ResearchPad - neurosurgery https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Unilateral Hydrocephalus Due to Lateral Ventricle Colloid Cyst Treated by Neuroendoscopic Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10514 Colloid cysts (CCs) are rare brain tumors that cause nonspecific neurological signs associated with acute or chronic increased intracranial pressure. They are usually located in the third ventricle and rarely in the lateral ventricle. This is a report of an unusual case of CC located in the lateral ventricle. A 36-year-old male patient presented a story of progressive holocranial headache that would get worse with head mobilization and cough. Radiological analysis demonstrated enlargement of the right lateral ventricle due to a cyst blocking the right foramen of Monro. The patient underwent endoscopic neurosurgery and the cyst was totally resected. Histological evaluation diagnosed a CC. Postoperative images showed no cyst remaining and normalized ventricular size. The patient evolved with total improvement of the symptoms. Literature review shows that it is a very uncommon entity. Lateral ventricle CCs as a cause for unilateral hydrocephalus is a very rare entity. Neuroendoscopic approach is a first-line treatment option for this condition.

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<![CDATA[Resolution of Tonsillar Herniation and Syringomyelia Following Resection of a Large Anterior Frontal Parasagittal Meningioma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9453 Chiari I malformation is the herniation of cerebellar tonsils below the level of the foramen magnum due to congenital or acquired pathologies. Acquired Chiari I malformation (ACM) may occur secondary to space-occupying lesions (SOLs), such as intracranial tumors due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), and can be accompanied by syringomyelia. ACM and syringomyelia have been shown to resolve after resection of the SOL, without the need for adjuvant posterior fossa decompression. The vast majority of SOLs leading to ACM have been reported in the posterior fossa, thus exerting a direct mass effect on the cerebellum. Supratentorial SOLs leading to ACM are much less frequent but, when present, are most commonly parieto-occipital. We report a rare case of a large anterior left frontal, parasagittal meningioma causing ACM and syringomyelia. These findings resolved following the resection of the meningioma, with no further surgical intervention. Our case demonstrates that ACM can occur secondary to an anterior supratentorial mass and further supports the idea that decompression of the posterior fossa is not required for the resolution of intracranial tumor-associated ACM and syringomyelia.

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<![CDATA[Cervical Intradural Disc Herniation: Case Report and Operative Video]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5a5cdb33-3954-4e24-b773-dce389bcbcc1 Cervical intradural disc herniation (CIDH) is a rare presentation of an intradural disc herniation. We present a case of CIDH with associated surgical video depicting an anterior surgical approach to treatment. Patient presentation, relevant radiographic imaging, surgical exposure and technique, and cerebrospinal fluid leak complication and prevention are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Iatrogenic Direct Carotid-cavernous Fistula Following Mechanical Thrombectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N291c341e-9580-498a-97d1-8fd06b23ae53 A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins of the cavernous sinus. Iatrogenic CCFs have been described as potential complications following aneurysm coiling, balloon angioplasty, and transsphenoidal surgery. In this case report, we describe a rare case of an iatrogenic direct CCF following mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke. A 78-year-old female presented to an outside hospital with a new onset of right-sided weakness and aphasia and underwent emergency MT for a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The procedure was complicated by iatrogenic injury to the left cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA), which resulted in a direct high-flow CCF. The patient was transferred to our hospital and the fistula was closed with transarterial coils. Ten days later, she returned with diplopia and cranial nerve VI palsy due to residual pseudoaneurysm and was treated with a flow-diverting stent. On follow-up, the patient was neurologically intact and imaging showed no residual fistula. As the frequency of MTs performed for acute ischemic stroke continues to rise, neurointerventionalists should be aware of this potential rare complication and be prepared to manage patients who develop symptomatic CCF.

