ResearchPad - neural-mechanisms-of-obesity Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SAT-605 Characterization of Dual Projection Patterns of Refeeding-Activated Neurons in the Parasubthalamic Nucleus]]> We have observed that following a fast, animals terminate their food intake within 2h after refeeding accompanied by a pattern of neuronal activation as identified by c-fos immunostaining that involves a number of brain regions associated with the regulation of food intake including the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), parabrachial nucleus (PBN), central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), hypothalamic arcuate and paraventricular nuclei, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. We also observed striking c-fos activation in the posterior-lateral hypothalamus called the parasubthalamic nucleus or PSTN, raising the possibility that it may also be an important anorectic center in the brain. To establish how the PSTN is integrated into the CNS, we performed dual-label retrograde tract tracing studies to characterize whether refeeding-activated PSTN neurons project to one, or more than one target area in the CNS. Adult, Sprague-Dawley rats received dual stereotaxic injections of Alexa Fluor 488- and Alexa Fluor 555-conjugated cholera toxin β subunit (CTB; 0.1%, 0.5–1 µl volume) into the 1) PBN and NTS, 2) PBN and CEA and 3) NTS and CEA. After 7–12 days, the animals were fasted for 24 h and then given free access to food for 2 h before euthanasia by transcardial perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde. Brains with successful dual injections were further processed for c-fos immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 26.5±3.8% of PSTN neurons projecting to the PBN also project to the CEA, and 34.6±7.6% of PSTN neurons that project to the CEA also project to the PBN. In addition, 20.2±2.7% of PSTN neurons that project to the PBN also project to the NTS, and 38.1±9.7% of PSTN neurons that project to the NTS also project to the PBN. Furthermore, 35.0±12.5% of PSTN neurons that project to the CEA project to the NTS and 37.1±4.0% of PSTN neurons that project to the NTS project to the CEA. Finally, up to 15% of the neurons with dual projections to the PBN and CEA contained c-fos after refeeding; up to 18% of the neurons with dual projections to the PBN and NTS contained c-fos; and up to 30% of neurons with dual projections to the NTS and CEA contained c-fos. We conclude that a large number of PSTN neurons have more than one projection site within the brain, thus the PSTN appears to have the capability of simultaneously communicating information about appetite to several, major feeding-related sites within the brain, presumably to terminate feeding.

<![CDATA[SAT-606 Distribution of Beta Klotho Gene Expression in the Mouse Brain]]> Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as a critical endocrine factor for understanding the neurobiology of obesity, such as by the regulation thermogenesis, food preference, and metabolism, as well as for neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury. FGF21 is synthesized primarily by the liver and pancreas then crosses the blood brain barrier to exert its effects in the brain. However, the sites of FGF21 action in the brain is not well-defined. FGF21 action requires the activation of FGF receptor 1c as well as its obligate co-receptor beta klotho (KLB). In order to determine the sites of FGF21 action, we mapped the distribution of Klb mRNA by in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology. We labeled Klb distribution throughout the rostrocaudal axis of male wildtype mice by amplifying Klb hybridization using tyramine signal amplification and visualizing Klb hybridization using Cyanine 3 fluorescence. The resulting Klb signal appears as punctate red “dots,” and each Klb neuron may express low (1–4 dots), medium (5–9 dots), or high levels (10+ dots) of Klb hybridization. We then mapped individual Klb expressing neuron to the atlas plates provided by the Allen Brain Atlas in order to determine Klb distribution within the substructures of each brain region, which are defined by Nissl-based parcellations of cytoarchitectural boundaries. The distribution of Klb mRNA is widespread throughout the brain, and the brain regions analyzed thus far point to notable expression in the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and the cerebral cortex. The highest expression of Klb was localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus, which contained low and medium Klb-expressing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus while low expressing Klb neurons were seen in the paraventricular and dorsmedial hypothalamic nucleus. Hippocampal Klb expression was limited to the dorsal region and largely restricted to the pyramidal cell layer of the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, and CA1 but at low levels only. In the amygdala, low and medium Klb expressing cells were seen in lateral amygdala nucleus while low levels were observed in the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Cortical Klb expression analyzed thus far included low Klb-expressing neurons in the olfactory areas, including layers 2 and 3 of piriform cortex and nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract. These findings are consistent with the known roles of FGF21 in the central regulation of energy balance, but also implicates potentially wide-ranging effects of FGF21 such as in executive functions.

