ResearchPad - nonruminant-nutrition-and-feed-processing https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Hot melt extruded-based nano zinc as an alternative to the pharmacological dose of ZnO in weanling piglets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14461 This study was conducted to investigate the effects of hot-melt extruded ZnO nano-particles (HME-ZnO) as an alternative for P-ZnO on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, Zn bioavailability, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.MethodsA total of 450 piglets (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) were randomly allotted to five treatments based on initial body weight and sex. The experimental diets were fed in a meal form as phase 1 from d 0 to 14 and phase 2 from d 15 to 28. Treatments were the control diet without ZnO supplementation, the diet containing 2,500 ppm Zn as ZnO, and three diets containing 500, 1,000, or 2,500 ppm Zn as HME-ZnO.ResultsThe overall result showed a higher (p<0.01) average daily gain in weanling pigs fed ZnO-supplemented diets in comparison to the control diet. There was a decrease (p<0.01) in fecal score in the ZnO-supplemented diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnO improved (p<0.05) crude protein digestibility. The weanling pigs fed the P-ZnO diet had a lower (p< 0.01) Zn digestibility in the feces than HME-ZnO supplemented treatments. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with ZnO had greater (p<0.05) Lactobacillus spp. populations and lower Clostridium spp. (p<0.05) and Coliforms (p<0.01) populations in the ileum. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with increasing concentrations of HME-ZnO linearly decreased Clostridium spp. (p<0.05) and Coliforms (p<0.01) in the ileum. Lower (p<0.05) Clostridium spp. and Coliforms counts in the colon were observed in pigs fed with ZnO-supplemented diets. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with ZnO showed a greater (p<0.01) villus height in the duodenum.ConclusionDietary supplementation of HME-ZnO and P-ZnO showed a potential to improve the digestibility of protein, intestinal Coliform and Clostridium, villus height in duodenum and ileum. Moreover, HME-ZnO showed a higher Zn digestibility compared with P-ZnO. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate and lipase supplementation on growth performance, gut health, and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14445 To evaluate calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate (CSL) performance as an exogenous emulsifier together with lipase for broiler diets.MethodsIn total, 252 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated in a completely randomized design to give 6 replications per treatment with 7 birds in each cage. There were six dietary treatments representing a 2×3 factorial arrangement consisted of two energy levels (standard energy [positive control, PC] and −100 kcal/kg of the requirement level [negative control, NC]) and three dietary treatments (without additives [CON], CON+CSL [CSL], and CON+CSL+lipase [CSL-Lipase]). Corn and soybean meal-based experimental diets containing vegetable oil were formulated. Growth performance, blood parameters, visceral organ weights, ileal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and cytokine gene expression were measured.ResultsBirds fed a diet including CSL increased (p<0.05) lipase level in blood compared to birds fed a diet including CSL-Lipase on day 21. Similarly, higher (p<0.05) liver weight was observed in birds fed a diet including either CSL or CSL-Lipase on day 21. Birds fed NC diet with CSL improved (p<0.05) nutrient digestibility compared to the NC diet on day 21. However, birds fed a diet supplemented with CSL or CSL-Lipase did not affect (p>0.05) the weight gain, feed efficiency, ileal morphology, and cytokine concentrations during the experiment period, regardless of dietary energy levels.ConclusionOur results indicated that CSL has a role in improving nutrient digestibility in young birds when supplemented to a corn-soybean meal based broiler diet. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of stale maize on growth performance, immunity, intestinal morphology and antioxidant capacity in broilers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N877aa741-9fc6-499d-9902-49d6f368bc6a

Objective

This study was conducted to determine the effects of stale maize on growth performance, immunity, intestinal morphology, and antioxidant capacity in broilers.

Methods

A total of 800 one-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers (45.4±0.5 g) were blocked based on body weight, and then allocated randomly to 2 treatments with 20 cages per treatment and 20 broilers per cage in this 6-week experiment. Dietary treatments included a basal diet and diets with 100% of control maize replaced by stale maize.

Results

The content of fat acidity value was higher (p<0.05) while the starch, activities of catalase and peroxidase were lower (p<0.05) than the control maize. Feeding stale maize diets reduced (p<0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) throughout the experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR) during d 0 to 21 and the whole experiment as well as relative weight of liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus (p<0.05) on d 21. Feeding stale maize diets decreased jejunum villus height (VH) and VH/crypt depth (CD) (p<0.05) on d 21 and 42 as well as ileum VH/CD on d 42. The levels of immunoglobulin G, acid α-naphthylacetate esterase positive ratios and lymphocyte proliferation on d 21 and 42 as well as lysozyme activity and avian influenza antibody H5N1 titer on d 21 decreased (p<0.05) by the stale maize. Feeding stale maize diets reduced (p<0.05) serum interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-2 on d 21 and interleukin-6 on d 21 and 42. Broilers fed stale maize diets had lower levels of (p<0.05) total antioxidative capacity on d 42, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase on d 21 and 42, but higher (p<0.05) levels of malondialdehyde on d 21 and 42.

