ResearchPad - neuronal-excitability https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Shunting Inhibition Improves Synchronization in Heterogeneous Inhibitory Interneuronal Networks with Type 1 Excitability Whereas Hyperpolarizing Inhibition Is Better for Type 2 Excitability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10610 All-to-all homogeneous networks of inhibitory neurons synchronize completely under the right conditions; however, many modeling studies have shown that biological levels of heterogeneity disrupt synchrony. Our fundamental scientific question is “how can neurons maintain partial synchrony in the presence of heterogeneity and noise?” A particular subset of strongly interconnected interneurons, the PV+ fast-spiking (FS) basket neurons, are strongly implicated in γ oscillations and in phase locking of nested γ oscillations to theta. Their excitability type apparently varies between brain regions: in CA1 and the dentate gyrus they have type 1 excitability, meaning that they can fire arbitrarily slowly, whereas in the striatum and cortex they have type 2 excitability, meaning that there is a frequency thresh old below which they cannot sustain repetitive firing. We constrained the models to study the effect of excitability type (more precisely bifurcation type) in isolation from all other factors. We use sparsely connected, heterogeneous, noisy networks with synaptic delays to show that synchronization properties, namely the resistance to suppression and the strength of theta phase to γ amplitude coupling, are strongly dependent on the pairing of excitability type with the type of inhibition. Shunting inhibition performs better for type 1 and hyperpolarizing inhibition for type 2. γ Oscillations and their nesting within theta oscillations are thought to subserve cognitive functions like memory encoding and recall; therefore, it is important to understand the contribution of intrinsic properties to these rhythms.

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<![CDATA[Biophysical Basis of Alpha Rhythm Disruption in Alzheimer’s Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8069 Occipital alpha is a prominent rhythm (∼10 Hz) detected in electroencephalography (EEG) during wakeful relaxation with closed eyes. The rhythm is generated by a subclass of thalamic pacemaker cells that burst at the alpha frequency, orchestrated by the interplay of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN) and calcium channels in response to elevated levels of ambient acetylcholine (ACh). These oscillations are known to have a lower peak frequency and coherence in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interestingly, calcium signaling, HCN channel expression and ACh signaling, crucial for orchestrating the alpha rhythm, are also known to be aberrational in AD. In a biophysically detailed network model of the thalamic circuit, we investigate the changes in molecular signaling and the causal relationships between them that lead to a disrupted thalamic alpha in AD. Our simulations show that lowered HCN expression leads to a slower thalamic alpha, which can be rescued by increasing ACh levels, a common therapeutic target of AD drugs. However, this rescue is possible only over a limited range of reduced HCN expression. The model predicts that lowered HCN expression can modify the network activity in the thalamic circuit leading to increased GABA release in the thalamus and disrupt the calcium homeostasis. The changes in calcium signaling make the network more susceptible to noise, causing a loss in rhythmic activity. Based on our results, we propose that reduced frequency and coherence of the occipital alpha rhythm seen in AD may result from downregulated HCN expression, rather than modified cholinergic signaling.

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<![CDATA[Chronic Activation of Gp1 mGluRs Leads to Distinct Refinement of Neural Network Activity through Non-Canonical p53 and Akt Signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8065 Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (Gp1 mGluRs), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are critical regulators for neuronal and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulated Gp1 mGluR signaling is observed with various neurologic disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is well established that acute activation of Gp1 mGluRs leads to elevation of neuronal intrinsic excitability and long-term synaptic depression. However, it remains unknown how chronic activation of Gp1 mGluRs can affect neural activity and what molecular mechanisms might be involved. In the current study, we employed a multielectrode array (MEA) recording system to evaluate neural network activity of primary mouse cortical neuron cultures. We demonstrated that chronic activation of Gp1 mGluRs leads to elevation of spontaneous spike frequency while burst activity and cross-electrode synchronization are maintained at the baseline. We further showed that these neural network properties are achieved through proteasomal degradation of Akt that is dependent on the tumor suppressor p53. Genetically knocking down p53 disrupts the elevation of spontaneous spike frequency and alters the burst activity and cross-electrode synchronization following chronic activation of Gp1 mGluRs. Importantly, these deficits can be restored by pharmacologically inhibiting Akt to mimic inactivation of Akt mediated by p53. Together, our findings reveal the effects of chronic activation of Gp1 mGluRs on neural network activity and identify a unique signaling pathway involving p53 and Akt for these effects. Our data can provide insights into constitutively active Gp1 mGluR signaling observed in many neurologic and psychiatric disorders.

