ResearchPad - neurology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Iron Deficiency Anemia: An Unexpected Cause of an Acute Occipital Lobe Stroke in an Otherwise Healthy Young Woman]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14324 A 29-year-old caucasian woman who presented to the hospital with an acute onset of right eye visual disturbance and headache was found to have an acute left occipital lobe infarction. Past medical history was significant for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) secondary to menorrhagia. Her initial hemoglobin level was 7.8 G/DL, and her symptoms improved after iron and blood transfusions. Hypercoagulable studies were completed in the outpatient setting, and the results were unremarkable. Her acute stroke was most likely related to IDA as she had low cardiovascular risk factors along with a negative complete stroke workup.

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<![CDATA[Late-onset Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) Syndrome in a 63-year-old Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14258 Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) usually manifests in early life. Clinical hallmarks of the disease are mitochondrial myopathies, encephalopathy with stroke-like episodes, seizures, and lactic acidosis. It rarely manifests in late adulthood. Here we present the case of a 63-year-old female patient who developed recurrent stroke-like symptoms with typical resolving and remitting pattern of findings on imaging. Later on, it was confirmed as a case of MELAS upon genetic analysis.

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<![CDATA[Self-reported Use of K2/Spice for Appetite Stimulation: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14249 This case report explores the use of K2/Spice (synthetic cannabinoids) in a patient as an appetite stimulant. The effects of synthetic cannabinoids range widely but are more commonly known to suppress appetite in the cannabinoid-naive. Our patient was not cannabinoid- naive and had used cannabis before. Rat models have demonstrated results similar to those in this patient, who had prior tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure resulting in appetite stimulation rather than suppression when exposed to a synthetic cannabinoid. This is likely explained by other rat models that have shown long-term use of cannabis resulting in receptor downregulation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB-1).

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<![CDATA[Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion Presaging Bilateral Vocal Cord Paresis in an Infant]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14227 Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM) is a condition characterized by inappropriate adduction of the vocal cords during respiration. Usually seen in children and adolescents, PVCM presentation in infants is uncommon. Once thought to be a product of psychiatric disease, there are now several other proposed etiologies including irritant-induced and secondary to neurologic disease. Previous studies showed that the treatment of gastric reflux in this age group leads to a resolution of symptoms. We present a case of PVCM in an infant with hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. She received reflux therapy and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting with two revisions. Despite these interventions, she continued with symptoms and eventually progressed to bilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP). There is a paucity of literature describing PVCM as a precursor to VCP. Clinicians should be aware that in this population, refractory PVCM may serve as a warning sign for further vocal cord function decline.

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<![CDATA[Long-term outcomes of monascin – a novel dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ/nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor-2 agonist in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14156 Hematoma is the chief culprit in brain injury following intracranial cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Noninvasive hematoma clearance could be an option to prevent and alleviate early brain injury after ICH. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) facilitate removal of hematoma in ICH. Monascin acts as the natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR-γ agonist, and the long-term effects of monascin following ICH have not been elucidated.Methods:ICH in rats was induced by stereotactic, intrastriatal injection of type IV collagenase. Monascin was administered twice daily by gastric perfusion for 14 days after ICH induction. Long-term neurological scores (T maze, Garcia scales, rotor rod test, and Morris water maze), hematoma volume, as well as iron overload around hematoma and brain atrophy were evaluated at 7, 14, and 28 days after ICH.Results:The results showed that monascin improved long-term neurological deficits, spatial memory performance, learning ability, and brain shrinkage after ICH. Monascin also reduced hematoma volume at 7 days and iron content at 7 and 14 days after ICH.Conclusion:PPAR γ and Nrf2 play a crucial role in hematoma clearance after ICH in rat. As a dual agonist of PPAR γ and Nrf2, monascin improved long-term outcomes by facilitating hematoma clearance, and by attenuating iron overload and brain atrophy after experimental ICH. ]]> <![CDATA[Non-motor Clinical and Biomarker Predictors Enable High Cross-Validated Accuracy Detection of Early PD but Lesser Cross-Validated Accuracy Detection of Scans Without Evidence of Dopaminergic Deficit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14151 Background: Early stage (preclinical) detection of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains challenged yet is crucial to both differentiate it from other disorders and facilitate timely administration of neuroprotective treatment as it becomes available.

