ResearchPad - neutral-lipids https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Early cell-autonomous accumulation of neutral lipids during infection promotes mycobacterial growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14614 Lipids represent an important source of nutrition for infecting mycobacteria, accumulating within the necrotic core of granulomas and present in foamy macrophages associated with mycobacterial infection. In order to better understand the timing, process and importance of lipid accumulation, we developed methods for direct in vivo visualization and quantification of this process using the zebrafish-M. marinum larval model of infection. We find that neutral lipids accumulate cell-autonomously in mycobacterium-infected macrophages in vivo during early infection, with detectable levels of accumulation by two days post-infection. Treatment with ezetimibe, an FDA-approved drug, resulted in decreased levels of free cholesterol and neutral lipids, and a reduction of bacterial growth in vivo. The effect of ezetimibe in reducing bacterial growth was dependent on the mce4 operon, a key bacterial determinant of lipid utilization. Thus, in vivo, lipid accumulation can occur cell-autonomously at early timepoints of mycobacterial infection, and limitation of this process results in decreased bacterial burden.

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<![CDATA[Both living bacteria and eukaryotes in the mosquito gut promote growth of larvae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a286a463d7e4513b897e9

We recently reported that larval stage Aedes aegypti and several other species of mosquitoes grow when living bacteria are present in the gut but do not grow when living bacteria are absent. We further reported that living bacteria induce a hypoxia signal in the gut, which activates hypoxia-induced transcription factors and other processes larvae require for growth. In this study we assessed whether other types of organisms induce mosquito larvae to grow and asked if the density of non-living microbes or diet larvae are fed obviate the requirement for living organisms prior results indicated are required for growth. Using culture conditions identical to our own prior studies, we determined that inoculation density of living Escherichia coli positively affected growth rates of Ae. aegypti larvae, whereas non-living E. coli had no effect on growth across the same range of inoculation densities. A living yeast, alga, and insect cell line induced axenic Ae. aegypti first instars to grow, and stimulated similar levels of midgut hypoxia, HIF-α stabilization, and neutral lipid accumulation in the fat body as E. coli. However, the same organisms had no effect on larval growth if heat-killed. In addition, no axenic larvae molted when fed two other diets, when fed diets supplemented with heat-killed microbes or lysed and heat-killed microbes. Experiments conducted with An. gambiae yielded similar findings. Taken together, our results indicate that organisms from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups induce mosquito larvae to grow, whereas no conditions were identified that stimulated larvae to grow in the absence of living organisms.

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<![CDATA[Remodeling Lipid Metabolism and Improving Insulin Responsiveness in Human Primary Myotubes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db18ab0ee8fa60bcd863

Objective

Disturbances in lipid metabolism are strongly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that activation of cAMP/PKA and calcium signaling pathways in cultured human myotubes would provide further insight into regulation of lipid storage, lipolysis, lipid oxidation and insulin responsiveness.

Methods

Human myoblasts were isolated from vastus lateralis, purified, cultured and differentiated into myotubes. All cells were incubated with palmitate during differentiation. Treatment cells were pulsed 1 hour each day with forskolin and ionomycin (PFI) during the final 3 days of differentiation to activate the cAMP/PKA and calcium signaling pathways. Control cells were not pulsed (control). Mitochondrial content, 14C lipid oxidation and storage were measured, as well as lipolysis and insulin-stimulated glycogen storage. Myotubes were stained for lipids and gene expression measured.

Results

PFI increased oxidation of oleate and palmitate to CO2 (p<0.001), isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis (p = 0.01), triacylglycerol (TAG) storage (p<0.05) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (p = 0.01) and related enzyme activities. Candidate gene and microarray analysis revealed increased expression of genes involved in lipolysis, TAG synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. PFI increased the organization of lipid droplets along the myofibrillar apparatus. These changes in lipid metabolism were associated with an increase in insulin-mediated glycogen storage (p<0.001).