<![CDATA[SAT-598 Shared Signaling Profile Between Human MRAPα-Induced Human MC4R Constitutive Activity and Obesity-Associated Human MC4R Constitutive Activity]]> The human melanocortin 4 receptor (hMC4R) plays a critical role in the regulation of energy balance with more than 150 distinct human obesity-associated mutations. Most exhibit defective MC4R functionality but six have been reported to associate with constitutive activity. This represents a conundrum since a lean phenotype is expected for enhanced MC4R signaling. Human melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein alpha (hMRAPα) induces hMC4R constitutive activity in transfected HEK293 cells (1,2). We do not know whether the hMRAPα-induced gain-in-function for hMC4R would cause, or prevent, obesity because of this conundrum. Here, we hypothesize that wild-type hMC4R, obesity-associated constitutively active hMC4R and hMRAPα-induced constitutive active hMC4R can exist in distinct conformational states and elicit distinct signaling profiles. To test this, we compared transiently expressed HA-hMC4R in HEK293 cells for basal and agonist activation for adenylyl cyclase, Cre driven β-galactosidase reporter transcription, and receptor protein expression. Six previously reported obesity-associated hMC4R constitutively active variants were compared with two hMC4R constitutively active mutations not associated with obesity, two hMC4R variants associated with protection from development of obesity, five non-constitutively active hMC4R mutations associated with obesity, hMRAPα co-expressed with hMC4R, and wild-type hMC4R. Our data confirm hMC4R constitutive activity coupling to both adenylyl cyclase and Cre β-galactosidase reporter for only two hMC4R variants associated with obesity (H76R & L250Q), one hMC4R mutation (H158R) not associated with obesity, and hMRAPα co-expressed with hMC4R. We show α-MSH stimulated concentration curves for wild-type hMC4R, H76R, L250Q & H158R hMC4R variants and hMRAPα co-expressed with hMC4R coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Surprisingly, out of these, only wild-type hMC4R and H158R hMC4R variant exhibited α-MSH-stimulated Cre β-galactosidase reporter concentration curves. Western blotting and ELISA showed ~70% reduced cell surface and total receptor protein expression for hMC4R co-expressed with hMRAPα and obesity-associated constitutively active hMC4R variants, compared to wild-type hMC4R. To summarize, two constitutively active hMC4R variants (H76R and L250Q) associated with obesity, and hMC4R co-expressed with hMRAPα, share a signaling profile comprising protein expression and α-MSH stimulated functional coupling to adenylyl cyclase and Cre-reporter gene expression. We conclude (1) if hMC4R is co-expressed with hMRAPα in vivo it would likely contribute to human obesity, and (2) obesity-associated constitutively active hMC4R variants exhibit a signaling anomaly that may underpin development of anti-obesity therapeutics.