Objective: In a cross-validation paradigm, this work focused on two binary predictive probability analyses: classification of early PD vs. controls and classification of early PD vs. SWEDD (scans without evidence of dopamine deficit). It was hypothesized that five distinct model types using combined non-motor and biomarker features would distinguish early PD from controls with > 80% cross-validated (CV) accuracy, but that the diverse nature of the SWEDD category would reduce early PD vs. SWEDD CV classification accuracy and alter model-based feature selection.

Methods: Cross-sectional, baseline data was acquired from the Parkinson's Progressive Markers Initiative (PPMI). Logistic regression, general additive (GAM), decision tree, random forest and XGBoost models were fitted using non-motor clinical and biomarker features. Randomized train and test data partitions were created. Model classification CV performance was compared using the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and the Kappa statistic.

Results: All five models achieved >0.80 AUC CV accuracy to distinguish early PD from controls. The GAM (CV AUC 0.928, sensitivity 0.898, specificity 0.897) and XGBoost (CV AUC 0.923, sensitivity 0.875, specificity 0.897) models were the top classifiers. Performance across all models was consistently lower in the early PD/SWEDD analyses, where the highest performing models were XGBoost (CV AUC 0.863, sensitivity 0.905, specificity 0.748) and random forest (CV AUC 0.822, sensitivity 0.809, specificity 0.721). XGBoost detection of non-PD SWEDD matched 1–2 years curated diagnoses in 81.25% (13/16) cases. In both early PD/control and early PD/SWEDD analyses, and across all models, hyposmia was the single most important feature to classification; rapid eye movement behavior disorder (questionnaire) was the next most commonly high ranked feature. Alpha-synuclein was a feature of import to early PD/control but not early PD/SWEDD classification and the Epworth Sleepiness scale was antithetically important to the latter but not former.

Interpretation: Non-motor clinical and biomarker variables enable high CV discrimination of early PD vs. controls but are less effective discriminating early PD from SWEDD.

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<![CDATA[Sleep Spindles and Fragmented Sleep as Prodromal Markers in a Preclinical Model of LRRK2-G2019S Parkinson's Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14139 Sleep disturbances co-occur with and precede the onset of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated sleep fragmentation and thalamocortical sleep spindles in mice expressing the p.G2019S mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene, one of the most common genetic forms of PD. Thalamocortical sleep spindles are oscillatory events that occur during slow-wave sleep that are involved in memory consolidation. We acquired data from electrocorticography, sleep behavioral measures, and a rotarod-based motor enrichment task in 28 LRRK2-G2019S knock-in mice and 27 wild-type controls (8–10 month-old males). Sleep was more fragmented in LRRK2-G2019S mice; sleep bouts were shorter and more numerous, even though total sleep time was similar to controls. LRRK2-G2019S animals expressed more sleep spindles, and individual spindles were longer in duration than in controls. We then chronically administered the LRRK2-inhibitor MLi-2 in-diet to n = 12 LRRK2-G2019S and n = 15 wild-type mice for a within-subject analysis of the effects of kinase inhibition on sleep behavior and physiology. Treatment with MLi-2 did not impact these measures. The data indicate that the LRRK2-G2019S mutation could lead to reduced sleep quality and altered sleep spindle physiology. This suggests that sleep spindles in LRRK2-G2019S animals could serve as biomarkers for underlying alterations in sleep networks resulting from the LRRK2-G2019S mutation, and further evaluation in human LRRK2-G2019S carriers is therefore warranted.

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<![CDATA[Validation of the RUDAS for the Identification of Dementia in Illiterate and Low-Educated Older Adults in Lima, Peru]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14128 Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Peruvian version of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS-PE) in discriminating between controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in an illiterate population with low-levels of education.

