ResearchPad - nar-breakthrough-article https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Spatially regulated editing of genetic information within a neuron]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b5b33dd-4cc0-49a1-aac6-5750a38dd4a1 In eukaryotic cells, with the exception of the specialized genomes of mitochondria and plastids, all genetic information is sequestered within the nucleus. This arrangement imposes constraints on how the information can be tailored for different cellular regions, particularly in cells with complex morphologies like neurons. Although messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and the proteins that they encode, can be differentially sorted between cellular regions, the information itself does not change. RNA editing by adenosine deamination can alter the genome’s blueprint by recoding mRNAs; however, this process too is thought to be restricted to the nucleus. In this work, we show that ADAR2 (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA), an RNA editing enzyme, is expressed outside of the nucleus in squid neurons. Furthermore, purified axoplasm exhibits adenosine-to-inosine activity and can specifically edit adenosines in a known substrate. Finally, a transcriptome-wide analysis of RNA editing reveals that tens of thousands of editing sites (>70% of all sites) are edited more extensively in the squid giant axon than in its cell bodies. These results indicate that within a neuron RNA editing can recode genetic information in a region-specific manner.

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<![CDATA[GLP-catalyzed H4K16me1 promotes 53BP1 recruitment to permit DNA damage repair and cell survival]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndb884178-90e6-4465-b2d5-eb55466ef00c

Abstract

The binding of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) to damaged chromatin is a critical event in non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ)-mediated DNA damage repair. Although several molecular pathways explaining how 53BP1 binds damaged chromatin have been described, the precise underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Here we report that a newly identified H4K16 monomethylation (H4K16me1) mark is involved in 53BP1 binding activity in the DNA damage response (DDR). During the DDR, H4K16me1 rapidly increases as a result of catalyzation by the histone methyltransferase G9a-like protein (GLP). H4K16me1 shows an increased interaction level with 53BP1, which is important for the timely recruitment of 53BP1 to DNA double-strand breaks. Differing from H4K16 acetylation, H4K16me1 enhances the 53BP1–H4K20me2 interaction at damaged chromatin. Consistently, GLP knockdown markedly attenuates 53BP1 foci formation, leading to impaired NHEJ-mediated repair and decreased cell survival. Together, these data support a novel axis of the DNA damage repair pathway based on H4K16me1 catalysis by GLP, which promotes 53BP1 recruitment to permit NHEJ-mediated DNA damage repair.

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<![CDATA[Single-nucleotide-resolution sequencing of human N6-methyldeoxyadenosine reveals strand-asymmetric clusters associated with SSBP1 on the mitochondrial genome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c26b346d5eed0c48475fb7f

Abstract

N 6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6mA) is a well-characterized DNA modification in prokaryotes but reports on its presence and function in mammals have been controversial. To address this issue, we established the capacity of 6mA-Crosslinking-Exonuclease-sequencing (6mACE-seq) to detect genome-wide 6mA at single-nucleotide-resolution, demonstrating this by accurately mapping 6mA in synthesized DNA and bacterial genomes. Using 6mACE-seq, we generated a human-genome-wide 6mA map that accurately reproduced known 6mA enrichment at active retrotransposons and revealed mitochondrial chromosome-wide 6mA clusters asymmetrically enriched on the heavy-strand. We identified a novel putative 6mA-binding protein in single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (SSBP1), a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication factor known to coat the heavy-strand, linking 6mA with the regulation of mtDNA replication. Finally, we characterized AlkB homologue 1 (ALKBH1) as a mitochondrial protein with 6mA demethylase activity and showed that its loss decreases mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Our results show that 6mA clusters play a previously unappreciated role in regulating human mitochondrial function, despite 6mA being an uncommon DNA modification in the human genome.

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<![CDATA[The arginine methyltransferase CARM1 represses p300•ACT•CREMτ activity and is required for spermiogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0240a8d5eed0c4843a7401

Abstract

CARM1 is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that has been firmly implicated in transcriptional regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CARM1 orchestrates transcriptional regulation are not fully understood, especially in a tissue-specific context. We found that Carm1 is highly expressed in the mouse testis and localizes to the nucleus in spermatids, suggesting an important role for Carm1 in spermiogenesis. Using a germline-specific conditional Carm1 knockout mouse model, we found that it is essential for the late stages of haploid germ cell development. Loss of Carm1 led to a low sperm count and deformed sperm heads that can be attributed to defective elongation of round spermatids. RNA-seq analysis of Carm1-null spermatids revealed that the deregulated genes fell into similar categories as those impacted by p300-loss, thus providing a link between Carm1 and p300. Importantly, p300 has long been known to be a major Carm1 substrate. We found that CREMτ, a key testis-specific transcription factor, associates with p300 through its activator, ACT, and that this interaction is negatively regulated by the methylation of p300 by Carm1. Thus, high nuclear Carm1 levels negatively impact the p300•ACT•CREMτ axis during late stages of spermiogenesis.

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