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<![CDATA[Covid-19 diffusion in a neurosurgical “clean” department: the asymptomatic Trojan horse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N10a94ff2-a73b-45a4-9247-989fff806de9 <![CDATA[Combined Posterior-Anterior Interbody Fusion in the Management of Traumatic Lumbosacral Dissociation: A Case Report and Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncdf08392-85ea-4128-bbcc-7581c2b65e94

Traumatic lumbosacral dissociation is a unique, but well-documented, phenomenon that generally stems from high-energy impact injuries to the lower lumbar spine. Patients typically present with complicated and multisystem injuries with wide-ranging neurological deficits below the level of trauma. This presents stark challenges regarding the diagnosis, management, and surgical correction technique utilized. In this study, we present the case of a 21-year-old, morbidly obese, male patient that presented after a traumatic motor vehicle accident with L5-S1 lumbosacroiliac dissociation, cauda equina syndrome, and left lower extremity monoplegia. The degree of disruption warranted a 360° approach, we opted for an anterior lumbar interbody fusion followed by a posterior, lumbar interbody, short segment fusion. We review the case and relevant literature of similar lumbosacral dissociation studies with their management options and outcomes. Due to the rare nature of these devastating injuries, there remains wide variability in their management, with a combination of open anterior and posterior approaches resulting in variable long-term outcomes. The management of these rare injuries will require appropriate consideration of the patient’s unique etiology, coexisting injuries, and radiological imaging in deciding surgical stabilization techniques.

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<![CDATA[The Optimal Surgical Approach to Intradural Spinal Tumors: Laminectomy or Hemilaminectomy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne40e387c-9059-422d-877f-b1922786c50c

Objective

Traditionally, laminectomy has been the preferred surgical approach for the resection of intradural spinal tumors. Recent trends towards minimally invasive techniques have generated interest in hemilaminectomy as an effective alternative surgical approach to resect spinal tumors. However, it remains unclear if the potential benefits of hemilaminectomies, used in other routine spinal procedures, apply to intradural spinal tumors. This report presents a six-year single institutional analysis of open resection of intradural tumors using laminectomies as compared to hemilaminectomies.

Methods

A single institution, multisurgeon, retrospective review of 52 patients undergoing resection of intradural spinal tumors over a six-year period was performed. Estimated blood loss, operative time, post-operative complications, length of stay, and post-operative clinical spinal instability were analyzed and compared between the two surgical techniques.

Results

The mean follow-up was 34 and 20 months for the laminectomy and hemilaminectomy groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in operative times between the two groups (hemilaminectomy: 250.13±76.44 minutes, laminectomy: 244.49±92.85 minutes; p=0.43). Similarly, there was no difference in overall estimated blood loss (hemilaminectomy: 125±74 cc, laminectomy: 256.05±320.8 cc; p=0.27) or mean hospital length of stay (hemilaminectomy: 4.00±2.12 days, laminectomy: 5.26±3.0 days; p=0.60). No patient in either surgical group had post-operative evidence of clinical spinal instability.

Conclusion

Hemilaminectomy is a viable approach for the resection of intradural spinal tumors, with similar rates of post-operative complications to laminectomy when using an open surgical approach. The laminectomy allows for bilateral exposure of the entire spinal canal and neural foramina; and continues to be the preferred method for resection of large tumors with complex morphology.

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<![CDATA[A Patient with an Intradural Tumor: An Unexpected Finding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7302211e-e8f3-469d-8e36-48bd56d4a954

Chronic back pain patients may require escalating doses of systemic opioids. In refractory cases, implantation of an intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS) may provide effective relief of pain and improve overall function. This system infuses opioid directly into the cerebrospinal fluid via a catheter. While efficacious, it can be associated with complications, one of the most severe being the formation of a catheter-tip granuloma that can lead to permanent neurological deficits. We present a case of a 38-year-old male with an IDDS for pain related to retroperitoneal fibrosis, who began developing worsening back pain along with new-onset lower extremity weakness. A catheter-tip granuloma was suspected, and the patient was advised to obtain emergent spine imaging. He was non-compliant until the point of becoming wheelchair bound, whereupon imaging was finally obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural mass causing spinal cord compression. After emergent surgical resection, pathology revealed a malignant tumor. Any patient with IDDS and escalating pain levels or new neurological deficits needs urgent neuroimaging to rule out catheter-tip granuloma. However, as this case demonstrates, the differential diagnosis should remain broad and always include neoplasm or abscess. 

