ResearchPad - nigeria https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Network analysis of regional livestock trade in West Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14587 In West Africa, long and complex livestock value chains connect producers mostly in the Sahel with consumption basins in urban areas and the coast. Regional livestock trade is highly informal and, despite recent efforts to understand animal movement patterns in the region, remains largely unrecorded. Using CILSS’ database on intraregional livestock trade, we built yearly and overall weighted networks of animal movements between markets. We mapped and characterized the trade networks, identified market communities, key markets and their roles. Additionally, we compared the observed network properties with null-model generated ensembles. Most movements corresponded to cattle, were made by vehicle, and originated in Burkina Faso. We found that live animals in the central and eastern trade basins flow through well-defined, long distance trade corridors where markets tend to trade in a disassortive way with others in their proximity. Modularity-based communities indicated that both national and cross-border trade groups exist. The network’s degree and link distributions followed a log-normal or a power-law distribution, and key markets located primarily in urban centers and near borders serve as hubs that give peripheral markets access to the regional network. The null model ensembles could not reproduce the observed higher-level properties, particularly the propinquity and highly negative assortativity, suggesting that other possibly spatial factors shape the structure of regional live animal trade. Our findings support eliminating cross-border impediments and improving the condition of the regional road network, which limit intraregional trade of and contribute to the high prices of food products in West Africa. Although with limitations, our study sheds light on the abstruse structure of regional livestock trade, and the role of trade communities and markets in West Africa.

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<![CDATA[Molecular epidemiology, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> isolated from chicken and pig carcasses, and carcass handlers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14574 The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in food animals, associated products, and their zoonotic potential in Nigeria are poorly understood. This study aimed to provide data on the prevalence, genetic characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from chicken and pig carcasses, and persons in contact with the carcasses at slaughterhouses in Nigeria. Surface swabs were collected randomly from 600 chicken and 600 pig carcasses. Nasal swabs were collected from 45 workers in chicken slaughterhouses and 45 pig slaughterhouse workers. S. aureus isolates were analyzed by spa typing. They were also examined for presence of the Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) and mecA genes, as well as for antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Overall, 53 S. aureus isolates were recovered (28 from chicken carcasses, 17 from pig carcasses, 5 from chicken carcass handlers and 3 from pig carcass handlers). Among the isolates, 19 (35.8%) were PVL-positive and 12 (22.6%) carried the mecA gene. The 53 isolates belonged to 19 spa types. The Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP) algorithm separated the isolates into 2 spa-clonal complexes (spa-CC) and 9 singletons including 2 novel spa types (t18345 and t18346). The clonal complexes (CC) detected were CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC88 and CC152. CC15-related isolates represented by spa type t084 (32.1%) and CC5 represented by spa type t311 (35.3%) predominated among isolates from chicken carcasses/ handlers, and pig carcasses/ handlers, respectively. Multidrug resistance exhibited by all the CC except CC8, was observed among isolates from chicken carcasses (64.3%), pig carcasses (41.2%), handlers of chicken meat (40.0%) and handlers of pork (33.3%). All the CC showed varying degrees of resistance to tetracycline while CC15 and CC5 exhibited the highest resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and erythromycin, respectively. The predominant antimicrobial resistance pattern observed was penicillin-tetracycline-sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (PEN-TET-SXT). In conclusion, food animals processed in Enugu State in Southeast Nigeria are potential vehicles for transmission of PVL-positive multiple-drug resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus from farm to slaughterhouse and potentially to the human population. Public health intervention programs at pre- and post-slaughter stages should be considered in Nigerian slaughterhouses.