1. Kay EI, et al. J Mol Endocrinol. 2013;50:203-215.

2. Kay EI, et al. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(10):e0140320.

<![CDATA[SAT-595 Early Weight Gain Impact onto the Arcuate Leptin Receptor Expressing Neurons Activity During Development]]> The arcuate nucleus (ARH) is considered the main mediator of the effects of leptin on energy homeostasis, as well, part of the hypothalamic circuitry through which the sex steroids mediate the ovulatory cycle and therefore reproduction. While it is known that aging influences synaptic plasticity of ARH neurons, the effects of increased weight gain early in life onto in the activity of ARH neurons are still poorly understood. In order to demonstrate whether prepubertal adiposity gain is able to modulate the synaptic transmission in leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing cells of the ARH, we employed a postnatal over-nutrition model by raising mice in small litters (SL), while control mice were maintained in regular litters (6-8 pups per litter). The spontaneous currents of LepR-expressing neurons in the ARH were measured by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in hypothalamic slices obtained from prepubertal, pubertal and adult female LepR-reporter mice. As expected, mice raised in SL exhibited increased body weight compared to control mice at prepubertal and pubertal stage (prepubertal, t(59) = 6.9, P < 0.001; pubertal, t(59) = 5.3, P < 0.001), despite no difference at adult age (t(59) = 1.5, P = 0.4). By evaluating ARH neuronal activity we observed an increased average of excitatory and inhibitory currents frequency during development, in both control females (sEPSC: F(2, 46)= 17.76, P< 0.0001, sIPSC: F(2, 21)= 4.064, P= 0.0322) and in mice raised in SL (sEPSC: F(2, 49)= 27.76, P< 0.0001, sIPSC: F(2, 19)= 6.714, P= 0.0062). However, SL and control mice exhibited similar sEPSC amplitudes at all stages of development. A significant interaction between litter size and excitatory transmission frequency onto LepR-expressing cells were noted at the pubertal and adult stages (F(2, 95)= 3.164, P= 0.046), despite no changes in the amplitudes of these signals (interaction: F(2, 95) = 0.1516, P= 0.8596; age: F(2, 95) = 0.9961, P= 0.3731; litter size: F(1, 95) = 0.076, P= 0.7832). By evaluating the inhibitory transmission to ARH LepR-expressing neurons, no significant interaction between litter size and inhibitory transmission frequency were observed (F(2, 40) = 0.09271, P= 0.9117). However, the average sIPSC amplitude were significantly reduced in the ARH cells recorded from mice raised in SL, when compared to the control group (F(2, 42) = 22.86, P< 0.0001), despite no identifiable interaction between litter size and inhibitory transmission (F(2, 42) = 0.6619, P= 0.5212). Taken together our results suggest that early weight gain influences the excitatory transmission pattern in LepR-expressing neurons by increasing presynaptic excitatory inputs and suppressing postsynaptically transmission to ARH neurons.

<![CDATA[SAT-593 Sex-Specific Modifications in MicroRNAs Contained in Exosomes of Astrocytes in Response to Palmitic Acid]]> Communication between astrocytes and neurons is fundamental for correct functioning of the brain, in both physiological and pathophysiological situations. It is clear that astrocytes play an active role in metabolic control, but much is yet to be learned regarding how these glial cells and the neurons involved in energy intake/expenditure communicate to regulate energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that miRNAs contained in exosomes are an important means of cross-talk between these cells. Our objectives here were to determine whether the miRNA content of exosomes released by hypothalamic astrocytes changes in function of nutrient signals and if these signals are similar between males and females. To this end, primary hypothalamic astrocyte cultures were prepared from 2-day old male and female mice, using a standard protocol, and treated with palmitic acid (PA, 0.5 mM) or vehicle for 24 hours. The exosomes secreted into the culture media were purified and next generation sequencing analysis of the miRNAs contained in these microvesicles performed. Over 200 known miRNAs were identified in the samples. Heat map analysis of the 50 miRNAs most highly expressed across all samples showed significant differences based on sex and PA exposure, as well as differential changes between sexes in response to PA. Of the 25 most highly expressed miRNAs, 24 were significantly different between males and females (Benjamini-Hochberg FDR corrected p-values, between p<0.05 and p<0.0001). In response to PA, 190 miRNAs changed significantly in female astrocytes, but only 92 in male astrocytes; hence, after exposure to PA, 59 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed in exosomes of male and female astrocytes. Gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that modifications in the miRNAs identified here could be related to biological processes such as response to cell injury, as might be expected, but also protein polymerization, receptor trafficking, intracellular signaling, microtubule polymerization, vasodilation, and cytoskeleton organization. Our results suggest that astrocytes communicate changes in nutrient availability to other cell types through miRNAs. Verification and determination of the specific responses to the modification in these miRNAs are now necessary.