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<![CDATA[Propagating Activity in Neocortex, Mediated by Gap Junctions and Modulated by Extracellular Potassium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N979ce65e-e257-454f-9667-068464737f71

Abstract

Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in cortical networks are coupled by gap junctions, forming a syncytium that supports propagating epileptiform discharges, induced by 4-aminopyridine. It remains unclear, however, whether these propagating events occur under more natural states, without pharmacological blockade. In particular, we investigated whether propagation also happens when extracellular K+ rises, as is known to occur following intense network activity, such as during seizures. We examined how increasing [K+]o affects the likelihood of propagating activity away from a site of focal (200–400 μm) optogenetic activation of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Activity was recorded using a linear 16-electrode array placed along layer V of primary visual cortex. At baseline levels of [K+]o (3.5 mm), induced activity was recorded only within the illuminated area. However, when [K+]o was increased above a threshold level (50th percentile = 8.0 mm; interquartile range = 7.5–9.5 mm), time-locked, fast-spiking unit activity, indicative of parvalbumin-expressing interneuron firing, was also recorded outside the illuminated area, propagating at 59.1 mm/s. The propagating unit activity was unaffected by blockade of GABAergic synaptic transmission, but it was modulated by glutamatergic blockers, and was reduced, and in most cases prevented altogether, by pharmacological blockade of gap junctions, achieved by any of the following three different drugs: quinine, mefloquine, or carbenoxolone. Washout of quinine rapidly re-established the pattern of propagating activity. Computer simulations show qualitative differences between propagating discharges in high [K+]o and 4-aminopyridine, arising from differences in the electrotonic effects of these two manipulations. These interneuronal syncytial interactions are likely to affect the complex electrographic dynamics of seizures, once [K+]o is raised above this threshold level.

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<![CDATA[Extraretinal Spike Normalization in Retinal Ganglion Cell Axons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N92f187e4-0ba5-480d-a35a-41421c5a2bec

Abstract

Spike conduction velocity characteristically differs between myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Here we test whether spikes of myelinated and unmyelinated paths differ in other respects by measuring rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) spike duration in the intraretinal, unmyelinated nerve fiber layer and the extraretinal, myelinated optic nerve and optic chiasm. We find that rapid spike firing and illumination broaden spikes in intraretinal axons but not in extraretinal axons. RGC axons thus initiate spikes intraretinally and normalize spike duration extraretinally. Additionally, we analyze spikes that were recorded in a previous study of rhesus macaque retinogeniculate transmission and find that rapid spike firing does not broaden spikes in optic tract. The spike normalization we find reduces the number of spike properties that can change during RGC light responses. However, this is not because identical spikes fire in all axons. Instead, our recordings show that different subtypes of RGC generate axonal spikes of different durations and that the differences resemble spike duration increases that alter neurotransmitter release from other neurons. Moreover, previous studies have shown that RGC spikes of shorter duration can fire at higher maximum frequencies. These properties should facilitate signal transfer by different mechanisms at RGC synapses onto subcortical target neurons.

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<![CDATA[Proportional Downscaling of Glutamatergic Release Sites by the General Anesthetic Propofol at Drosophila Motor Nerve Terminals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc0336880-ed08-4635-a960-a7179c1caa22

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<![CDATA[LRIT3 is Required for Nyctalopin Expression and Normal ON and OFF Pathway Signaling in the Retina]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N29e0abcc-45e2-43a7-9998-c68ab13e737d

Abstract

The first retinal synapse, photoreceptor→bipolar cell (BC), is both anatomically and functionally complex. Within the same synaptic region, a change in presynaptic glutamate release is sensed by both ON BCs (DBCs) via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6), and OFF BCs (HBCs) via ionotropic glutamate receptors to establish parallel signaling pathways that preferentially encode light increments (ON) or decrements (OFF), respectively. The synaptic structural organization of ON and OFF-type BCs at the photoreceptor terminal differs. DBCs make an invaginating synapse that contains a diverse but incompletely understood complex of interacting proteins (signalplex). HBCs make primarily flat contacts that contain an apparent different set of proteins that is equally uncharacterized. LRIT3 is a synaptic protein known to be essential for ON pathway visual function. In both male and female mice, we demonstrate that LRIT3 interacts with and is required for expression of nyctalopin, and thus TRPM1 at all DBC dendritic tips, but DBC signalplex components are not required for LRIT3 expression. Using whole-cell and multielectrode array (MEA) electrophysiology and glutamate imaging, we demonstrate that the loss of LRIT3 impacts both ON and OFF signaling pathway function. Without LRIT3, excitatory input to type 1 BCs is reduced, as are the visually evoked responses of many OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We conclude that the absence of LRIT3 expression disrupts excitatory input to OFF BCs and, thus disrupts the normal function of OFF RGCs.