Conclusions

Activation of cAMP/PKA and calcium signaling pathways in myotubes induces a remodeling of lipid droplets and functional changes in lipid metabolism. These results provide a novel pharmacological approach to promote lipid metabolism and improve insulin responsiveness in myotubes, which may be of therapeutic importance for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

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<![CDATA[Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Survival Induce Reverse Trends of Cardiolipin Remodeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da18ab0ee8fa60b7c058

Cell survival from the arrested state can be a cause of the cancer recurrence. Transition from the arrest state to the growth state is highly regulated by mitochondrial activity, which is related to the lipid compositions of the mitochondrial membrane. Cardiolipin is a critical phospholipid for the mitochondrial integrity and functions. We examined the changes of cardiolipin species by LC-MS in the transition between cell cycle arrest and cell reviving in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We have identified 41 cardiolipin species by MS/MS and semi-quantitated them to analyze the detailed changes of cardiolipin species. The mass spectra of cardiolipin with the same carbon number form an envelope, and the C64, C66, C68, C70 C72 and C74 envelopes in HT1080 cells show a normal distribution in the full scan mass spectrum. The cardiolipin quantity in a cell decreases while entering the cell cycle arrest, but maintains at a similar level through cell survival. While cells awakening from the arrested state and preparing itself for replication, the groups with short acyl chains, such as C64, C66 and C68 show a decrease of cardiolipin percentage, but the groups with long acyl chains, such as C70 and C72 display an increase of cardiolipin percentage. Interestingly, the trends of the cardiolipin species changes during the arresting state are completely opposite to cell growing state. Our results indicate that the cardiolipin species shift from the short chain to long chain cardiolipin during the transition from cell cycle arrest to cell progression.

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<![CDATA[Influence of Fenofibrate Treatment on Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides and Fatty Acids in Fructose Fed Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4bab0ee8fa60bda4b0

Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ≤16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

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<![CDATA[Real-Time Tracking of BODIPY-C12 Long-Chain Fatty Acid in Human Term Placenta Reveals Unique Lipid Dynamics in Cytotrophoblast Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4bab0ee8fa60bda67e

While the human placenta must provide selected long-chain fatty acids to support the developing fetal brain, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the transport process. We tracked the movement of the fluorescently labeled long-chain fatty acid analogue, BODIPY-C12, across the cell layers of living explants of human term placenta. Although all layers took up the fatty acid, rapid esterification of long-chain fatty acids and incorporation into lipid droplets was exclusive to the inner layer cytotrophoblast cells rather than the expected outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblast is a progenitor cell layer previously relegated to a repair role. As isolated cytotrophoblasts differentiated into syncytialized cells in culture, they weakened their lipid processing capacity. Syncytializing cells suppress previously active genes that regulate fatty-acid uptake (SLC27A2/FATP2, FABP4, ACSL5) and lipid metabolism (GPAT3, LPCAT3). We speculate that cytotrophoblast performs a previously unrecognized role in regulating placental fatty acid uptake and metabolism.

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<![CDATA[Meibum Lipid Composition in Asians with Dry Eye Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da96ab0ee8fa60ba202f

Background

Previous lipidomic analyses of the human meibum had largely focused on individuals from non-Asian populations, despite the higher prevalence of dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) observed across Asia. Information pertaining to the alterations in lipid profiles in relation to DTS onset and progression is also lacking and warrants comprehensive experimental analysis.

Methodologies/Principal Findings

We examined the meibum lipidome of 27 DTS patients and 10 control subjects for a total of 256 lipid species from 12 major lipid classes, including cholesteryl ester (CE), wax ester (WE), triacylglyceride (TAG), (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy fatty acid (OAHFA), glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG) and sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; glucosylceramide, GluCer; dihexosylceramide, DihexCer). Neutral lipids were analysed using high-performance liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polar lipid species. DTS patients were classified into three severity groups (i.e. mild, moderate and severe) based on the ocular surface disease index (OSDI). A significantly lower level of TAG (p<0.05) was observed in patients under the moderate category compared to the mild category. Notably, a number of OAHFA species displayed consistently decreasing levels that correlate with increasing disease severity. An attempt was also made to investigate the changes in meibum lipid profiles of DTS patients compared to normal individuals classified based on OSDI score. Several unsaturated TAG and PC species were found at significantly higher levels (p<0.05) in patients than controls.

Conclusion

The current study presents, for the first time, a comprehensive lipidome of meibum from individuals of an Asian ethnicity, which can potentially offer new insights into the higher prevalence of DTS observed amongst Asian populations. This study also represents an attempt towards identification of lipid species in meibum which could serve as marker for DTS.