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<![CDATA[Investigating barriers and challenges to the integrated management of neglected tropical skin diseases in an endemic setting in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13828 Community perceptions of causation of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of the skin may play an important role in access to or utilization of health services. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended empowerment of populations affected by or at risk of NTDs in control interventions. Furthermore, the WHO recommends that social mobilisation needs to be maintained in order to create demand for integrated management of skin NTDs and to address specific community aspects and concerns related to the diseases. There are no studies on community knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on skin NTDs co-occurring in the same community in Nigeria. We surveyed community members and health workers and also held group discussions with community members, health workers and individuals with lymphatic filariasis and Buruli ulcer in order to assess their understanding of the causes, treatment and effects of the skin NTDs (leprosy, Buruli ulcer and lymphatic filariasis) which were all occurring in the study communities. There was a shared understanding that these NTDs were caused by germ/infection or through witchcraft/curse/poison. Also, a substantial proportion of the community believed that these conditions are not amenable to treatment. The focus group discussions reinforced these findings.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of Antibodies to Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ruminants, Nigeria, 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1cb9f1e3-2b7e-4a8c-be7f-d4b8cf949fb3

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a highly transmissible human pathogen. Infection is often misdiagnosed, in part because of poor availability of data in disease-endemic areas. We sampled 150 apparently healthy ruminants throughout Nigeria for virus seropositivity and detected virus-specific IgG in cattle (24%) and goats (2%), highlighting the need for further investigations.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of Lassa Fever and Factors Associated with Deaths, Bauchi State, Nigeria, 2015–2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N53186c4a-b9b3-4dac-968c-1d6e13f07f5e

We report the epidemiology of Lassa fever in Bauchi State, a disease-endemic region, in Nigeria. Since 2015, major increases in Lassa fever attack rate and in the case-fatality rate have occurred in this state. A delay in seeking care by a case-patient for >7 days after symptom onset was the major predictor of death.

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<![CDATA[Use of Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System for Human Monkeypox Outbreak, Nigeria, 2017–2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N189ef751-262f-4ce3-bfeb-71ef76a573ef

In November 2017, the mobile digital Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System was deployed in 30 districts in Nigeria in response to an outbreak of monkeypox. Adaptation and activation of the system took 14 days, and its use improved timeliness, completeness, and overall capacity of the response.

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<![CDATA[Public finances and tobacco taxation with product variety: Theory and application to Senegal and Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14b2d5eed0c48467a641

This study endeavors to answer two questions: which category of excise taxes is more appropriate for Senegal and Nigeria and which consequences an increase of the tobacco taxes would have on the price, the demand and the tax revenues in each one of the two countries? To answer these questions, we adopt a double approach: first, a theoretical model of taxation with variety; and second, a simulation model to answer the second question. The results of the theoretical model indicate that, in the context of excise taxation, the number of products variety—or that of cigarette brands—directly affects both the degree of market concentration and the marginal effects of specific and ad valorem excise taxes on the price of tobacco. In addition, the comparison of the marginal effects of ad valorem and specific excise taxes depends on the marginal costs of production of different varieties weighted by the tax rates and the number of varieties. Our empirical results first show that the specific excise taxes are more adapted to Senegal while ad valorem excise taxes fit best Nigeria. This result crucially matters for the excise taxes are exclusively of an ad valorem nature in both Senegal and Nigeria. It is perfectly possible to envisage a situation where the two main forms of excise taxes could co-exist. It also appears from our results that tax development does not have the same implications for the two countries. Increasing tobacco taxes in Senegal strongly reduces the demand, but also induces a decrease in the tax revenues, while this will imply a lesser decline in demand in Nigeria accompanied however by a sharp increase of the country’s tax revenues. This difference stems from the fact that the price-elasticity of tobacco demand is very high in Senegal, contrary to Nigeria. Finally, it is important to mention that there is a specific threshold beyond which the tax increases cease to have a positive effect on tax revenues in Nigeria.

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<![CDATA[Evaluating the quality of antihypertensive drugs in Lagos State, Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc98fd5eed0c484529e32

Background

As the burden of noncommunicable diseases grows, access to safe medical therapy is increasing in importance. The aim of this study was to develop a method for evaluating the quality of antihypertensive drugs and to examine whether this prevalence varies by socioeconomic variables.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey of registered pharmacies in 6 local government areas (LGAs) in Lagos State, Nigeria. In each LGA, we sampled 17 pharmacies from a list of all registered pharmacies derived from the Pharmacists Council of Nigeria. We assessed drug quality based on (1) the level of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), which identified falsely labeled drug samples; and (2) the amount of impurities, which revealed substandard drug samples in accordance with the international pharmacopoeia guidelines. Good-quality drugs met specifications for both API and impurity.