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<![CDATA[Tumor Location and Treatment Modality are Associated with Overall Survival in Adult Medulloblastoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd8f9498b-81c7-4114-a5c4-a4d03f24ce88

Introduction

Medulloblastoma (MB) is an aggressive brain tumor most commonly found in children. Although prognostic factors are well studied in children, factors affecting survival in adults with medulloblastoma are unclear.

Methods

We queried the 1973-2015 United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry to identify all adult cases of medulloblastoma, and performed multivariate survival analyses to assess the relationships amongst various clinical variables, including age, sex, race, tumor location, treatment modalities, and overall survival.

Results

A total of 857 patients, 20 years of age and older, with MB were identified in the SEER registry. Adult cases presented most frequently in the cerebellum (91.6%) compared to other less common regions (brain stem 3.2%, brain 2.2%, ventricle 1.8%). The overall median survival for adult MB is 60 months (SD = 94.3) and survival time is related to tumor location and course of treatment (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models showed that lesions found outside the cerebellum corresponded to worse median survival times (37 months) than those in the cerebellum (63 months) (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.321-2.158, P = 0.001). Patients who were assigned chemotherapy had shorter survival (54 months) than those who were not (67 months) (HR 1.4515, 95% CI 1.26-1.671, P < 0.001), but receiving radiation therapy was associated with better overall survival (66 months) relative to not receiving radiation (25 months) (HR 0.581, 95% CI 0.48-0.70, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Tumor location appears to be a significant prognostic factor for survival in adult MB. Recommended treatment regimes, likely reflective of the underlying aggressiveness of the tumor, also seem to impact survival.

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<![CDATA[Two-year Clinical and Radiographic Results with a Multidimensional, Expandable Interbody Implant in Minimally Invasive Lumbar Spine Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc6b51ecd-32a0-4b06-9de5-2cecbd06c2a2

Introduction

Minimally invasive spine surgery has become more prevalent in recent years, but the delivery of interbody devices with small footprints may insufficiently restore the disc space, which may lead to instability and non-union. Vertically expandable interbody implants have partially addressed this limitation, but lateral fusion support remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two-year safety and effectiveness outcomes with a multidimensional, expandable interbody fusion device (Luna 3D Interbody Fusion System, Benvenue Medical, Inc., Santa Clara, CA) that is delivered through a minimally invasive approach (6-8 mm) that expands in situ to approximate an anterior lumbar interbody fusion footprint of 25 mm diameter.

Material and methods

This was a retrospective, single-center study that evaluated the clinical utility of a multi-expandable interbody cage in patients undergoing posterior or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Key patient-reported outcomes included back pain severity, leg pain severity, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographic assessments included disc height (anterior, posterior, and average), foraminal height, segmental lordosis, subsidence, implant migration, and pseudarthrosis. Patients were followed at regular intervals over two years postprocedure.

Results

A total of 50 consecutive patients were treated with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using the multidimensional expandable implant. Procedural blood loss was minimal (median 200 ml) and the mean hospital stay was 2.1 days. Perioperative complications were reported in three patients and included a dural tear, postoperative ileus, and end-plate violation. All complications were successfully managed conservatively. There were no nerve root injuries or perioperative infections. Over the two-year follow-up period, one case of subsidence and one case of implant migration were noted on radiographic imaging but required no treatment. Comparing the values reported at baseline and two years, the mean ODI score decreased by 61%, back pain severity decreased by 67%, and leg pain severity decreased by 80% (all p<0.001). Comparing radiographic measures from baseline to two years, anterior disc height increased from 7.6 mm to 15.5 mm, posterior disc height increased from 2.9 mm to 10.1 mm, average disc height increased from 5.6 mm to 13.3 mm, foraminal height increased from 12.2 mm to 20.2 mm, and segmental lordosis increased from 6.2 degrees to 14.0 degrees (all changes p<0.001). One case of non-union was observed and the corresponding two-year fusion rate was 98%.