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<![CDATA[Functional Characterization of Newly-Discovered Mutations in Human SR-BI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd95e8

In rodents, SR-BI has been firmly established as a physiologically relevant HDL receptor that mediates removal of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE). However, its role in human lipoprotein metabolism is less defined. Recently, two unique point mutations in human SR-BI — S112F or T175A — were identified in subjects with high HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We hypothesized that mutation of these conserved residues would compromise the cholesterol-transport functions of SR-BI. To test this hypothesis, S112F- and T175A-SR-BI were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Cell surface expression was confirmed for both mutant receptors in COS-7 cells upon transient transfection, albeit at lower levels for T175A-SR-BI. Both mutant receptors displayed defective HDL binding, selective uptake of HDL-CE and release of free cholesterol (FC) from cells to HDL. Mutant receptors were also unable to re-organize plasma membrane pools of FC. While these impaired functions were independent of receptor oligomerization, inability of T175A-SR-BI to mediate cholesterol-transport functions could be related to altered N-linked glycosylation status. In conclusion, high HDL-C levels observed in carriers of S112F- or T175A-SR-BI mutant receptors are consistent with the inability of these SR-BI receptors to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-CE, and suggest that increased plasma HDL concentrations in these settings may not be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

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<![CDATA[Neutral Lipid Metabolism Influences Phospholipid Synthesis and Deacylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daeaab0ee8fa60bbebd5

Establishment and maintenance of equilibrium in the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids (PL) requires both regulation of the substrate available for PL synthesis (the acyl-CoA pool) and extensive PL turnover and acyl editing. In the present study, we utilize acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) deficient cells, unable to recycle FA derived from lipid deacylation, to evaluate the role of several enzymatic activities in FA trafficking and PL homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The data presented show that phospholipases B are not contributing to constitutive PL deacylation and are therefore unlikely to be involved in PL remodeling. In contrast, the enzymes of neutral lipid (NL) synthesis and mobilization are central mediators of FA trafficking. The phospholipid:DAG acyltransferase (PDAT) Lro1p has a substantial effect on FA release and on PL equilibrium, emerging as an important mediator in PL remodeling. The acyl-CoA dependent biosynthetic activities of NL metabolism are also involved in PL homeostasis through active modulation of the substrate available for PL synthesis. In addition TAG mobilization makes an important contribution, especially in cells from stationary phase, to FA availability. Beyond its well-established role in the formation of a storage pool, NL metabolism could play a crucial role as a mechanism to uncouple the pools of PL and acyl-CoAs from each other and thereby to allow independent regulation of each one.

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<![CDATA[Long-duration effect of multi-factor stresses on the cellular biochemistry, oil-yielding performance and morphology of Nannochloropsis oculata]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdca4f

Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Elevating its oil-yielding capacity is conducive to cost-saving biodiesel production. However, the regulatory processes of multi-factor collaborative stresses (MFCS) on the oil-yielding performance of N. oculata are unclear. The duration effects of MFCS (high irradiation, nitrogen deficiency and elevated iron supplementation) on N. oculata were investigated in an 18-d batch culture. Despite the reduction in cell division, the biomass concentration increased, resulting from the large accumulation of the carbon/energy-reservoir. However, different storage forms were found in different cellular storage compounds, and both the protein content and pigment composition swiftly and drastically changed. The analysis of four biodiesel properties using pertinent empirical equations indicated their progressive effective improvement in lipid classes and fatty acid composition. The variation curve of neutral lipid productivity was monitored with fluorescent Nile red and was closely correlated to the results from conventional methods. In addition, a series of changes in the organelles (e.g., chloroplast, lipid body and vacuole) and cell shape, dependent on the stress duration, were observed by TEM and LSCM. These changes presumably played an important role in the acclimation of N. oculata to MFCS and accordingly improved its oil-yielding performance.

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<![CDATA[Lipidomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles from the Pathogenic Phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da85ab0ee8fa60b9becc

Background

Fungal extracellular vesicles are able to cross the cell wall and transport molecules that help in nutrient acquisition, cell defense, and modulation of the host defense machinery.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Here we present a detailed lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles released by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis at the yeast pathogenic phase. We compared data of two representative isolates, Pb3 and Pb18, which have distinct virulence profiles and phylogenetic background. Vesicle lipids were fractionated into different classes and analyzed by either electrospray ionization- or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found two species of monohexosylceramide and 33 phospholipid species, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Among the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in extracellular vesicles, C181 predominated in Pb3, whereas C18:2 prevailed in Pb18. The prevalent sterol in Pb3 and Pb18 vesicles was brassicasterol, followed by ergosterol and lanosterol. Inter-isolate differences in sterol composition were observed, and also between extracellular vesicles and whole cells.