Results

Of the 102 drug samples collected, 30 (29.3%) were falsely labeled, 76 (74.5%) were substandard,78 (76.5%) were of poor quality and 24 (23.5%) were of good quality.Among the falsely labeled drugs, 2 samples met standards set for purity while 28 did not. Among the 76 substandard drug samples, 28 were also falsely labeled. Of the falsely labeled drugs, 17 (56.7%) came from LGAs with low socioeconomic status, and 40 (52.6%) of the substandard drug samples came from LGAs with high socioeconomic status. Most of the good-quality drug samples, 14 (58.3%), were from LGAs with low socioeconomic status. Eighteen (60%) of the falsely labeled samples, 37 (48.7%) of the substandard samples, and 15 (62.5%) of the good-quality drug samples were from manufacturers based in Asia. The average price was 375.67 Nigerian naira (NGN) for falsely labeled drugs, 383.33 NGN for substandard drugs, and 375.67 NGN for good-quality drugs. The prevalence of falsely labeled and substandard drug samples did not differ by LGA-level socioeconomic status (P = .39) or region of manufacturer (P = .24); however, there was a trend for a difference by price (P = .06).

Conclusion

The prevalence of falsely labeled and substandard drug samples was high in Lagos. Treatment of noncommunicable diseases in this setting will require efforts to monitor and assure drug quality.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains isolated from livestock workers and cattle in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe6bd5eed0c484e5ba23

Molecular typing techniques are useful in understanding tuberculosis epidemiology; yet, they have been under-utilised at the human-animal interface in Nigeria. Sixty-four Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates including 42 M. tuberculosis, 13 M. bovis and nine M. africanum obtained from livestock workers (LW, n = 47) and their cattle (n = 17) in three geographical zones of Nigeria were genotyped to identify and evaluate the genetic diversity of the circulating MTBC using spoligotyping. Distribution into clades of M. tuberculosis revealed; 45.3% Uganda I- [SIT46- cattle: 1; LW: 28], 14.1% Latin American Mediterranean- [SIT61, cattle: 1; LW: 8], and 1.6% T- [SIT53—LW: 1]. The M. bovis strains were 6.3% SB0944 [cattle: 4] and 1.6% each of SB0300, SB1026, SB1027 and SB1439 [cattle: 4]. Seventeen MTBC isolates [cattle: 7; LW: 10] yielded 14 new spoligotype patterns including three M. tuberculosis strains (three isolates), five M. bovis strains (five isolates) and six M. africanum strains (nine isolates), two of which belonged to MAF1. Only few families namely, the not previously described Uganda I-, LAM and SB0944 are predominant among the LW and cattle, with other types in lower prevalences. The strain population structure indicates an intriguing diversity and possible zoonotic linkage with consequences for TB control in the country. The need to employ newer molecular techniques such as Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeats and whole genome sequence to decipher circulating MTBC strains in Nigeria is advocated.

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<![CDATA[Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus among HIV/ HCV co-infected patients in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d10d5eed0c484c81eb5

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with liver disease including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronically-infected persons. However, in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, increased rate of progression to cirrhosis and HCC has been reported. Limited information exists regarding genetic variants of HCV circulating among co-infected patients, which could be important in the design of broadly protective vaccine and management of the disease. Here, we determined the genotypes of HCV isolates circulating among HIV/HCV co-infected patients in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and twenty-five HIV/HCV IgM positive samples obtained from HIV laboratory, University of Ibadan were used for this study. HCV NS5B gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified NS5B gene was sequenced using gene specific primers. Twenty isolates were amplified, out of which 13 were successfully sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 13 sequenced isolates showed three HCV subtypes 1a, 3a and 5a belonging to genotypes 1, 3 and 5 respectively. Ten isolates (77%) belong to subtype 5a, followed by 2 isolates (15%) subtype 1a and 1 isolate (8%) was subtype 3a. The predominant HCV genotype was 5, followed by genotype 1 (subtype 1a). The findings, as well as the observed mutations in NS5B gene, indicate the need for screening and monitoring of HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Further study to determine the phylogeny of isolates circulating in other parts of Nigeria will be carried out.