Conclusions

The utilization of a minimally invasive, multidimensional, expandable interbody implant was safe and effective over two years of clinical follow-up. The implant allows the surgeon to re-establish sagittal balance and to provide a larger surface area for fusion as compared to traditional minimally invasive interbody devices.

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<![CDATA[Orientation Planning in the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printing of Anatomical Spine Models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4625f7a3-fdbb-4711-980e-71a4b648c733

Three‐dimensional (3D) printing has revolutionized medical training and patient care. Clinically it is used for patient‐specific anatomical modeling with respect to surgical procedures. 3D printing is heavily implemented for simulation to provide a useful tool for anatomical knowledge and surgical techniques. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a commonly utilized method of 3D printing anatomical models due to its cost-effectiveness. A potential disadvantage of FDM 3D printing complex anatomical shapes is the limitations of the modeling system in providing accurate representations of multifaceted ultrastructure, such as the facets of the lumbar spine. In order to utilize FDM 3D printing methods in an efficient manner, the pre-printing G-code assembly must be oriented according to the anatomical nature of the print. This article describes the approach that our institution's 3D printing laboratory has used to manipulate models’ printing angles in regard to the print bed and nozzle, according to anatomical properties, thus creating quality and cost-effective anatomical spine models for education and procedural simulation. 

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<![CDATA[Increased Brain Tissue Oxygen Monitoring Threshold to Improve Hospital Course in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69e4ad3c-848f-4860-8ace-4070a79258e2

Introduction

This article is a retrospective analysis of the neurosurgical census at our institution to determine an optimal threshold for brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). The use of brain tissue oxygen monitoring has been in place for approximately three decades but data suggesting optimal thresholds to improve outcomes have been lacking. Though there are multiple modalities to monitor cerebral oxygenation, the monitoring of brain tissue oxygen tension has been deemed the gold standard. Still, it is not clear exactly how reductions in PbtO2 should be treated or what appropriate thresholds to treat might be. The aim of our study was to determine if our threshold of 28 mmHg for a good functional outcome could be correlated to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).

Methods

A retrospective analysis of the Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC) Neurosurgery Census was performed. Patients from 2017-2019 who had placement of Licox® cerebral oxygen monitoring sensors (Integra® Lifesciences, Plainsboro Township, New Jersey) were included in the analysis. Fifteen patients were consecutively identified, all of which presented with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data on age, gender, days in the intensive care unit (ICU), days before discharge or end of medical care, admission GCS, hospital length of stay, GOS, maximum and minimum PbtO2 values for five days following insertion, minimum and maximum intracranial pressures (ICPs), and brain temperature were included for analysis. Patient data were separated into two groups; those with consistently higher PbtO2 scores (≥ 28 mmHg; n = 7) and those with inconsistent/lower PbtO2 scores (< 28 mmHg; n = 8). Standard student t-tests were used to find potential statistical differences between the groups (α = 0.05).

Results

There were seven patients in the consistently high PbtO2 category (≥ 28 mmHg) and eight patients in the inconsistent/low PbtO2 category (<28 mmHg). The average maximum and minimum PbtO2 for the group displaying worse outcomes (as defined by GCS/GOS) was 23.0 mmHg and 14 mmHg, respectively. Those with consistent Day 2 PbtO2 scores of ≥ 28 mmHg had significantly higher GCS scores at discharge/end of medical care (p < 0.05). Average GCS for the patient group with >28 mmHg PbtO2 averaged over Days 2-5 group was 11.4 (n=7). Average GCS for the <28 group was 7.0 (n=8). The GCS for the >28 group was 63% higher than found in the <28 group (p = 0.03). GOS scores were significantly higher in those with consistently higher PbtO2 (≥ 28) than those with lower PbtO2 scores (< 28). The averages were 3.5 in the higher PbtO2 group as compared to 2 in the lower PbtO2 group.