Conclusion

Feeding 100% stale maize decreased ADFI and FCR, caused adverse effects on immunity and antioxidant function and altered intestinal morphology in broilers.

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<![CDATA[Effects of the dietary digestible fiber-to-starch ratio on pellet quality, growth and cecal microbiota of Angora rabbits]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79d3607f-7493-4c07-85c3-de016e255add

Objective

Substituting starch with digestible fiber (dF) can improve digestive health of rabbits and reduce costs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a criterion for dF and starch supply. Effects of the dietary dF-to-starch ratio on pellet quality, growth and cecal microbiota of Angora rabbits were evaluated.

Methods

Five isoenergetic and isoproteic diets with increasing dF/starch ratios (0.59, 0.66, 0.71, 1.05, and 1.44) were formulated. A total of 120 Angora rabbits with an average live weight of 2.19 kg were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates. At the end of 40 day feeding trial, cecal digesta were collected to analyse microbiota.

Results

The results showed that the dF/starch ratio had linear effects on pellet variables (p< 0.01). When the dF/starch ratio was 1.44, the pellets had the lowest powder and highest durability. The dF/starch ratio had unfavorable linear effects on growth variables (p<0.001). When analyzed by quadratic regression, the optimal dF/starch ratios for average weight gain and feed/gain were 0.59 and 0.74, respectively. There were differences in wool yield, fiber length and fiber diameter caused by the dF/starch ratio (p<0.05), and the dF/starch ratios that ranged from 0.66 to 1.06 were appropriate for good results. The cecal microbiota operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number index in the 1.05 dF/starch treatment was higher than that in the 0.66 and 0.71 dF/starch treatments. The higher dF/starch ratio resulted in a higher cecal microbiota OTU number index (p<0.05). The proportion of Ruminococcus in the 0.71 dF/starch treatment was higher than that in the 0.59 dF/starch treatment (p<0.05)

Conclusion

The most suitable dF/starch ratio for feed pellet quality is 1.44, and for rabbit growth the optimal range of ratios is from 0.59 to 0.74. With combination of the wool growth, output cost, and cecal microbiota, we suggest that a dietary dF/starch ratio ranging from 0.74 to 1.06 is optimal.

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<![CDATA[Effects of supplemented culture media from solid-state fermented Isaria cicadae on performance, serum biochemical parameters, serum immune indexes, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broiler chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf843cf0d-52aa-415d-a677-c25ea96564b7

Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate effects of supplementation of culture media from solid-state fermented Isaria cicadae (I. cicadae) on performance, serum biochemical parameters, serum immune indexes, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broiler chickens.

Methods

A total of 648 Arbor Acres male broiler chickens(1 d; average body weight, 42.93± 0.47 g) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each with six replicates and 18 broiler chickens per replicate. Broiler chickens were fed phase I (d 1 to 21) and phase II (d 22 to 42) diets. The phase I diets were corn and soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, or 10% culture media from solid-state fermented I. cicadae respectively. The phase II diets were corn and soybean-meal based diets supplemented with 0%, 1.33%, 2.67%, 4.00%, 5.32%, or 6.67% culture media from solid-state fermented I. cicadae respectively.

Results

In phase I, the broiler chickens with the supplementation of culture media had increased body weight gain and feed intake (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing inclusion of culture media. The levels of serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly (p<0.05). In phase II, levels of serum T-AOC and interleukin-1β increased linearly (p<0.05), and GSH increased (p<0.05). In the kidney, GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) concentrations increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) and SOD concentration increased linearly (p<0.05). Compared to the control, shear force and drip loss of breast muscle decreased (linear and quadratic, p< 0.05). Drip loss of leg muscle decreased linearly and quadratically (p<0.05).

Conclusion

Dietary supplementation of culture media from solid-state fermented I.cicadae which was enriched in both wheat and residual bioactive components of I. cicadae enhanced the growth performance of broiler chickens. It also improved body anti-oxidative status and contributed to improve broiler meat quality.

