. These patterns were imaged daily for 3 days, and tissue-/lamella-level strains were calculated from the deformed patterns. No significant reduction in cell viability was observed under conditions (i) and (v). Compared to condition (i), cell viability was significantly reduced starting at day 0 (condition (ii)) and day 3 (conditions (iii, iv, vi)). Tissue-level strain and intralamellar shear angel increased significantly during the culture period. Some scleral lamellae elongated while others shortened. Findings suggest that tree shrew sclera can be cultured in serum-free media for 7 days with no significant reduction in cell viability. Scleral fibroblasts are sensitive to tissue manipulations and tissue gluing. However, Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture has a protective effect on cell viability and can offset the cytotoxic effect of cyanoacrylate adhesive. This is the first study to quantify collagen micro-deformations over a prolonged period in organ culture providing a new methodology to study scleral remodeling in myopia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4cab0ee8fa60bdaaa7

Purpose

To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC), as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon).

Methods

This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm), centered on the circular Bruch’s membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24–2), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT), the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR) was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP), MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT), and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE) optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela’s method.

Results

We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001) and 0.46 (P < 0.001) with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm). Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013), vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020) and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034) were independent variables significantly affecting LC thickness, but age, axial length, IOP, and CCT were not. LC thickness was significantly lower in the GE patients (233.9 ± 17.3 μm) than the non-GE patients (243.6 ± 19.5 μm, P = 0.040). The correlation coefficient between MD and LC thickness was 0.58 (P < 0.001) in the GE patients and 0.39 (P = 0.013) in the non-GE patients.

Conclusion

Cupping formation and tissue blood flow were independently correlated to LC thinning. Glaucoma patients with the GE disc type, who predominantly have large cupping, had lower LC thickness even with similar glaucoma severity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da60ab0ee8fa60b90d20

Purpose

To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.

Methods

One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes), aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years) underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves.

Result

The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE) = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01). Bland–Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order) for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.

Conclusion

The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabeab0ee8fa60bafb01

Purpose

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plays an important role in ocular development. Previous studies found that retinoic acid could influence the metabolism of scleral remodeling by promoting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells to secrete secondary signaling factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinoic acid affected secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and to explore the signaling pathway of retinoic acid in cultured acute retinal pigment epithelial 19 (ARPE-19) cells.

Methods

The effects of ATRA (concentrations from 10−9 to 10−5 mol/l) on the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in ARPE-19 cells were examined at the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay, respectively. The effects of treating ARPE-19 cells with ATRA concentrations ranging from 10−9 to 10−5 mol/l for 24 h and 48 h or with 10-6mol/l ATRA at different times ranging from 6h to 72h were assessed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The contribution of RARβ-induced activation of ARPE-19 cells was confirmed using LE135, an antagonist of RARβ.

Results

RARβ mRNA levels significantly increased in the ARPE-19 cells treated with ATRA for 24h and 48h. These increases in RARβ mRNA levels were dose dependent (at concentrations of 10−9 to 10−5 mol/l) with a maximum effect observed at 10−6 mol/l. There were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of RARα and RARγ. Western blot assay revealed that RARβ protein levels were increased significantly in a time-dependent manner in ARPE-19 cells treated with 10−6 mol/l ATRA from 12 h to 72 h, with a marked increase observed at 24 h and 48 h. The upregulation of RARβ and the ATRA-induced secretion in ARPE-19 cells could be inhibited by the RARβ antagonist LE135.

Conclusion

ATRA induced upregulation of RARβ in ARPE-19 cells and stimulated these cells to secrete BMP-2 and MMP-2.

]]>
<![CDATA[Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdca31

Purpose

The aims of the study were to develop guidelines for prescribing spectacles for patients with moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia and to demonstrate how emmetropization progresses.

Methods

Children with hyperopic amblyopia who had a spherical equivalent of ≥ +4.0 diopters (D) or more were included, while those who had astigmatism of > 2.0 D or anisometropia of > 2.0 D were excluded. The patients were divided into a full correction group and an under-correction group according to the amount of hyperopia correction applied. The under-correction group was further subdivided into a fixed under-correction group and a post-cycloplegic refraction (PCR) under-correction group. The duration of amblyopia treatment and changes in initial hyperopia were compared between the groups.

Results

In total, 76 eyes of 38 patients were analyzed in this study. The full correction group and under-correction group were subjected to 5.5 months and 5.9 months of amblyopia treatment, respectively (P = 0.570). However, the PCR under-correction group showed more rapid improvement (2.9 months; P = 0.001). In the under-correction group, initial hyperopia was decreased by -0.28 D and -0.49 D at 6 months and 12 months, respectively, after initial cycloplegic refraction. Moreover, the amount of hyperopia under-correction was correlated with the amount of hyperopia reduction (P = 0.010).