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<![CDATA[Targeted HIV testing for male partners of HIV-positive pregnant women in a high prevalence setting in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52a8d5eed0c4842bcdc0

Background

Partner HIV testing during pregnancy has remained abysmally low in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Nigeria. Males rarely attend antenatal clinics with their female partners, limiting the few opportunities available to offer them HIV testing. In this study, we evaluated the scale-up of the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), a community-driven evidenced-based intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women and their male partners. Our objectives were to determine the: (1) male partner participation rate; (2) prevalence of HIV among male partners of pregnant women; (3) factors associated with HIV positivity among male partners of HIV-positive pregnant women.

Methods

We reviewed program data of expectant parents enrolled in HBI in Benue State, north-central Nigeria. During HBI, trained lay health workers provided educational and counseling sessions, and offered free onsite integrated testing for HIV, hepatitis B virus and sickle cell genotype to pregnant women and their male partners who participated in incentivized, church-organized baby showers. Each participant completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on demographics, lifestyle habits, and HIV testing history. Chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative male partners. Simple and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the association between participants' characteristics and HIV positivity among male partners of HIV-positive women.

Results

Male partner participation rate was 57% (5264/9231). Overall HIV prevalence was 6.1% (891/14495) with significantly higher rates in women (7.4%, 681/9231) compared to men (4.0%, 210/5264). Among the 681 HIV-positive women, 289 male partners received HIV testing; 37.7% (109/289) were found to be HIV-positive. In multivariate analysis, older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–4.72 for age 30–39 years vs. <30 years; aOR: 2.39, CI: 1.18–4.82 for age ≥40 years vs. <30 years) and self-reported daily alcohol intake (vs. never (aOR: 0.35, CI: 0.13–0.96)) were associated with HIV positivity in male partners of HIV-positive women.

Conclusion

The community-based congregational approach is a potential strategy to increase male partner HIV testing towards achieving the UNAIDS goal of 90% HIV screening. Targeting male partners of HIV-positive women for screening may provide a higher yield of HIV diagnosis and the opportunity to engage known positives in care in this population.

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<![CDATA[Quality of routine facility data for monitoring priority maternal and newborn indicators in DHIS2: A case study from Gombe State, Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e705d5eed0c484ef490d

Introduction

Routine health information systems are critical for monitoring service delivery. District Heath Information System, version 2 (DHIS2) is an open source software platform used in more than 60 countries, on which global initiatives increasingly rely for such monitoring. We used facility-reported data in DHIS2 for Gombe State, north-eastern Nigeria, to present a case study of data quality to monitor priority maternal and neonatal health indicators.

Methods

For all health facilities in DHIS2 offering antenatal and postnatal care services (n = 497) and labor and delivery services (n = 486), we assessed the quality of data for July 2016-June 2017 according to the World Health Organization data quality review guidance. Using data from DHIS2 as well as external facility-level and population-level household surveys, we reviewed three data quality dimensions—completeness and timeliness, internal consistency, and external consistency—and considered the opportunities for improvement.

Results

Of 14 priority maternal and neonatal health indicators that could be tracked through facility-based data, 12 were included in Gombe’s DHIS2. During July 2016-June 2017, facility-reported data in DHIS2 were incomplete at least 40% of the time, under-reported 10%-60% of the events documented in facility registers, and showed inconsistencies over time, between related indicators, and with an external data source. The best quality data elements were those that aligned with Gombe’s health program priorities, particularly older health programs, and those that reflected contact indicators rather than indicators related to the provision of commodities or content of care.

