ResearchPad - news-views https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Endovascular stroke treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13498 The COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional layer of complexity to endovascular treatment (EVT) for acute ischaemic stroke. Drawing on recently published guidelines, this article provides a conceptual framework for EVT in the COVID-19 era, outlining key principles for ensuring safe and timely EVT while minimizing the risk of infectious exposure for health-care workers and patients.

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<![CDATA[ Chasing My Cure A Doctor's Race to Turn Hope Into Action by David Fajgenbaum Review by John A. Wagner MD, PhD ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8334 <![CDATA[Bat tolerance to viral infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N874c5906-e535-40dc-bf0a-4c7f490ed0e9

Inflammatory molecules evolved partly to protect hosts from viruses, but increasing evidence suggests that they cause disease pathology and chronic conditions, and play a role in aging. By mitigating these effects, bats are able to both tolerate viral infections and live well beyond expectations.

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<![CDATA[Targeting vesicle size]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc907cceb-059c-4864-bafc-e5d8cda5279c

An amphipathic peptide has been engineered and is capable of penetrating the blood–brain barrier as well as possessing a potent antiviral activity against Zika and other mosquito-borne viruses.

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<![CDATA[Pandemic preparedness and forecast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7cc8985d-5b08-46f5-8dcf-72e869bcc35a

Geographic mapping of pathogen emergence risk, as recently done for viral haemorrhagic fever in Africa, provides an important tool for targeting interventions. More comprehensive preparedness and prediction systems that increase surveillance and forecast infectious disease outbreak growth and spread in real time are also needed.

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<![CDATA[Emergence of a novel human coronavirus threatening human health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc595933e-fd4c-4154-9c6c-513a759ae50c

In late December 2019, a cluster of patients with ‘atypical pneumonia’ of unknown etiology was reported in Wuhan, China. A novel human coronavirus, now provisionally called ‘SARS-CoV-2’, was identified as the cause of this disease, now named ‘COVID-19’.

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<![CDATA[Modeling human lung infections in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9af3519d-7825-4e26-8719-4686de38a3a4

Respiratory pathogens and the human immune response they elicit can now be studied in humanized mice.

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<![CDATA[Toward a self-driving ultrafast fiber laser]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncb2931c9-1328-42a7-b9c5-ccb6084f84d7

Femtosecond pulses from an ultrafast mode-locked fiber laser can be optimized in real time by combining single-shot spectral measurements with a smart genetic algorithm to actively control and drive the intracavity dynamics.

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<![CDATA[In search of the next super models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0f2fb8dc-9568-461e-9a72-df7869e392cc

The advent of pluripotent stem cell biology and facile genetic manipulation via CRISPR technology has ushered in a new era of human disease models for drug discovery and development. While these precision “super models” hold great promise for tailoring personalized therapy, their full potential and in vivo validation have remained elusive.

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<![CDATA[Looking beyond the usual suspects: sulfide stress in schizophrenia pathophysiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9712b39b-3306-4952-a272-1afed6f4790f

Schizophrenia is a complex, multifactorial disease that displays heterogeneous behavioral and cognitive syndrome (Lieberman & First, 2018). The origin of schizophrenia appears to lie in genetic and/or environmental disruption of brain development (Owen et al, 2016). In spite of current treatment that largely consists in antipsychotic drugs combined with psychological therapies, social support, and rehabilitation, developing more effective therapeutic interventions is an essential issue.

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<![CDATA[Optical microscopy approaches angstrom precision, in 3D!]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6f570a69-076b-4a9b-bd0a-8eab2ce416f0

By coupling dye molecules with a graphene layer and localizing the molecules through quantification of fluorescence lifetime quenching, a novel imaging system offers unprecedented 1-nm resolution with angstrom precision in the axial dimension.

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<![CDATA[CTGF-mediated autophagy-senescence transition in tumor stroma promotes anabolic tumor growth and metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ac55b89463d7e164c036fa4

Comment on: Capparelli C, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:2272-84 and Capparelli C, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:2285-302.