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<![CDATA[Changes in growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune blood profiles, fecal microbial and fecal gas emission of growing pigs in response to zinc aspartic acid chelate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N82f46b4a-fcbd-4762-942d-de5d2584ba17

Objective

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc aspartic acid chelate (Zn-ASP) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial and fecal gas emission in growing pigs.

Methods

A total of 160 crossbred ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc) growing pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.56±2.22 kg were used in a 6-wk trial. Pigs were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their sex and BW (8 replicates with 2 gilts and 3 barrows per replication pen). Treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet, ii) TRT1, CON+0.1% Zn-ASP, iii) TRT2, CON+0.2% Zn-ASP, and iv) TRT3, CON+0.3% Zn-ASP. Pens were assigned in a randomized complete block design to compensate for known position effects in the experimental facility.

Results

In the current study, BW, average daily gain, and gain:feed ratio showed significant improvement as dietary Zn-ASP increased (p<0.05) in growing pigs. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter was increased linearly (p<0.05) in pigs fed with Zn-ASP diets. A linear effect (p<0.05) was detected for the Zn concentration in blood with the increasing levels of Zn-ASP supplementation. Lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria were affected linearly (p<0.05) in pigs fed with Zn-ASP diets. However, no significant differences were observed in the ATTD of nitrogen, energy and Zn. And dietary Zn-ASP supplementation did not affect fecal ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and total mercaptans emissions in growing pigs.

Conclusion

In conclusion, dietary supplementation with Zn-ASP of diet exerted beneficial effects on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles and fecal microbes in growing pigs.

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<![CDATA[Influence of dietary supplementation of autolyzed whole yeast and yeast cell wall products on broiler chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naf2b95d4-7259-485c-ab49-6356cdf0fe5b

Objective

This study evaluated the effect of yeast products on growth performance, visceral organ weights, endogenous enzyme activities, ileal nutrient digestibility and meat yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing autolyzed whole yeast (WY) and yeast cell walls (YCW) at varying levels of inclusion.

Methods

Nine dietary treatments consisting of WY or YCW included at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 g/kg diet and a control diet without yeast supplementation was used in the experiment. Each of the nine treatments was replicated six times with nine birds per replicate. Birds were housed in cages, in climate-controlled rooms and fed starter, grower and finisher diets.

Results

There was an improvement (p<0.05) in body weight gain and feed conversion ratio on d 10, 24, and 35 for birds fed 1.0 to 2.0 g/kg WY or YCW diet. Small intestine weight was heavier on d 10 and 24 for birds on higher levels of WY and YCW compared to the control group. On d 10 and 24, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in tissue protein content and pancreatic enzyme activities (trypsin and chymotrypsin) of birds on 1.5 to 2.0 g/kg WY and YCW diets compared to the control group. Compared to the control group, birds on WY (2.0 g/kg diet) and YCW (at 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg diet) had better (p<0.05) protein digestibility on d 24. On d 35, there was significant improvement (p<0.05) in percentage of carcass, absolute and relative breast weight for broiler chickens fed WY and YCW mostly at 2 g/kg diet compared to birds on the control diet.

Conclusion

Supplementation of diets with autolyzed WY and YCW products especially at 1.5 to 2.0 g/kg diet improved broiler chicken performance and meat yield through their positive effects on ileal protein digestibility and pancreatic enzyme activities.

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<![CDATA[Neutral detergent fiber rather than other dietary fiber types as an independent variable increases the accuracy of prediction equation for digestible energy in feeds for growing pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf1d1a871-0c01-46cd-9ebb-9ba7aa909922

Objective

The objectives were to investigate correlations between energy digestibility (digestible energy [DE]:gross energy [GE]) and various fiber types including crude fiber (CF), total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF), and to develop prediction equations for estimating DE in feed ingredients and diets for growing pigs.

Methods

A total of 289 data with DE values and chemical composition of feeds from 39 studies were used to develop prediction equations for DE. The equations were validated using values provided by the National Research Council.

Results

The DE values in feed ingredients ranged from 2,011 to 4,590 kcal/kg dry matter (DM) and those in diets ranged from 2,801 to 4,203 kcal/kg DM. In feed ingredients, DE:GE was negatively correlated (p<0.001) with NDF (r = −0.84), IDF (r = −0.83), TDF (r = −0.82), ADF (r = −0.78), and CF (r = −0.72). A best-fitting model for DE (kcal/kg) in feed ingredients was: 1,356 + (0.704 × GE, kcal/kg) − (60.3 × ash, %) − (27.7 × NDF, %) with R2 = 0.80 and p<0.001. In diets, DE:GE was negatively correlated (p<0.01) with NDF (r = −0.72), IDF (r = −0.61), TDF (r = −0.52), CF (r = −0.45), and ADF (r = −0.34). A best-fitting model for DE (kcal/kg) in diets was: 1,551 + (0.606 × GE, kcal/kg) − (22.1 × ash, %) − (25.6 × NDF, %) with R2 = 0.62 and p<0.001. All variables are expressed as DM basis. The equation developed for DE in feed ingredients had greater accuracy than a published equation for DE.

