ResearchPad - nanotechnology-and-microtechnology-in-drug-delivery-systems https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Construction of irf4a Transgenic Zebrafish Using Tol2 System and Its Potential Application]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15114 Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is identified as a transcriptional factor and plays an important role in the immune response in mammals; however, there are few reports about the function of zebrafish IRF4.Methods:We first amplified the coding sequence of irf4a from the testis of zebrafish. Besides, the fragments of irf4a, P2A, EGFP, and Tol2 vector were added for homologous recombination. By sequencing, we can get the Tol2-ef1α-irf4a-EGFP recombinant plasmid and it was microinjected into zebrafish embryos. Fluorescence observation was proceeded at days 3 post fertilization; F0 generations expressing green fluorescence in multiple tissues throughout the body were screened as the founder and raised them to sexual maturity. After mating with WT zebrafish to generate F1 offspring, polymerase chain reaction was used to identify whether irf4a was integrated into the zebrafish genome.Conclusion:We obtained the systematic overexpressed irf4a transgenic zebrafish with green fluorescence labeled in spine, eyes, heart, brain, and other tissues. The transgenic zebrafish will be used as a tool for the role of IRF4a in the immune response to the inflammation preconditioning in the future study. ]]> <![CDATA[Some Peculiarities in the Dose Dependence of Separate and Combined In Vitro Cardiotoxicity Effects Induced by CdS and PbS Nanoparticles With Special Attention to Hormesis Manifestations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N31b29e51-2c7e-43de-a7b2-c38e099b1209

Spherical nanoparticles (NPs) of cadmium and lead sulfides (diameter 37 ± 5 and 24 ± 4 nm, respectively) have been found to be cytotoxic for HL-1 cardiomyocytes as evidenced by decrease in adenosine triphosphate–dependent luminescence. Cadmium sulfide (CdS)-NPs were discovered to produce a much greater cytotoxic impact than lead sulphide (PbS)-NP. Given the same dose range, CdS-NP reduced the number of calcium spikes. A similar effect was observed for small doses of PbS-NP. In addition to cell hypertrophy under the impact of certain doses of CdS-NP and PbS-NP, doses causing cardiomyocyte size reduction were identified. For these 3 outcomes, we obtained both monotonic “dose–response” functions (well approximated by the hyperbolic function) and different variants of non-monotonic ones for which we found adequate mathematical expressions by modifying certain models of hormesis available in the literature. Data analysis using a response surface linear model with a cross-term provided new support to the previously established postulate that a diversity of types of joint action characteristic of one and the same pair of damaging agents is one of the important assertions of the general theory of combined toxicity.

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<![CDATA[Effect of 3-Aminobenzamide on the Ultrastructure of Astrocytes and Microvessels After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8b07f23f-2b81-4b53-b73a-d324468089b0

The disruption of blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a critical event in the formation of brain edema during early phases of ischemic brain injury. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, which contributes to BBB damage, has been reported in ischemia–reperfusion and traumatic brain injury. Here, we investigated the effect of 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a PARP-1 inhibitor, on the ultrastructure of BBB. Male Sprague Dawley rats were suffered from 90 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 4.5 hours or 22.5 hours of reperfusion (R). The vehicle or 3-AB (10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (ip) 60 minutes after lacking of blood. Tissue Evans Blue (EB) levels, ultrastructures of astrocytes and microvessels, and areas of perivascular edema were examined in penumbra and core, at I 1.5 hours /R 4.5 hours and I 1.5 hours /R 22.5 hours, respectively. The severity of ultrastructural changes was graded with a scoring system in each group. We showed that 3-AB treatment significantly decreased tissue EB levels and ultrastructural scores, attenuated damages in astrocytes and microvessels, and reduced areas of perivascular edema. In conclusion, PARP inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic approach to ischemic brain injury.

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<![CDATA[4-AP-3-MeOH Promotes Structural and Functional Spontaneous Recovery in the Acute Sciatic Nerve Stretch Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b459443-05ce-4c81-a034-72a6c27b7428

Background:

4-AP-3-MeOH, a derivative of 4-aminopyridine, was developed and demonstrated to prevent nerve pulse diffusion due to myelin damage and significantly enhance axonal conduction following nerve injury. Currently, repurposing the existing drug such as 4-AP-3-MeOH to restore motor function is a promising and potential therapy of peripheral nerve injury. However, to evaluate drug effect on sciatic nerve injury is full of challenge.

Methods:

Sciatic functional index was used to determine and measure the walking track in the stretch injury model. Nerve conductivity was performed by electrical stimulation of a nerve and recording the compound muscle action potential. Myelin thickness and regeneration was imaged and measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Results:

In this study, we developed a sciatic nerve injury model to minimize the spontaneous recovery mechanism and found that 4-AP-3-MeOH not only improved walking ability of the animals but also reduced the sensitivity to thermal stimulus. More interesting, 4-AP-3-MeOH enhanced and recovered electric conductivity of injured nerve; our TEM results indicated that the axon sheath thickness was increased and myelin was regenerated, which was an important evidence to support the recovery of injured nerve conductivity with 4-AP-3-MeOH treatment.

Conclusions:

In summary, our studies suggest that 4-AP-3-MeOH is a viable and promising approach to the therapy of peripheral nerve injury and in support of repurposing the existing drug to restore motor function.

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<![CDATA[Circulating DNA, a Potentially Sensitive and Specific Diagnostic Tool for Future Medicine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6070da0-a20e-4f55-a72a-4f5a844d21f2

Liquid biopsy has the great potential of detecting early diseases before deterioration and is valued for screening abnormalities at early stage. In oncology, circulating DNA derived from shed cancer cells reflects the tissue of origin, so it could be used to locate tissue sites during early screening. However, the heterogenous parameters of different types limit the clinical application, making it inaccessible to encompass all the cancer types. Instead, for reproducible scenario as pregnancy, fetal cell-free DNA has been well utilized for screening aneuploidies. Noninvasive and convenient as is, it would be of great value in the next decades far more than early diagnosis. This review recapitulates the discovery and development of tumor and fetal cell-free DNA. The common factors are also present that could be taken into consideration when collecting, transporting, and preserving samples. Meanwhile, several protocols used for purifying cell-free DNA, either classic ones or through commercial kits, are compared carefully. In addition, the development of technologies for analyzing cell-free DNA have been summarized and discussed in detail, especially some up-to-date approaches. At the end, the potential prospect of circulating DNA is bravely depicted. In summary, although there would be a lot of efforts before it’s prevalent, cell-free DNA remains a promising tool in point-of-care diagnostic medicine.

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