Conclusion

The under-correction of moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia has beneficial effects for treating amblyopia and activating emmetropization. PCR under-correction can more rapidly improve visual acuity, while both fixed under-correction and PCR under-correction can induce emmetropization and effectively reduce initial hyperopia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Large-Scale microRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Putative Retinal miRNA-mRNA Signaling Pathways Underlying Form-Deprivation Myopia in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db02ab0ee8fa60bc72be

Development of myopia is associated with large-scale changes in ocular tissue gene expression. Although differential expression of coding genes underlying development of myopia has been a subject of intense investigation, the role of non-coding genes such as microRNAs in the development of myopia is largely unknown. In this study, we explored myopia-associated miRNA expression profiles in the retina and sclera of C57Bl/6J mice with experimentally induced myopia using microarray technology. We found a total of 53 differentially expressed miRNAs in the retina and no differences in miRNA expression in the sclera of C57BL/6J mice after 10 days of visual form deprivation, which induced -6.93 ± 2.44 D (p < 0.000001, n = 12) of myopia. We also identified their putative mRNA targets among mRNAs found to be differentially expressed in myopic retina and potential signaling pathways involved in the development of form-deprivation myopia using miRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis. Analysis of myopia-associated signaling pathways revealed that myopic response to visual form deprivation in the retina is regulated by a small number of highly integrated signaling pathways. Our findings highlighted that changes in microRNA expression are involved in the regulation of refractive eye development and predicted how they may be involved in the development of myopia by regulating retinal gene expression.

]]>
<![CDATA[Early Changes in Ocular Surface and Tear Inflammatory Mediators after Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Laser In Situ Keratomileusis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db21ab0ee8fa60bcf3f9

Purpose

To characterize the early ocular-surface changes or tear inflammatory-mediators levels following small-incision lenticule extraction (ReLEx smile) and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK).

Methods

Forty-seven myopic subjects were recruited for this prospective study. Fifteen underwent ReLEx smile and thirty-two underwent FS-LASIK. Corneal fluorescein (FL) staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and central corneal sensitivity were evaluated in all participants. Tears were collected and analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nerve growth factor (NGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels using multiplex magnetic beads. All measurements were preformed preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively.

Results

FL scores in ReLEx smile group were lower than those of FS-LASIK group 1 week postoperatively (P = 0.010). Compared to the FS-LASIK group, longer TBUT were observed in ReLEx smile group 1 month (P = 0.029) and 3 months (P = 0.045) postoperatively. No significant differences were found in tear secretion for the two groups (P>0.05). OSDI scores were higher in FS-LASIK group 1 month after surgery (P = 0.020). Higher central corneal sensitivity was observed in ReLEx smile group 1 week, 1 month and 3 months (P<0.05) postoperatively. Compared to FS-LASIK group, lower and faster recovery of IL-6 and NGF levels in tears was observed in ReLEx smile group postoperatively (P<0.05). Tears TNF-α and ICAM-1 concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups at any follow-up time (P>0.05). Moreover, IL-6 and NGF levels correlated with ocular surface changes after ReLEx smile or FS-LASIK.

Conclusions

In the early postoperative period, ReLEx smile results in milder ocular surface changes than FS-LASIK. Furthermore, the tear inflammatory mediators IL-6 and NGF may play a crucial role in the ocular surface healing process following ReLEx smile and FS-LASIK.

]]>
<![CDATA[Optical Defocus Rapidly Changes Choroidal Thickness in Schoolchildren]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadcab0ee8fa60bba1f0

The current study aimed to examine the short-term choroidal response to optical defocus in schoolchildren. Myopic schoolchildren aged 8–16 were randomly allocated to control group (CG), myopic defocus group (MDG) and hyperopic defocus group (HDG) (n = 17 per group). Children in MDG and HDG received additional +3D and -3D lenses, respectively, to their full corrections on the right eyes. Full correction was given to their left eyes, and on both eyes in the CG. Axial length (AXL) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) were then measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Children wore their group-specific correction for 2 hours after which any existing optical defocus was removed, and subjects wore full corrections for another 2 hours. Both the AXL and SFChT were recorded hourly for 4 hours. The mean refraction of all subjects was -3.41 ± 0.37D (± SEM). SFChT thinned when exposed to hyperopic defocus for 2 hours but less thinning was observed in response to myopic defocus compared to the control group (p < 0.05, two-way ANOVA). Removal of optical defocus significantly decreased SFChT in the MDG and significantly increased SFChT in the HDG after 1 and 2 hours (mean percentage change at 2-hour; control vs. hyperopic defocus vs. myopic defocus; -0.33 ± 0.59% vs. 3.04 ± 0.60% vs. -1.34 ± 0.74%, p < 0.01). Our results showed short-term exposure to myopic defocus induced relative choroidal thickening while hyperopic defocus led to choroidal thinning in children. This rapid and reversible choroidal response may be an important clinical parameter in gauging retinal response to optical defocus in human myopia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Aging Dogs Manifest Myopia as Measured by Autorefractor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3eab0ee8fa60b88f25

Objective

Dogs, like humans, experience eye changes with aging: hardening and clouding of the lens and accumulated oxidative damage from UV sunlight. It has been debated whether such changes could be affecting the visual function of dogs. The objective of this study was to determine if autorefractometry could be used to measure visual function in dogs.