Conclusion

Along with ICP monitors and monitoring in the assessment of CPP, brain tissue oxygenation allows yet another metric by which to optimize treatment in TBI patients. At our institution, a PbtO2 level of ≥ 28 mmHg is targeted in order to facilitate a good functional outcome in TBI patients. Keeping patients at this level improves GCS and GOS at discharge/end of medical treatment.

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<![CDATA[An Unusual Case of the Successful Treatment of Carbapenem-resistant Ventriculitis with Intravenous Colistin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb69345bf-dc51-4686-b04f-30eec3db1a4b

Ventriculitis is a well-documented complication of ventriculostomy, which is difficult to treat and is associated with high rates of mortality. There is a growing trend of resistance among many organisms, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, in particular, to most antibiotics with the exception of colistin. It is thought that colistin has poor blood-brain barrier penetration; therefore, in cases of ventriculitis, it is preferentially administered via the intrathecal or intraventricular route. These routes, in turn, risk introducing infections, which may perpetuate the problem. We report a case of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis, which was treated successfully with intravenous colistin monotherapy.

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<![CDATA[Rare Systemic Response to Titanium Spinal Fusion Implant: Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne433ed4a-d611-48d5-9874-9fba9c46fd79

Neurosurgical patients with titanium spinal implant hypersensitivity can be difficult to diagnosis due to its rarity. Suspicion for titanium allergy is generally localized to the hardware site and may initially be thought to be an infectious process. Patients who report anorexia and fatigue over a long duration after the initial post-operative period may be diagnosed with depression rather than a systemic response to spinal metallic instrumentation. To our knowledge, a systemic titanium hypersensitivity reaction to spinal fixation devices has not been reported in the literature. We offer this report to give spine surgeons additional insight into suspected systemic titanium hypersensitivity symptoms which, if remain unidentified, can severely impair patient outcomes. A 67-year-old female with an unreported nickel allergy developed severe debilitating anorexia and fatigue one month post operatively, secondary to minimally invasive thoracic spinal fixation for T11 burst fracture with disruption of posterior elements. Over a two year period, weight loss reached approximately 25 kilograms with loss of muscle mass and subcutaneous tissue surrounding the spinal implants. The screws and rods were removed to avoid skin erosion. Upon hardware removal, the patient had rapid weight gain, improved stamina and generalized sense of well-being. We recommend the removal of spinal hardware in patients with suspected systemic titanium hypersensitivity reaction.

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<![CDATA[Radiation Therapy as a Modality to Create Abscopal Effects: Current and Future Practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5503d70a-9fd6-4a01-8bfd-8b915ba1012a

In our empathetic understanding of abscopal effect (AbE), research has shown that the immune system is stimulated by radiation, which results in the formation of an AbE. The AbE is referred to as a response from the irradiated volume. Despite the existence of key gaps in our understanding, there is an urgent need to explore what the underlying effect is. The aim of this article is to argue neurosurgeons and the healthcare practitioner's knowledge of the AbE. Our goal is to identify more gaps in our understanding of the AbE and seal other gaps as well. This study will review medical journals and bring together the most updated information related to AbEs.

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<![CDATA[A Case of Histoplasma duboisii Brain Abscess and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N13b55774-9f15-40fe-8034-260e174358e9

Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum (Hcc) and H. capsulatum var. duboisii (Hcd)Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. So far, the few cases reported having Histoplasmosis associated brain abscesses were caused by H. capsulatum var. capsulatum. Herein, we report a unique case of brain abscess caused by H. capsulatum var. duboisii occurring in a 42-year-old immunocompromised woman with HIV. Initially, she presented with hypothermia, vomiting, frontal headache, evolving over one month. She then progressed to have a generalized seizure. Brain MRI showed multifocal brain abscesses and a frontal osteitis. The frontal osteitis was biopsied and confirmed the diagnosis of H. capsulatum var. duboisii. She was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B (150 mg daily) for the first four weeks and itraconazole (200mg twice daily) for six months.