Conclusions/Significance

The extensive lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from two P. brasiliensis isolates will help to understand the composition of these fungal components/organelles and will hopefully be useful to study their biogenesis and role in host-pathogen interactions.

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<![CDATA[Human Tear Fluid Lipidome: From Composition to Function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0cab0ee8fa60bca907

We have explored human aqueous tear fluid lipidome with an emphasis to identify the major lipids. We also address the physiological significance of the lipidome. The tears were analysed using thin layer chromatographic, enzymatic and mass spectrometric techniques. To emphasize the physiological aspect of the lipidome, we modelled the spreading of the non-polar tear fluid lipids at air-water interface in macroscopic scale with olive oil and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine. Based on enzymatic analysis the respective concentrations of choline-containing lipids, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters were 48±14, 10±0, and 21±18 µM. Ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry analysis showed that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the two most common polar lipids comprising 88±6% of all identified lipids. Triglycerides were the only non-polar lipids detected in mass spectrometric analysis i.e. no cholesteryl or wax esters were identified. The spreading experiments show that the presence of polar lipids is an absolute necessity for a proper spreading of non-polar tear fluid lipids. We provide evidence that polar lipids are the most common lipid species. Furthermore, we provide a physiological rationale for the observed lipid composition. The results open insights into the functional role of lipids in the tear fluid and also aids in providing new means to understand and treat diseases of the ocular surface.

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<![CDATA[Plasma Lipid Profiling of Patients with Chronic Ocular Complications Caused by Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da49ab0ee8fa60b8c760

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are drug-induced acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface. Even after recovery from skin symptoms, some SJS/TEN patients continue to suffer with severe ocular complications (SOCs). Therefore, this study aims to understand the pathophysiology of chronic SOCs. Because plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool to understand pathophysiological alterations in the body, we performed plasma lipid profiling of 17 patients who suffered from SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. A lipidomics approach yielded 386 lipid molecules and demonstrated that plasma levels of inflammatory oxylipins increased in patients with SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. In addition, oxidized phosphatidylcholines and ether-type diacylglycerols increased in the patients with chronic SOCs, while phosphoglycerolipids decreased. When we compared these lipidomic profiles with those of patients with atopic dermatitis, we found that patients with chronic SOCs, specifically, had decreased levels of ether-type phosphatidylcholines (ePCs) containing arachidonic acid (AA), such as PC(18:0e/20:4) and PC(20:0e/20:4). To confirm our finding, we recruited additional patients, who suffered from SOC associated with SJS/TEN (up to 51 patients), and validated the decreased plasma levels of AA-containing ePCs. Our study provides insight into the alterations of plasma lipidomic profiles in chronic SOCs and into the pathophysiology of SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Etiology of Atherogenesis – In Vitro Induction of Lipidosis in Macrophages with a New LDL Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9faab0ee8fa60b7195d

Background

Atherosclerosis starts by lipid accumulation in the arterial intima and progresses into a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. A major atherogenic process is the formation of lipid-loaded macrophages in which a breakdown of the endolysomal pathway results in irreversible accumulation of cargo in the late endocytic compartments with a phenotype similar to several forms of lipidosis. Macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL exihibit this phenomenon in vitro and manifest an impaired degradation of internalized lipids and enhanced inflammatory stimulation. Identification of the specific chemical component(s) causing this phenotype has been elusive because of the chemical complexity of oxidized LDL.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Lipid “core aldehydes" are formed in oxidized LDL and exist in atherosclerotic plaques. These aldehydes are slowly oxidized in situ and (much faster) by intracellular aldehyde oxidizing systems to cholesteryl hemiesters. We show that a single cholesteryl hemiester incorporated into native, non-oxidized LDL induces a lipidosis phenotype with subsequent cell death in macrophages. Internalization of the cholesteryl hemiester via the native LDL vehicle induced lipid accumulation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in “frozen" endolysosomes. Quantitative shotgun lipidomics analysis showed that internalized lipid in cholesteryl hemiester-intoxicated cells remained largely unprocessed in those lipid-rich organelles.