Methods: We compared the cognitive performance of 187 elderly subjects who were illiterate (controls n = 60; MCI n = 64; dementia n = 63). Neuropsychological measures included the RUDAS-PE, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), INECO Frontal Screening (IFS), and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). The results were compared to a neuropsychological evaluation (gold standard), including use of Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores.

Results: We found a Cronbach's alpha was 0.65; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.79 (p < 0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the RUDAS to discriminate dementia from MCI was 98.0% with an optimal cut-off <19 (sensitivity 95%, specificity 97%); whereas, to differentiate MCI and controls was 98.0% with an optimal cut-off <23 (sensitivity 89%, specificity 93%).

Conclusions: Based on its excellent psychometric properties, we find the RUDAS-PE suitable to aid in the opportune detection of dementia in a geriatric illiterate population with low-levels of education.

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<![CDATA[Patient Perspectives on the Therapeutic Profile of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A in Spasticity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14056 Background: Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) injections are first-line treatment for adult spasticity. Prior patient surveys have reported that BoNT-A treatment improves quality of life but that symptoms usually recur before the next injection. We aimed to explore, in-depth, patient perceptions of the impact of spasticity and the waning of BoNT-A therapeutic effects.

Methods: An internet-based survey was conducted through Carenity, an online patient community, from May to September 2019 in France, Germany, Italy, UK and USA. Eligible respondents were adult patients with spasticity due to stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) or spinal cord injury (SCI) who had ≥2 previous BoNT-A injections.

Results: Two hundred and ten respondents (mean 47.2 years) met screening criteria and had their responses analyzed. Overall, 43% of respondents had spasticity due to stroke, 30% due to TBI and 27% due to SCI. The mean [95% CI] injection frequency for spasticity management was 3.6 [3.4–3.7] injections/year. Respondents described the time profile of their response to BoNT-A. The mean reported onset of therapeutic effect was 12.9 [12.1–13.7] days and the mean time to peak effect was 5.0 [4.7–5.4] weeks. Symptom re-emergence between injections was common (83%); the time from injection to symptom re-emergence was 89.4 [86.3–92.4] days. Muscle spasms usually re-emerge first (64%), followed by muscle stiffness or rigidity (40%), and limb pain (20%). Over half (52%) of respondents said they had lost their self-confidence, 46% experienced depression and 41% experienced a lack of sleep due to their spasticity symptoms in the past 12 months. Following a report of symptom re-emergence, the most common management approaches were to add adjunctive treatments (36%), increase the BoNT-A dose (28%), and wait for the next injection (27%). Seventy two percentage of respondents said they would like a longer lasting BoNT-A treatment.

Conclusions: Patients with spasticity can expect a characteristic profile of BoNT-A effects, namely time lag to onset and peak effect followed by a gradual decline in the symptomatic benefits. Symptom re-emergence is common and has significant impact on quality of life. Greater patient/clinician awareness of this therapeutic profile should lead to better level of overall satisfaction with treatment, informed therapeutic discussions and treatment schedule planning.