Conclusion

This case study from Gombe State, Nigeria, demonstrates the high potential for effective monitoring of maternal and neonatal health using DHIS2. However, coordinated action at multiple levels of the health system is needed to maximize reporting of existing data; rationalize data flow; routinize data quality review, feedback, and supervision; and ensure ongoing maintenance of DHIS2.

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<![CDATA[The influence of maternal agency on severe child undernutrition in conflict-ridden Nigeria: Modeling heterogeneous treatment effects with machine learning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5ebd5eed0c484caa176

Nigeria is one of the fastest growing African economies, yet struggles with armed conflict, poverty, and morbidity. An area of high concern is how this situation affects vulnerable families and their children. A key pathway in improving the situation for children in times of conflict is to reinforce maternal agency, for instance, through education. However, the state of the art of research lacks a clear understanding of how many years of education is needed before children benefit. Due to mother’s differing social context and ability, the effect of maternal education varies. We study the heterogeneous treatment effects of maternal agency, here operationalized as length of education, on severe child undernutrition in the context of armed conflict. We deploy a repeated cross-sectional study design, using the Nigeria 2008 and 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The sample covers 25,917 children and their respective mothers. A key methodological challenge is to estimate this heterogeneity inductively. The causal inference literature proposes a machine learning approach, Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART), as a promising avenue to overcome this challenge. Based on BART-estimation of the Conditional Average Treatment Effect (CATE) this study confirms earlier findings in that maternal education decreases severe child undernutrition, but only when mothers acquire an education that lasts more than the country’s compulsory 9 years; that is 10 years of education and higher. This protective effect remains even during the exposure of armed conflict.

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<![CDATA[Variation in the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to botanicals across a metropolitan region of Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa595d5eed0c484ca6104

Pesticide resistance is normally associated with genetic changes, resulting in varied responses to insecticides between different populations. There is little evidence of resistance to plant allelochemicals; it is likely that their efficacy varies between genetically diverse populations, which may lead to the development of resistance in the future. This study evaluated the response of Anopheles gambiae (larvae and adults) from spatially different populations to acetone extracts of two botanicals, Piper guineense and Eugenia aromatica. Mosquito samples from 10 locations within Akure metropolis in Southwest Nigeria were tested for variation in susceptibility to the toxic effect of botanical extracts. The spatial distribution of the tolerance magnitude (T.M.) of the mosquito populations to the botanicals was also mapped. The populations of An. gambiae manifested significant differences in their level of tolerance to the botanicals. The centre of the metropolis was the hot spot of tolerance to the botanicals. There was a significant positive correlation between the adulticidal activities of both botanicals and initial knockdown. Hence, knockdown by these botanicals could be a predictor of their subsequent mortality. In revealing variation in response to botanical pesticides, our work has demonstrated that any future use of botanicals as alternative environmentally friendly vector control chemicals needs to be closely monitored to ensure that resistance does not develop.

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<![CDATA[Predictors of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests’ utilisation among healthcare workers in Zamfara State]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b48d5eed0c4846eb439

Introduction

Early diagnosis and prompt and effective treatment is one of the pillars of malaria control. Malaria case management guidelines recommend diagnostic testing before treatment using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) or microscopy and this was adopted in Nigeria in 2010. However, despite the deployment of mRDT, the use of mRDTs by health workers varies by settings. This study set out to assess factors influencing utilisation of mRDT among healthcare workers in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was carried out among 306 healthcare workers selected using multistage sampling from six Local Government Areas between January and February 2017. Mixed method was used for data collection. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, use of mRDT and factors influencing utilization. An observational checklist was used to assess the availability of mRDT in the six months prior to this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as means and proportions. Association between mRDT use and independent variables was tested using Chi square while multiple regression was used to determine predictors of use at 5% level of significance.