Conclusions/Significance

The principle elucidated with the present cholesteryl hemiester-containing native-LDL model, extended to other molecular components of oxidized LDL, will help in defining the molecular etiology and etiological hierarchy of atherogenic agents.

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<![CDATA[A Lipidomic Analysis of Placenta in Preeclampsia: Evidence for Lipid Storage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da71ab0ee8fa60b94e52

In preeclampsia, maternal insulin resistance leads to defective expansion of adipocytes, enhanced adipocyte lipolysis, up-regulation of very low density lipoprotein synthesis, maternal hypertriglyceridaemia and the potential for ectopic fat storage. Our aim was to quantitate and compare the total amount and type of lipid in placenta from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and healthy pregnancies. Quantitative lipid analysis of lipid extracts from full thickness placental biopsies was carried out by shotgun lipidomics. Placental lipid profiles from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (n = 23) were compared to healthy pregnancies (n = 68), and placenta from intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies (n = 10) were used to control for gross differences in placental pathology. Placentae from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia had higher neutral lipid content than healthy placentae (40% higher triacyglycerol (P = 0.001) and 33% higher cholesteryl ester (P = 0.004)) that was specific to preeclampsia and independent of maternal gestation.

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<![CDATA[Lysophosphatidic Acid Activates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ in CHO Cells That Over-Express Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase-1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da52ab0ee8fa60b8e19b

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an agonist for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Although glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1) esterifies glycerol-3-phosphate to form LPA, an intermediate in the de novo synthesis of glycerolipids, it has been assumed that LPA synthesized by this route does not have a signaling role. The availability of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells that stably overexpress GPAT1, allowed us to analyze PPARγ activation in the presence of LPA produced as an intracellular intermediate. LPA levels in CHO-GPAT1 cells were 6-fold higher than in wild-type CHO cells, and the mRNA abundance of CD36, a PPARγ target, was 2-fold higher. Transactivation assays showed that PPARγ activity was higher in the cells that overexpressed GPAT1. PPARγ activity was enhanced further in CHO-GPAT1 cells treated with the PPARγ ligand troglitazone. Extracellular LPA, phosphatidic acid (PA) or a membrane-permeable diacylglycerol had no effect, showing that PPARγ had been activated by LPA generated intracellularly. Transient transfection of a vector expressing 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-2, which converts endogenous LPA to PA, markedly reduced PPARγ activity, as did over-expressing diacylglycerol kinase, which converts DAG to PA, indicating that PA could be a potent inhibitor of PPARγ. These data suggest that LPA synthesized via the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway can activate PPARγ and that intermediates of de novo glycerolipid synthesis regulate gene expression.

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<![CDATA[Heterologous expression of a thermophilic diacylglycerol acyltransferase triggers triglyceride accumulation in Escherichia coli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1f7

Triglycerides (TAGs), the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and source of fatty acids, are produced as single cell oil by some oleogenic microorganisms. However, these microorganisms require strict culture conditions, show low carbon source flexibilities, lack efficient genetic modification tools and in some cases pose safety concerns. TAGs have essential applications such as behaving as a source for added-value fatty acids or giving rise to the production of biodiesel. Hence, new alternative methods are urgently required for obtaining these oils. In this work we describe TAG accumulation in the industrially appropriate microorganism Escherichia coli expressing the heterologous enzyme tDGAT, a wax ester synthase/triacylglycerol:acylCoA acyltranferase (WS/DGAT). With this purpose, we introduce a codon-optimized gene from the thermophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora curvata coding for a WS/DGAT into different E. coli strains, describe the metabolic effects associated to the expression of this protein and evaluate neutral lipid accumulation. We observe a direct relation between the expression of this WS/DGAT and TAG production within a wide range of culture conditions. More than 30% TAGs were detected within the bacterial neutral lipids in 90 minutes after induction. TAGs were observed to be associated with the hydrophobic enzyme while forming round intracytoplasmic bodies, which could represent a bottleneck for lipid accumulation in E. coli. We detected an increase of almost 3-fold in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) occurring in the recombinant strains. These MUFA were predominant in the accumulated TAGs achieving 46% of the TAG fatty acids. These results set the basis for further research on the achievement of a suitable method towards the sustainable production of these neutral lipids.