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<![CDATA[New CSF biomarkers on the block]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd0514240307c64fb333bce

A growing number of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are now available to capture different aspects of Alzheimer's disease. People are increasingly aware that these biomarkers represent a real‐time reflection of pathological mechanisms that are ongoing in the brain. These novel markers can be added to the panel of existing ones like amyloid beta, total Tau and phosphoTau that are currently used for sensitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, either alone or in combination.

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<![CDATA[Emancipation from transcriptional latency: unphosphorylated STAT5 as guardian of hematopoietic differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bcff98040307c37826e7857

The canonical paradigm of Jak‐STAT signaling is that members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) family of transcription factors are activated by Janus kinase (Jak)‐mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. While the relationship between activation and tyrosine phosphorylation still appears axiomatic, several lines of evidence suggest that unactivated, unphosphorylated isoforms, uSTATs, are nonetheless also engaged in transcriptional regulation. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Park et al (2015) make a convincing case that nuclear uSTAT5 controls hematopoietic differentiation.

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<![CDATA[Synthetic biology: the many facets of T7 RNA polymerase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5add970f463d7e3937f8af22

Split T7 RNA polymerase provides new avenues for creating synthetic gene circuits that are decoupled from host regulatory processes—but how many times can this enzyme be split, yet retain function? New research by Voigt and colleagues (Segall-Shapiro et al, 2014) indicates that it may be more than you think.

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<![CDATA[Brain endothelial cell‐targeted gene therapy of neurovascular disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd21abad5eed0c4848ce9b1

Neurovascular disorders are difficult to treat due to the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which prevents delivery of most drugs from the blood into the brain. Gene therapy can potentially overcome this barrier, but classical vectors are neither efficient nor specific enough to provide long‐lasting treatment or avoid off‐target effects. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Körbelin et al (2016) describe an engineered adeno‐associated virus (AAV) with exceptional tropism for the brain that restores a normal phenotype in a mouse model of incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a severe human genetic disorder of brain vasculature.

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<![CDATA[Co‐targeting driver pathways in prostate cancer: two birds with one stone]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4d0c97463d7e142d5b64e7

Co‐targeting strategies strive to improve cancer outcomes by combining therapies under contextualized genetic and environmental conditions that selectively target exploitable alterations in tumor cells. Adaptive survival pathways triggered by inhibition of driver genes in the androgen receptor (AR) or PI3K/AKT pathways are of great interest, since they are among the most frequently altered in castrate‐resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Unfortunately, negative feedback loops exist between the AR and PI3K/AKT pathways such that targeting AR leads to activation of PI3K/AKT signaling, while PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition leads to increased AR transcriptional activity. Hence, targeting both pathways provides an opportunity for conditional lethality and a high therapeutic index. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Yan et al (2018) present an elegant study showing that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) acts as a common upstream activator of both AR and AKT signaling pathways, and use HDAC3 inhibitors as a monotherapy to co‐target two major pathways driving CRPC growth.

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<![CDATA[Split otoferlins reunited]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c48fb59d5eed0c4841fc7f3

Gene therapy for genetic hearing loss is a nascent field with just a handful of studies published to date that demonstrate proof‐of‐concept recovery of auditory function (reviewed in Ahmed et al, 2017; Lustig & Akil, 2018). One challenge that faces the inner ear field, as well as the broader gene therapy field, is the need to deliver large gene sequences despite the limited genetic capacity (~4.5 kB) of delivery vehicles such as adeno‐associated viral vectors (AAV). In this issue, Al‐Moyed et al have overcome this conundrum by using two AAV vectors to deliver the coding sequence for otoferlin, which is ~6 kB. With dual‐AAV delivery of split otoferlin and a trans‐splicing approach, they demonstrate recombination of full‐length otoferlin in sensory hair cells of the inner ear, enabling partial restoration of auditory function in deaf, otoferlin‐null mice.

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<![CDATA[ZO-oming on growth control by junctional proteins ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc6dd5b40307c6842e7b1be ]]> <![CDATA[A critical role for TORC1 in cellular senescence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ac63f56463d7e308d383cdc

Comment on: Kolesnichenko M, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:2391-401 and Pospelova TV, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:2402-407.

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