Animals and Methods

Nine Beagle dogs (ages 1 to 14 years) were examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist and their eyes determined to be free of cataracts. Spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by handheld autorefractor (Welch Allyn SureSight) under both indirect and direct lighting conditions with five measurements per condition, per eye. Measures were repeated on three different days for each dog within six weeks. Nonparametric statistics were used to detect differences among lighting conditions and test days, and between eyes. Spearmen correlation assessed the visual measurement outcomes’ association with age.

Results

There was no difference for day-to-day or between-eye measurements. Significantly, the Beagles showed a myopic shift with aging (average spherical equivalent ranged from plano to -3.00 diopters), suggesting that dogs become more near-sighted as they age (r = -0.48 and -0.73 under direct and indirect lights; p<0.05 both). Younger dogs were able to make larger accommodation changes from indirect light to direct light conditions, indicating a more flexible lens (r = -0.50, p<0.05).

Conclusions

Although designed for humans, the hand-held autorefractor technique is applicable to dogs and sensitive to light conditions. The age-associated myopic shift could be expected to compromise dogs’ visual functions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc29d

Purpose

To investigate the association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and use of spectacles (as a surrogate measure for myopia) in schoolchildren.

Methods

We analyzed the impact of exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 light absorbance at home (predicted by land-use regression models) and exposure to NO2 and black carbon (BC) at school (measured by monitoring campaigns) on the use of spectacles in a cohort of 2727 schoolchildren (7–10 years old) in Barcelona (2012–2015). We conducted cross-sectional analyses based on lifelong exposure to air pollution and prevalent cases of spectacles at baseline data collection campaign as well as longitudinal analyses based on incident cases of spectacles use and exposure to air pollution during the three-year period between the baseline and last data collection campaigns. Logistic regression models were developed to quantify the association between spectacles use and each of air pollutants adjusted for relevant covariates.

Results

An interquartile range increase in exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance at home was respectively associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for spectacles use of 1.16 (1.03, 1.29) and 1.13 (0.99, 1.28) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.15 (1.00, 1.33) and 1.23 (1.03, 1.46) in longitudinal analyses. Similarly, odds ratio (95% CIs) of spectacles use associated with an interquartile range increase in exposures to NO2 and black carbon at school was respectively 1.32 (1.09, 1.59) and 1.13 (0.97, 1.32) in cross-sectional analyses and 1.12 (0.84, 1.50) and 1.27 (1.03, 1.56) in longitudinal analyses. These findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses that we conducted.

Conclusion

We observed increased risk of spectacles use associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollution. These findings require further confirmation by future studies applying more refined outcome measures such as quantified visual acuity and separating different types of refractive errors.

]]>
<![CDATA[Interocular Difference of Peripheral Refraction in Anisomyopic Eyes of Schoolchildren]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0fab0ee8fa60bcba60

Purpose

Refraction in the peripheral visual field is believed to play an important role in the development of myopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in peripheral refraction among anisomyopia, isomyopia, and isoemmetropia for schoolchildren.

Methods

Thirty-eight anisomyopic children were recruited and divided into two groups: (1) both eyes were myopic (anisomyopic group, AM group) and (2) one eye was myopic and the contralateral eye was emmetropic (emmetropic anisomyopic group, EAM group). As controls, 45 isomyopic and isoemmetropic children were also recruited with age and central spherical equivalent (SE) matched to those of the AM and EAM groups. The controls were divided into three groups: (1) intermediate myopia group (SE matched to the more myopic eye of AM group), (2) low myopia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of AM group and the more myopic eye of EAM group), and (3) emmetropia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of EAM group). Peripheral refraction at 7 points across the central ±30° on the horizontal visual field with a 10° interval was measured with an autorefractor. Axial length (AL), corneal curvature (CC), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were also determined by using the Zeiss IOL-Master.