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<![CDATA[Dopamine Buffering Capacity Imaging: A Pharmacodynamic fMRI Method for Staging Parkinson Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14010 We propose a novel pharmacological fMRI (phMRI) method for objectively quantifying disease severity in Parkinson disease (PD). It is based on the clinical observation that the benefit from a dose of levodopa wears off more quickly as PD progresses. Biologically this has been thought to represent decreased buffering capacity for dopamine as nigrostriatal cells die. Buffering capacity has been modeled based on clinical effects, but clinical measurements are influenced by confounding factors. The new method proposes to measure the effect objectively based on the timing of the known response of several brain regions to exogenous levodopa. Such responses are robust and can be quantified using perfusion MRI. Here we present simulation studies based on published clinical dose-response data and an intravenous levodopa infusion. Standard pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic methods were used to model the response. Then the effect site rate constant ke was estimated from simulated response data plus Gaussian noise. Predicted time – effect curves sampled at times consistent with phMRI differ substantially based on clinical severity. Estimated ke from noisy input data was recovered with good accuracy. These simulation results support the feasibility of levodopa phMRI hysteresis mapping to measure the severity of dopamine denervation objectively and simultaneously in all brain regions with a robust imaging response to exogenous levodopa.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of Combined Immunoglobulin and Glucocorticoid Treatments in a Patient With Stiff Limb Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13989 Stiff limb syndrome (SLS) is a rare autoimmune-related central nervous system disorder, resulting in stiffness and spasms of limbs since onset with rare involvement of the truncal muscles. However, SLS patients will gain notable effects by appropriate therapy focusing on symptomatic treatment and immunotherapy. We reported on a 55-year-old female who showed typical painful spasms in both lower limbs and abduction of the right eyeball that partially responded to low-dose diazepam and had high-titer anti–glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibody. Electromyography (EMG) only showed continuous motor unit activity (CMUA) in the anterior tibialis and right triceps. Eventually, our patient was diagnosed with SLS and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and glucocorticoid combined simultaneously. She obtained notable effects. We also review and summarize the current literature on clinical characteristics, coexisting disease, treatment, and outcome of 40 patients with SLS. We hope that this report will provide a basis for further understanding of SLS and promote the formation of more advanced diagnosis and treatment processes.

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<![CDATA[Neoplastic and Non-neoplastic Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in CT Brain Scans: Machine Learning-Based Prediction Using Radiomic Image Features]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13950 Background: Early differentiation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can be difficult in initial radiological evaluation, especially for extensive ICHs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a machine learning-based prediction of etiology for acute ICHs based on quantitative radiomic image features extracted from initial non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) brain scans.

Methods: The analysis included NECT brain scans from 77 patients with acute ICH (n = 50 non-neoplastic, n = 27 neoplastic). Radiomic features including shape, histogram, and texture markers were extracted from non-, wavelet-, and log-sigma-filtered images using regions of interest of ICH and perihematomal edema (PHE). Six thousand and ninety quantitative predictors were evaluated utilizing random forest algorithms with five-fold model-external cross-validation. Model stability was assessed through comparative analysis of 10 randomly drawn cross-validation sets. Classifier performance was compared with predictions of two radiologists employing the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC).

Results: The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of the test sets for predicting neoplastic vs. non-neoplastic ICHs was 0.89 [95% CI (0.70; 0.99); P < 0.001], and specificities and sensitivities reached >80%. Compared to the radiologists' predictions, the machine learning algorithm yielded equal or superior results for all evaluated metrics. The MCC of the proposed algorithm at its optimal operating point (0.69) was significantly higher than the MCC of the radiologist readers (0.54); P = 0.01.

Conclusion: Evaluating quantitative features of acute NECT images in a machine learning algorithm provided high discriminatory power in predicting non-neoplastic vs. neoplastic ICHs. Utilized in the clinical routine, the proposed approach could improve patient care at low risk and costs.

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<![CDATA[Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provide Neuroprotection by Regulating Heat Stroke-Induced Brain Inflammation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13919 Heat stroke (HS) is the most acute type of heat illness accompanied with serious central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Despite the pathological process being clearly studied, effective treatment is deficient. Currently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects as there are no old ones. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of MSCs against HS-induced CNS injury. HS in rat models was induced by a high-temperature environment and treated with MSCs via the tail vein. The results demonstrated that MSC injection significantly reduced the mortality and inhibited the circulation inflammatory response. Moreover, the HS-induced neurological deficit and neuronic damage of the hippocampus were significantly ameliorated by MSC administration. In addition, MSC administration significantly restored astrocytes and inhibited cerebral inflammatory response. These results indicate that MSC infusion has therapeutic effects in HS of rats by regulating the circulation and cerebral inflammatory response. Moreover, astrocytes increased in MSC-treated HS rats when compared with the untreated ones. This may suggest a potential mechanism for HS prevention and therapy through MSC administration.