<![CDATA[SAT-607 The Vagus Nerve and the Hypothalamus Mediate Different Aspects of the Anorectic Effects of PYY3-36]]>


Background: Drugs that safely promote weight loss are required to treat the obesity crisis. The gut hormone peptide YY 3-36 (PYY

) is secreted post-prandially to suppress appetite via the Y2 receptor (Y2R). However, it is unclear whether PYY

acts directly on the Y2R in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) or the afferent vagus nerve to inhibit food intake. Understanding the pathways by which PYY

mediates its anorectic effects may facilitate the therapeutic targeting of this system.

Methods: Y2R knockdown in the ARC (ARC-Y2R-KD) was achieved by stereotactic injection of Cre-expressing adeno-associated virus (AAV-Cre) in Y2R-flox C57Bl/6 mice. Y2R KD in the vagus was achieved by bilateral microinjection of AAV-Cre into the nodose ganglia (NG), where the cell bodies of vagal afferents reside. An alternative germline model of sensory nerve Y2R knockdown was generated using Nav1.8-Cre mice crossed with the Y2R-flox strain (Nav1.8-Y2R-KD). Feeding behaviour over 10 days in metabolic cages and the effects of endogenously released (after oral gavage of a nutrient bolus) or exogenously-administered PYY

were investigated.

Results: NG-Y2R-KD animals had 60% reduction in NG Y2R mRNA but remained responsive to cholecystokinin, a positive control of vagal functionality. This is the first example of receptor specific adult vagal deafferentation in mice. The Nav1.8-Y2R-KD model achieved 30% receptor KD. Feeding patterns in the ARC-Y2R-KD and NG-Y2R-KD groups were highly different from their controls, with smaller, faster meals in the KD groups. The anorectic effects (at the next meal) of endogenous PYY

were attenuated in NG-Y2R-KD. Low dose exogenous PYY

at 5 µg/kg significantly reduced 2h post injection food intake (FI) in the control groups (n=8; P=0.045) but this was abrogated in the NG-Y2R-KD group. This pattern was mirrored in the Nav1.8-Y2R-KD model: low dose PYY

significantly reduced FI 1h post-IP compared to vehicle in controls (-0.19±0.05 g; P =0.036; n=8) but not in the Nav1.8-Y2R-KD (-0.004±0.111 g; n=3). Peripherally-administered PYY

at a high dose (30 µg/kg) decreased FI in all groups, including ARC-Y2R-KD.

Summary: These results suggest that endogenous PYY

modulates meal patterning. The vagus nerve mediates physiological PYY

signalling but alternative pathways, not exclusively via the ARC, may be more important in mediating its pharmacological effects. This is relevant for the design of more effective weight loss agents.

<![CDATA[SAT-597 Hypothalamic ESR1 Gene Knockdown Elicits Intermittent Decrement in Postprandial Energy Expenditure Associated with Obesity Onset in Female Rhesus Monkeys]]> <![CDATA[SAT-604 The Role of the Focal Adhesion Kinase Family in Leptin Receptor Signaling]]> <![CDATA[SAT-596 POMC Expression in GABAergic Neurons Suppresses NPY Overexpression and Restores Food Intake in Obese Mice]]> DMH-NPY pathway. ]]> <![CDATA[SAT-602 Hypothalamic P75 Neurotrophin Receptor Regulates Homeostatic Feeding and Food Anticipation]]> <![CDATA[SAT-603 Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Antagonists Stimulate Feeding in Mice]]> <![CDATA[SAT-601 Development of a Protocol for Stellate and Celiac Ganglia Dissection for Characterization of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Protein and Receptor Expression in Male and Female Mice Following Cold Acclimation]]>