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<![CDATA[Hsc70 Ameliorates the Vesicle Recycling Defects Caused by Excess α-Synuclein at Synapses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne2ad10e1-59b4-428a-995d-887e5ac15bd1

α-Synuclein overexpression and aggregation are linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and several other neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to effects in the cell body, α-synuclein accumulation occurs at presynapses where the protein is normally localized. While it is generally agreed that excess α-synuclein impairs synaptic vesicle trafficking, the underlying mechanisms are unknown.

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<![CDATA[Differences in GluN2B-Containing NMDA Receptors Result in Distinct Long-Term Plasticity at Ipsilateral versus Contralateral Cortico-Striatal Synapses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2ee11dcc-c20b-4e1a-9b90-f34801cabca2

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<![CDATA[Familiarity Detection and Memory Consolidation in Cortical Assemblies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4d3c747b-ec97-49e4-b52a-a4a169fbd24f <![CDATA[Using a Semi-Automated Strategy to Develop Multi-Compartment Models That Predict Biophysical Properties of Interneuron-Specific 3 (IS3) Cells in Hippocampus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b034882463d7e66325be742

Abstract

Determining how intrinsic cellular properties govern and modulate neuronal input–output processing is a critical endeavor for understanding microcircuit functions in the brain. However, lack of cellular specifics and nonlinear interactions prevent experiments alone from achieving this. Building and using cellular models is essential in these efforts. We focus on uncovering the intrinsic properties of mus musculus hippocampal type 3 interneuron-specific (IS3) cells, a cell type that makes GABAergic synapses onto specific interneuron types, but not pyramidal cells. While IS3 cell morphology and synaptic output have been examined, their voltage-gated ion channel profile and distribution remain unknown. We combined whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and two-photon dendritic calcium imaging to examine IS3 cell membrane and dendritic properties. Using these data as a target reference, we developed a semi-automated strategy to obtain multi-compartment models for a cell type with unknown intrinsic properties. Our approach is based on generating populations of models to capture determined features of the experimental data, each of which possesses unique combinations of channel types and conductance values. From these populations, we chose models that most closely resembled the experimental data. We used these models to examine the impact of specific ion channel combinations on spike generation. Our models predict that fast delayed rectifier currents should be present in soma and proximal dendrites, and this is confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Further, without A-type potassium currents in the dendrites, spike generation is facilitated at more distal synaptic input locations. Our models will help to determine the functional role of IS3 cells in hippocampal microcircuits.

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<![CDATA[Specific Targeting of the Basolateral Amygdala to Projectionally Defined Pyramidal Neurons in Prelimbic and Infralimbic Cortex123]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afa7084463d7e29745ba9f1

Abstract

Adjacent prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) regions in the medial prefrontal cortex have distinct roles in emotional learning. A complete mechanistic understanding underlying this dichotomy remains unclear. Here we explored targeting of specific PL and IL neurons by the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a limbic structure pivotal in pain and fear processing. In mice, we used retrograde labeling, brain-slice recordings, and adenoviral optogenetics to dissect connectivity of ascending BLA input onto PL and IL neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) or the amygdala. We found differential targeting of BLA projections to PL and IL cortex. Activating BLA projections evoked excitatory and inhibitory responses in cortico-PAG (CP) neurons in layer 5 (L5) of both PL and IL cortex. However, all inhibitory responses were polysynaptic and monosynaptic BLA input was stronger to CP neurons in IL cortex. Conversely, the BLA preferentially targeted corticoamygdalar (CA) neurons in layer 2 (L2) of PL over IL cortex. We also reveal that BLA input is projection specific by showing preferential targeting of L5 CP neurons over neighboring L3/5 CA neurons in IL cortex. We conclude by showing that BLA input is laminar-specific by producing stronger excitatory responses CA neurons in L3/5 compared with L2 in IL cortex. Collectively, this study reveals differential targeting of the BLA to PL and IL cortex, which depends both on laminar location and projection target of cortical neurons. Overall, our findings should have important implications for understanding the processing of pain and fear input by the PL and IL cortex.

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