Results

The relative peripheral spherical equivalent [RPR(M)] and relative peripheral spherical value [RPR(S)] of the more myopic eye was shifted more hyperopically than the contralateral eye in both the AM and the EAM groups (both p<0.0001). The RPR(M, S) of the less myopic eyes in the AM and EAM groups showed a relatively flat trend across the visual field and were not significantly different from the emmetropia group. The RPR(M, S) of less myopic eyes in the AM group were shifted less hyperopically than in the isomyopic low myopia group and the more myopic eye of the EAM group [RPR(M), p = 0.007; RPR(S), p = 0.001], although the central SEs of the three groups were not significantly different from each other. However, RPR(M, S) of the more myopic eyes were not different from the corresponding isomyopic groups. There was also no significant difference in the relative peripheral astigmatism [RPR(J0, J45)] between the more and the less myopic eyes in either the AM or the EAM group.

Conclusion

Refraction of anisomyopia differs between the two eyes not only at the central visual field but also at the off-axis periphery. The relative peripheral refraction of the more myopic eye of anisomyopia was shifted hyperopically, as occurs in isomyopia with similar central subjective SE values. Less myopic eyes were much less hyperopically shifted in relative peripheral refraction than the corresponding isomyopic eyes, but are comparable to emmetropic eyes. This emmetropia-like relative peripheral refraction in less myopic eyes might be a factor responsible for slowing down the progression of myopia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Measurements of the parapapillary atrophy zones in en face optical coherence tomography images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc8da

Objective

To measure the parapapillary atrophy (PPA) area in en face images obtained with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and to evaluate its relationship to glaucoma, myopia, and age in non-highly myopic subjects.

Design

Retrospective, cross-sectional study.

Participants

Fifty eyes of 30 subjects with open-angle glaucoma (G group) and forty-three eyes of 26 healthy control subjects (C group). Eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent refractive error ≤ -8 diopters or axial length ≥ 26.5 mm) were excluded.

Methods

Mean age ± standard deviation was 59.9 ± 12.4 years. The beta zone and the gamma zone PPA areas were measured in en face images reconstructed from three-dimensional SS-OCT images. Relationship between the PPA areas and patient characteristics such as glaucoma, axial length, and age was statistically evaluated using multivariate mixed-effects models.

Main outcome measures

Areas of the beta zone and the gamma zone PPA measured on en face OCT images.

Results

Average ± standard deviation area of the beta and the gamma zone was 0.64 ± 0.79 and 0.16 ± 0.30 mm2, respectively. In multivariate models, the gamma zone significantly correlated with axial length (P = 0.001) but not with glaucoma (P = 0.944). In contrast, the beta zone significantly correlated with age (P = 0.0249) and glaucoma (P = 0.014).

Conclusions

En face images reconstructed from 3D SS-OCT data facilitated measurements of the beta and the gamma PPA zones even in eyes with optic disc distortion. The OCT-defined beta zone is associated with glaucoma and age, whereas the gamma zone correlated with myopia but not with glaucoma. This study confirmed the clinical usefulness of OCT-based classification of the PPA zones in distinguishing glaucomatous damage of the optic nerve from myopic damage in non-highly myopic eyes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Imposed Optical Defocus Induces Isoform-Specific Up-Regulation of TGFβ Gene Expression in Chick Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Choroid but Not Neural Retina]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da83ab0ee8fa60b9b806

Purpose

This study investigated the gene expression of TGFβ isoforms and their receptors in chick retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid and the effects of short-term imposed optical defocus.

Methods

The expression of TGFβ isoforms (TGF-β1, 2, 3) and TGFβ receptors (TGFBR1, 2, 3) was examined in the retina, RPE, and choroid of young White-Leghorn untreated chicks (19 days-old). The effects on the expression of the same genes of monocular +10 and -10 D defocusing lenses, worn for either 2 or 48 h by age-matched chicks, were also examined by comparing expression in treated and untreated fellow eyes. RNA was purified, characterized and then reverse transcribed to cDNA. Differential gene expression was quantified using real-time PCR.

Results

All 3 isoforms of TGFβ and all 3 receptor subtypes were found to be expressed in all 3 ocular tissues, with apparent tissue-dependent differences in expression profiles. Data are reported as mean normalized expression relative to GAPDH. Sign-dependent optical defocus effects were also observed. Optical defocus did not affect retinal gene expression but in the RPE, TGF-β2 expression was significantly up-regulated with +10 D lenses, worn for either 2 h (349% increase ± 88%, p < 0.01) or 48 h (752% increase ± 166%, p < 0.001), and in the choroid, the expression of TGF-β3 was up-regulated with -10 D lenses, worn for 48 h (147% increase ± 9%, p < 0.01).

Conclusions

The effects of short term exposure to optical defocus on TGFβ gene expression in the RPE and choroid, which were sign-dependent and isoform specific, provide further supporting evidence for important roles of members of the TGFβ family and these two tissues in local signal cascades regulating ocular growth.

]]>