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<![CDATA[Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13906 The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a profound impact on healthcare systems around the world. The emergency department (ED) in particular has become the frontline for the identification and care of these patients. While its effects on respiratory symptoms are well recognized, neurologic manifestations have been rarer. We report the case of a patient who presented in cardiac arrest with the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The patient was found to have subarachnoid hemorrhage and later tested positive for COVID-19.

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<![CDATA[The effects of age and sex on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia: Findings from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13860 Recently emerging evidence indicates accelerated age-related changes in the structure and function of the brain in schizophrenia, raising a question about its potential consequences on cognitive function. Using a large sample of schizophrenia patients and controls and a battery of tasks across multiple cognitive domains, we examined whether patients show accelerated age-related decline in cognition and whether an age-related effect differ between females and males. We utilized data of 1,415 schizophrenia patients and 1,062 healthy community collected by the second phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-2). A battery of cognitive tasks included the Letter-Number Span Task, two forms of the Continuous Performance Test, the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, the Penn Emotion Identification Test and the Penn Facial Memory Test. The effect of age and gender on cognitive performance was examined with a general linear model. We observed age-related changes on most cognitive measures, which was similar between males and females. Compared to controls, patients showed greater deterioration in performance on attention/vigilance and greater slowness of processing social information with increasing age. However, controls showed greater age-related changes in working memory and verbal memory compared to patients. Age-related changes (η2p of 0.001 to .008) were much smaller than between-group differences (η2p of 0.005 to .037). This study found that patients showed continued decline of cognition on some domains but stable impairment or even less decline on other domains with increasing age. These findings indicate that age-related changes in cognition in schizophrenia are subtle and not uniform across multiple cognitive domains.

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<![CDATA[Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the trail-making test in older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13819 The trail-making test (TMT) is a popular neuropsychological test, which is used extensively to measure cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. Behavioural performance on the TMT has been investigated in older populations, but there is limited research on task-related brain activity in older adults. The current study administered a naturalistic version of the TMT to a healthy older-aged population in an MRI environment using a novel, MRI-compatible tablet. Functional MRI was conducted during task completion, allowing characterization of the brain activity associated with the TMT. Performance on the TMT was evaluated using number of errors and seconds per completion of each link. Results are reported for 36 cognitively healthy older adults between the ages of 52 and 85. Task-related activation was observed in extensive regions of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes as well as key motor areas. Increased age was associated with reduced brain activity and worse task performance. Specifically, older age was correlated with decreased task-related activity in the bilateral occipital, temporal and parietal lobes. These results suggest that healthy older aging significantly affects brain function during the TMT, which consequently may result in performance decrements. The current study reveals the brain activation patterns underlying TMT performance in a healthy older aging population, which functions as an important, clinically-relevant control to compare to pathological aging in future investigations.

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<![CDATA[Endovascular Neuromodulation: Safety Profile and Future Directions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13084 Endovascular neuromodulation is an emerging technology that represents a synthesis between interventional neurology and neural engineering. The prototypical endovascular neural interface is the StentrodeTM, a stent-electrode array which can be implanted into the superior sagittal sinus via percutaneous catheter venography, and transmits signals through a transvenous lead to a receiver located subcutaneously in the chest. Whilst the StentrodeTM has been conceptually validated in ovine models, questions remain about the long term viability and safety of this device in human recipients. Although technical precedence for venous sinus stenting already exists in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, long term implantation of a lead within the intracranial veins has never been previously achieved. Contrastingly, transvenous leads have been successfully employed for decades in the setting of implantable cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators. In the current absence of human data on the StentrodeTM, the literature on these structurally comparable devices provides valuable lessons that can be translated to the setting of endovascular neuromodulation. This review will explore this literature in order to understand the potential risks of the StentrodeTM and define avenues where further research and development are necessary in order to optimize this device for human application.