Results

Mean age of respondents was 36.0 ± 9.4years. Overall, 198 (64.7%) of health workers had good knowledge of mRDT; mRDT was available in 33 (61.1%) facilities. Routine use of mRDT was reported by 253 (82.7%) healthcare workers. This comprised 89 (35.2%) laboratory scientists/technicians, 89 (35.2%) community health extension workers/community health officers; 59 (23.3%) nurses and 16 (6.3%) doctors. Health workers’ good knowledge of mRDT, trust in mRDT results, having received prior training on mRDT, and non-payment for mRDT were predictors of mRDT utilisation.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that healthcare worker utilisation of mRDT was associated with health worker and health system-related factors that are potentially modifiable. There is need to sustain training of healthcare workers on benefits of using mRDT and provision of free mRDT in health facilities.

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<![CDATA[Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) GLY2019SER mutation is absent in a second cohort of Nigerian Africans with Parkinson disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed789d5eed0c484f14346

To date the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation remains the most common genetic cause of Parkinson disease (PD) worldwide. It accounts for up to 6% of familial and approximately 1.5% of sporadic cases. LRRK2 has a kinase enzymatic domain which provides an attractive potential target for drug therapies and LRRK2 kinase inhibitors are in development. Prevalence of the p.G2019S has a variable ethnic and geographic distribution, the highest reported among Ashkenazi Jews (30% in patients with familial PD, 14% in sporadic PD, 2.0% in controls) and North African Berbers (37% in patients with familial PD, 41% in sporadic PD, and 1% in controls). Little is known about the frequency of the LRRK2 p.G2019S among populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Our group and others previously reported that the p.G2019S is absent in a small cohort of Nigerian PD patients and controls. Here we used Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assay to screen for the p.G2019S in a larger cohort of Black African PD patients (n = 126) and healthy controls (n = 54) from Nigeria. Our analysis confirmed that all patients and controls are negative for the p.G2019S mutation. This report provides further evidence that the LRRK2 p.G2019S is not implicated in PD in black populations from Nigeria and support the notion that p.G2019S mutation originated after the early human dispersal from sub-Saharan Africa. Further studies using larger cohorts and advance sequencing technology are required to underpin the genetic causes of PD in this region.

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<![CDATA[Removal of adult subconjunctival Loa loa amongst urban dwellers in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf5cbe7d5eed0c484a80bfe

Loiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Loa loa. It is a disease considered by many to be benign. Several reports of trans border importation of the Loa loa worm amongst immigrants and visitors from endemic regions of the world exist. In most cases an adult subconjunctival worm is removed from the patient. An interventional case series is reported and examines the practice of removal of subconjunctival adult Loa loa worms amongst urban dwellers in Nigeria. Four cases of ocular loiasis seen amongst urban dwellers in Nigeria exemplify the different presentations and removal methods of the subconjunctival adult worm. There were 2 males and 2 females aged 35years, 23years, 25years and 30years respectively. Each patient gave a history of having been raised in a rural community in childhood years, during which they were exposed to streams and muddy farm land; and then migrated to the urban community in later years. They all present with the finding of a subconjunctival adult worm, which was successfully removed and identified to be Loa loa. There are more urban dwellers in Nigeria who present with symptoms of foreign body sensation that may be related to the manifestation of a subconjunctival worm and are not recognized. This is because the emphasis on this disease has erstwhile been on the rural, village dwellers and not on urban dwellers. Eye care practitioners working in urban centers need to be aware of the possibility of this presentation, and be ready to remove any subconjunctival worm when it presents.

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<![CDATA[Genetic characterization of Lassa virus strains isolated from 2012 to 2016 in southeastern Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae454d5eed0c484589662

Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in parts of West Africa where it causes Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever with frequent fatal outcomes. The diverse LASV strains are grouped into six major lineages based on the geographical location of the isolated strains. In this study, we have focused on the lineage II strains from southern Nigeria. We determined the viral sequences from positive cases of LF reported at tertiary hospitals in Ebonyi and Enugu between 2012 and 2016. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that 29 out of 123 suspected cases were positive for the virus among which 11 viral gene sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequences of the four viral proteins revealed that lineage II strains are broadly divided into two genetic clades that diverged from a common ancestor 195 years ago. One clade, consisting of strains from Ebonyi and Enugu, was more conserved than the other from Irrua, although the four viral proteins were evolving at similar rates in both clades. These results suggested that the viruses of these clades have been distinctively evolving in geographically separate parts of southern Nigeria. Furthermore, the epidemiological data of the 2014 outbreak highlighted the role of human-to-human transmission in this outbreak, which was supported by phylogenetic analysis showing that 13 of the 16 sequences clustered together. These results provide new insights into the evolution of LASV in southern Nigeria and have important implications for vaccine development, diagnostic assay design, and LF outbreak management.

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<![CDATA[Human Exposure to Novel Bartonella Species from Contact with Fruit Bats ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c168699d5eed0c484444055

Twice a year in southwestern Nigeria, during a traditional bat festival, community participants enter designated caves to capture bats, which are then consumed for food or traded. We investigated the presence of Bartonella species in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) and bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana) from these caves and assessed whether Bartonella infections had occurred in persons from the surrounding communities. Our results indicate that these bats and flies harbor Bartonella strains, which multilocus sequence typing indicated probably represent a novel Bartonella species, proposed as Bartonella rousetti. In serum from 8 of 204 persons, we detected antibodies to B. rousetti without cross-reactivity to other Bartonella species. This work suggests that bat-associated Bartonella strains might be capable of infecting humans.

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<![CDATA[Aetiology of neonatal sepsis in Nigeria, and relevance of Group b streptococcus: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b600f88463d7e3af00e5a8d

Background

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes invasive infections in neonates and has been implicated as a cause of prelabour rupture of membranes, preterm delivery and stillbirths. The success of phase II trials of polyvalent polysaccharide GBS vaccines indicates that these infections are potentially preventable. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with one of the highest birth rates, one of the highest neonatal sepsis incidence rates and one of the highest mortality rates in the world. Therefore, before the possible introduction of preventive strategies such as intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis or GBS vaccine into Nigeria, it is vital that there is accurate data on the aetiology of neonatal sepsis and on the incidence of GBS neonatal sepsis in particular. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and aetiology of neonatal sepsis in Nigeria with a focus on GBS sepsis and also to assess the potential impact of a GBS vaccine.

Methods

A literature search was conducted on the databases of African journals online, PubMed and Google Scholar for works conducted between 1987 to 2017. Case reports, reviews, and studies not stating specific culture methods or specific bacteria isolated were excluded. Data extracted included; incidence of neonatal sepsis, method of blood culture, blood volume, sample size, bacterial agents isolated and history of antibiotic use. PRISMA guidelines were followed and modified Down’s and Black criteria used to evaluate the quality of studies.

Results

A total of 5,114 studies were reviewed for neonatal sepsis out of which 24 consisting of a total of 2,280 cases were selected for final review. Nine studies met criteria for assessment of hospital based incidence of neonatal sepsis representing 31,305 hospital births. The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 18.2/1000 livebirths with range from 7-55/1000 livebirths while the GBS incidence was 0.06/1000 livebirths with range from 0-2/1000 live births. We discovered various limitations such as identification techniques that could result in underestimation of the true incidence of GBS sepsis. Pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were more commonly isolated than GBS.

Implications of key findings

The hospital based incidence of neonatal sepsis was high at 18.2/1000 live births while that due to GBS was 0.06/1000 live births. The burden of neonatal sepsis, including that attributable to GBS is substantial and could be reduced by preventive strategies such as intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis or GBS vaccine. There is however very sparse meaningful data currently. Well planned prospective studies with larger sample sizes, more advanced isolation and identification techniques and those following up invasive disease cases for possible short and long term sequelae are needed—not only prior to possible introduction of the vaccine to determine the baseline epidemiology, but also thereafter to monitor its impact on the population. Strategies need to be developed to also reduce the morbidity and mortality attributable to other bacteria that have an incidence even greater than that of GBS.

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