Conclusion

All fiber types are reasonably good independent variables for predicting DE of swine feeds. The best-fitting model for predicting DE of feeds employed neutral detergent fiber as an independent variable.

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<![CDATA[Low-dose of organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without compromising performance of laying hens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3b5fc383-d444-4c5a-92a3-bf7ce3b23a6e

Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low doses of organic trace minerals (iron, copper, manganese, and zinc) on productive performance, egg quality, yolk and tissue mineral retention, and fecal mineral excretion of laying hens during the late laying period.

Methods

A total of 405 healthy hens (HY-Line White, 50-week-old) were randomly divided into 3 treatments, with 9 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. The dietary treatments included feeding a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at commercial levels (CON), a basal diet + inorganic trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (ITM), and a basal diet + proteinated trace minerals at 1/3 commercial levels (TRT). The trial lasted for 56 days.

Results

Compared to CON, ITM decreased (p<0.05) egg production, daily egg mass, albumen height, eggshell strength, yolk Fe concentration, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and total protein, and increased (p<0.05) egg loss and feed to egg ratio. Whereas with productive performance, egg quality, yolk mineral retention, and serum indices there were no differences (p>0.05) between CON and TRT. The concentrations of Fe and Mn in the tissue and tibia were changed notably in ITM relative to CON and TRT. Both ITM and TRT reduced (p< 0.05) fecal mineral excretion compared to CON.

Conclusion

These results indicate that dietary supplementation of low-dose organic trace minerals reduced fecal mineral excretion without negatively impacting hen performance and egg quality.

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<![CDATA[Reducing lesion incidence in pork carcasses by heating foot-and-mouth disease vaccine before injection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N30db0198-b13b-42e8-bf15-2b638e896346

Objective

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of heating of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine before injection, on the incidence of lesions at the injection site (pork butt), amount of discarded meat, and economical benefit.

Methods

In total, 101,086 piglets raised in 30 farms, were vaccinated in the neck with 2 mL of FMD vaccine at 56 d and 84 d of age using a commercial syringe. The heat treatment group (48,511 pigs) was injected with the FMD vaccine after it had been heated in a water bath at 40°C for 20 min. After slaughter, the incidence of lesions on the pork butt was inspected, and the subsequent amount of discarded meat was recorded.

Results

Heat treatment of FMD vaccine reduced the incident rate of lesions on the pork butt (p<0.01). Overall, 17.81% of the pigs in the heat treatment group had lesions, while the incident rate in the control group was 21.70%. The amount of discarded meat per head of total pigs and per head of pigs with lesions were significantly lower in the heat treatment group than the control group (p<0.01). Thus, the proportion of discarded meat to dressed carcass was lower in the heat treatment group (0.249%) compared with the control group (0.338%) (p<0.01). Farms that rear 1,000 sows can gain 1,863,289 KRW (1,600 USD) in one year when they adopt heat treatment of FMD vaccine before injection.

Conclusion

Heat treatment of FMD vaccine using simple heat equipment (water bath) can be effective in reducing lesions caused by FMD vaccination and increase the economic benefits in pig farms.

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<![CDATA[Moderate tetrabasic zinc chloride supplementation improves growth performance and reduces diarrhea incidence in weaned pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8960ab31-c36c-4d87-9997-5e3fcd3ba17e

Objective

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC) on the health of weaned pigs, and to determine the optimal supplemental concentrations and whether dietary TBZC could replace the pharmacological concentrations of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) to improve growth performance and decrease Zn excretion in weaned pigs.

Methods

In Exp. 1, 180 weaned pigs (8.92±1.05 kg body weight [BW]) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments, including the basal diet containing 125 mg/kg zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), and the basal diet with 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, or 3,000 mg/kg TBZC supplementation. In Exp. 2, 240 weaned pigs (7.66±1.09 kg BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments, including a negative control diet without Zn supplementation, a positive control diet (2,250 mg/kg ZnO), and 3 experimental diets with different concentrations of TBZC supplementation (1,000, 1,250, and 1,500 mg/kg).