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<![CDATA[Shifting Valproic Acid to Levetiracetam in Women of Childbearing Age With Epilepsy: A Retrospective Investigation and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13072 Objective: Valproic acid is the most high-risk teratogenic antiepileptic drug, and it may lead to fetal major congenital malformations. However, it is still used in women of childbearing age with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to report our experience of discontinuing or lowering valproic acid by adding levetiracetam, a low-risk teratogenic antiepileptic drug.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of childbearing age female patients with epilepsy who were treated with valproic acid initially and then switched to levetiracetam. The clinical profiles were recorded. The primary outcome was successful switching, which was defined as a decrease in the daily valproic acid dosage, after levetiracetam had been added.

Results: Twenty-four female patients were enrolled (median age 22 years). The successful switching rate was 83.3% (20/24), and 55% (11/20) discontinued valproic acid after levetiracetam had been added. There were no significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful groups in etiology, electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Pharmacoresistant to levetiracetam was much higher in the unsuccessful group (45 vs. 100%). The median switching duration was 19.5 months in the successful group. There were improvements in metrorrhagia and alopecia in all of the patients in the successful group after valproic acid had been tapered.

Conclusions: Our experience supports switching valproic acid to levetiracetam in childbearing age women with epilepsy as an effective strategy to lower the teratogenic rate and adverse effects. A long switching period was noted in this study. We suggest starting early in childbearing age women with epilepsy.

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<![CDATA[Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Total Occlusion in the Subclavian Artery: A Review of 23 Cases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13064 Objectives and Background: To review technical details and long-term outcomes of endovascular treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the subclavian artery.

Methods: From January 2010 to May 2017, 23 patients (17 male; median age, 65 years) underwent endovascular treatment for CTO of the subclavian artery. All lesions had been diagnosed by duplex scanning or computed tomography angiography before treatment. Sixteen (70.0%) patients had symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency, 6 (26.1%) patients had symptoms of arm ischemia, and 2 (8.7%) patients were asymptomatic. Duplex scanning revealed that 16 patients had grade 3 and 7 patients had grade 2 steal blood flow. After recanalization, lesions were treated by stenting. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after endovascular treatment, and annually thereafter.

Results: The overall technical success rate was 91.3% (21/23). The successful recanalization rate of antegrade and retrograde approaches were 68.2% (15/22) and 75.0% (6/8), respectively. The rate of clinical symptom remission was 95.2% (20/21) after treatment. No perioperative death or permanent neurological deficits were observed. One patient had arterial dissection treated by covered stent. The estimate cumulative primary and secondary patency rates at 5 years were 74.6 and 78.8%, respectively.

Conclusion: Endovascular treatment is a feasible and safe treatment for CTO lesions of the subclavian artery.

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<![CDATA[Dose-Dependent Transient Decrease of Impedances by Deep Intracochlear Injection of Triamcinolone With a Cochlear Catheter Prior to Cochlear Implantation–1 Year Data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12881 Administration of low-dose steroids via a catheter inserted into the cochlea to apply pharmaceuticals to more apical regions was previously shown not to be sufficient for long-term reduction of electrode impedances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intra-cochlear high-dose triamcinolone application on impedances in cochlear implant recipients. Patients received low-dose (4 mg/ml; n = 5) or high-dose (20 mg/ml; n = 5) triamcinolone via a cochlear catheter just prior to the insertion of a Med-El Flex28 electrode. Impedances were measured at defined time points from intra-operatively up to 12 months after first fitting and retrospectively compared with a control group (no steroid application). Patients who received a high-dose application of crystalloid triamcinolone showed significantly reduced impedances in the first fitting measurements compared to the control group. This effect was no longer detectable in patients of the low-dose group at that time. Looking at the different regions of the electrode, the impedance values were lowered significantly only at the basal and medial contacts. At later time points, there were no significant differences between any of the groups. This is the first study to demonstrate a dose-dependent reduction of impedances by deep intra-cochlear injection of triamcinolone in cochlear implant patients. With a high-dose, single application of triamcinolone using a cochlear catheter prior to insertion of a Flex28 electrode, the impedances can be significantly reduced up to and including the first fitting. Although the effect was longer lasting than when compared to low-dose triamcinolone, it was also not permanent.

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