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<![CDATA[Gamma Knife Surgery for Residual or Recurrent Craniopharyngioma After Surgical Resection: A Multi-institutional Retrospective Study in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5de723c-c31d-4079-aa13-b1fc2c88d584

Objective

The optimal treatment for a craniopharyngioma has been controversial. Complete resection is ideal, but it has been difficult to obtain total resection in many cases because of intimate proximity to critical structures such as the optic pathway, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the utility of radiosurgery in controlling residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma. However, most of them are small series. The aim of this multi-institutional study was to clarify the efficacy and safety of Gamma Knife (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) surgery for patients with a craniopharyngioma.

Methods

This was a multi-institutional retrospective study by 16 medical centers of the Japan Leksell Gamma Knife Society. Data on patients with craniopharyngiomas treated with Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) between 1991 and 2013 were obtained from individual institutional review board-approved databases at each center. A total of 242 patients with craniopharyngioma were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 41 (range, 3 to 86) years. The median follow-up time was 61.4 months (range, 3 to 180 months). The mean radiosurgery target volume was 3.1 ml (range, 0.03-22.3 ml), and the mean marginal dose was 11.4 Gy (range, 8-20.4 Gy).

Results

Two-hundred twenty patients were alive at the time of the last follow-up visit. The three-, five-, and 10-year overall survival rates after GKS were 95.4%, 92.5%, and 82.0%, respectively. The three-, five-, and 10-year progression-free survival rates after GKS were 73.1%, 62.2%, and 42.6% respectively. The rate of radiation-induced complications was 6.2%.

Conclusion

GKS is effective for controlling the tumor growth of craniopharyngiomas with an acceptable complication rate.

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<![CDATA[Remote Supratentorial Subdural Hematoma Following Craniectomy and Evacuation of Hypertensive Cerebellar Hematoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf9067791-53e4-4764-96f6-39e2ffb2c819

Remote acute subdural hematoma following a decompressive craniotomy or craniectomy is a rare phenomenon. Only few cases of postoperative contralateral acute subdural hematomas have been reported in the literature review till date. This case report details a case of a 32-year-old hypertensive male who presented with severe headache, multiple episodes of vomiting, slurring of speech, nystagmus and ataxic gait for one day. Computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed a right sided cerebellar hemorrhage with effacement of fourth ventricle and upstream hydrocephalus. A right suboccipital craniectomy and hematoma evacuation were performed. A repeat CT scan of head was done at six hours post surgery; which revealed a contralateral (left-sided) subdural hematoma involving the fronto-parieto-temporal region. The patient improved following conservative management.

Contralateral acute subdural hematoma following evacuation of hematoma is a rare, but a potentially life-threatening complication; therefore, we should try to detect such contralateral hematoma and prevent clinical deterioration.

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<![CDATA[Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts in the Emergency Department: A Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nae31da40-c24e-4682-aeb1-46882d9b7d63

In this paper, we review the indications, complications, and pitfalls associated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. As most VP shunt problems initially present to the emergency department, it is important for emergency physicians to be well-versed in managing them. In the article, the possible reasons for shunt failure are explored and summarized using an infographic. We also examine potential clinical presentations of VP shunt failure.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Zinc on Post-neurosurgical Wound Healing: A Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N236aa8a4-4a39-43ea-9d89-761a18c18996

The aim of this article is to explore neurosurgeons' knowledge and understanding of the physiology of zinc and provide current information about the role zinc plays in post-neurological wound healing. We review several medical journals and bring together the most updated information related to lesion-healing after surgery.

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