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<![CDATA[Production of Fatty Acids and Protein by Nannochloropsis in Flat-Plate Photobioreactors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9a8b

Nannochloropsis is an industrially-promising microalga that may be cultivated for alternative sources of nutrition due to its high productivity, protein content and lipid composition. We studied the growth and biochemical profile of Nannochloropsis 211/78 (CCAP) in optimized flat-plate photobioreactors. Eighteen cultivations were performed at two nutrient concentrations. The fatty acid, protein content and calorific values were analyzed after 8, 12 and 16 days. Neutral lipids were separated and the changes in fatty acids in triglycerides (TAGs) during nutrient depletion were recorded. The maximum cell density reached 4.7 g∙L-1 and the maximum productivity was 0.51 g∙L-1∙d-1. During nutrient-replete conditions, eicosapentaneoic acid (EPA) and total protein concentrations measured 4.2–4.9% and 50–55% of the dry mass, respectively. Nutrient starvation induced the accumulation of fatty acids up to 28.3% of the cell dry weight, largely due to the incorporation of C16:0 and C16:1n-7 fatty acyl chains into neutral lipids. During nutrient starvation the total EPA content did not detectibly change, but up to 37% was transferred from polar membrane lipids to the neutral lipid fraction.

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<![CDATA[Recruiting a New Substrate for Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Plants: The Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6eab0ee8fa60b93ce5

Background

Monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGATs) are predominantly associated with lipid absorption and resynthesis in the animal intestine where they catalyse the first step in the monoacylglycerol (MAG) pathway by acylating MAG to form diacylglycerol (DAG). Typical plant triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis routes such as the Kennedy pathway do not include an MGAT step. Rather, DAG and TAG are synthesised de novo from glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) by a series of three subsequent acylation reactions although a complex interplay with membrane lipids exists.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We demonstrate that heterologous expression of a mouse MGAT acyltransferase in Nicotiana benthamiana significantly increases TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues despite the low levels of endogenous MAG substrate available. In addition, DAG produced by this acyltransferase can serve as a substrate for both native and coexpressed diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT). Finally, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana GPAT4 acyltransferase can produce MAG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using oleoyl-CoA as the acyl-donor.

Conclusions/Significance

This study demonstrates the concept of a new method of increasing oil content in vegetative tissues by using MAG as a substrate for TAG biosynthesis. Based on in vitro yeast assays and expression results in N. benthamiana, we propose that co-expression of a MAG synthesising enzyme such as A. thaliana GPAT4 and a MGAT or bifunctional M/DGAT can result in DAG and TAG synthesis from G-3-P via a route that is independent and complementary to the endogenous Kennedy pathway and other TAG synthesis routes.

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<![CDATA[Sustained Release of an Anti-Glaucoma Drug: Demonstration of Efficacy of a Liposomal Formulation in the Rabbit Eye]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daacab0ee8fa60ba9cc1

Topical medication remains the first line treatment of glaucoma; however, sustained ocular drug delivery via topical administration is difficult to achieve. Most drugs have poor penetration due to the multiple physiological barriers of the eye and are rapidly cleared if applied topically. Currently, daily topical administration for lowering the intra-ocular pressure (IOP), has many limitations, such as poor patient compliance and ocular allergy from repeated drug administration. Poor compliance leads to suboptimal control of IOP and disease progression with eventual blindness. The delivery of drugs in a sustained manner could provide the patient with a more attractive alternative by providing optimal therapeutic dosing, with minimal local toxicity and inconvenience. To investigate this, we incorporated latanoprost into LUVs (large unilamellar vesicles) derived from the liposome of DPPC (di-palmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline) by the film hydration technique. Relatively high amounts of drug could be incorporated into this vesicle, and the drug resides predominantly in the bilayer. Vesicle stability monitored by size measurement and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) analysis showed that formulations with a drug/lipid mole ratio of about 10% have good physical stability during storage and release. This formulation demonstrated sustained release of latanoprost in vitro, and then tested for efficacy in 23 rabbits. Subconjunctival injection and topical eye drop administration of the latanoprost/liposomal formulation were compared with conventional daily administration of latanoprost eye drops. The IOP lowering effect with a single subconjunctival injection was shown to be sustained for up to 50 days, and the extent of IOP lowering was comparable to daily eye drop administration. Toxicity and localized inflammation were not observed in any treatment groups. We believe that this is the first demonstration, in vivo, of sustained delivery to the anterior segment of the eye that is safe and efficacious for 50 days.

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