Results

In Exp. 1, the average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (G:F) and diarrhea incidence responded quadratically (p<0.01) as the TBZC supplemental concentrations increased, and pigs fed 1,200 and 1,800 mg/kg TBZC showed the best growth performance. Moreover, 1,800 mg/kg TBZC supplementation showed the greatest (p<0.01) total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activities in liver of pigs. Histopathological examination revealed lesions in heart, liver, lung and kidney, and mild or severe histological lesions mainly occurred with the supplementation of 2,400 and 3,000 mg/kg TBZC. In Exp. 2, 1,000 and 1,250 mg/kg TBZC supplementation in diets significantly (p<0.01) increased ADG and G:F of weaned pigs, reduced Zn excretion in feces, and had no effect on diarrhea-reducing compared to 2,250 mg/kg ZnO supplementation.

Conclusion

The TBZC is a potential alternative to ZnO. The recommended concentration of TBZC in weaned pig diets is 1,000 to 1,250 mg/kg.

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<![CDATA[Effects of absorbents on growth performance, blood profiles and liver gene expression in broilers fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N635c03f7-2e2f-4480-9747-7490090bc160

Objective

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the absorbent (a mixture of activated carbon and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate) on growth performance, blood profiles and hepatic genes expression in broilers fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin.

Methods

A total of 1,200 one-day-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 10 replicate cages per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: i) control (basal diets); ii) 50% contaminated corn; iii) 100% contaminated corn; iv) control+1% adsorbent; v) 50% contaminated corn+1% absorbent; vi) 100% contaminated corn+1% absorbent.

Results

During d 1 to 21, feeding contaminated diets reduced (p<0.05) body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI), but increased (p<0.05) feed-to-gain ratio (F/G). The absorbent supplementation increased (p<0.05) BW, ADG, and ADFI. There were interactions (p<0.05) in BW, ADG, and ADFI between contaminated corn and absorbent. Overall, birds fed 100% contaminated diets had lower (p<0.05) final BW and ADG, but higher (p<0.05) F/G compared to those fed control diets. The absorbent addition increased (p<0.05) serum albumin concentration on d 14 and 28 and total protein (TP) level on d 28, decreased (p<0.05) alanine transaminase activity on d 14 and activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase on d 28. Feeding contaminated diets reduced (p<0.05) hepatic TP content on d 28 and 42. The contaminated diets upregulated (p<0.05) expression of interleukin-6, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but downregulated (p<0.05) glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression in liver. The absorbent supplementation increased (p<0.05) interleukin-1β, CAT, SOD, cytochrome P450 1A1 and GST expression in liver. There were interactions (p<0.05) in the expression of hepatic CAT, SOD, and GST between contaminated corn and absorbent.

Conclusion

The results suggest that the naturally aflatoxin-contaminated corn depressed growth performance, while the adsorbent could partially attenuate the adverse effects of aflatoxin on growth performance, blood profiles and hepatic genes expression in broilers.

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<![CDATA[Physiological impact on layer chickens fed corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nefbd6505-5d16-4179-a29a-fdd3cf6b4235

Objective

An experiment was conducted to investigate the response of laying hens fed corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) that are naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON).

Methods

One hundred and sixty 52-week-old Lohmann Brown Lite hens were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 8 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were formulated to provide a range of corn DDGS contaminated with DON from 0% to 20% (i.e., 5% scale of increment). All laying hens were subjected to the same management practices in a controlled environment. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured biweekly for the entire 8-week experiment. The egg quality was measured biweekly for 8 weeks. On weeks 4 and 8, visceral organ weights, blood metabolites, intestinal morphology, and blood cytokine concentrations were measured.

Results

The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet did not alter (p> 0.05) the body weight, feed intake, hen-day egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency of the laying hens. No difference was found (p>0.05) in the egg quality of hens that were fed the dietary treatments. Furthermore, hens that were fed a diet containing corn DDGS contaminated with DON showed no change (p>0.05) in the visceral organ weights, the blood metabolites, and the cytokine concentrations. The crypt depth increased (p<0.05) as the amount of corn DDGS contaminated with DON increased. Proportionately, the villus height to crypt depth ratio of the laying hens decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet.

Conclusion

The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON up to 20% in layer diets did not cause changes in egg production performance and egg quality, which indicates that DON is less toxic at the concentration of 1.00 mg DON/kg.

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<![CDATA[Effects of particle size and lipid form of corn on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets for growing pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7282b621-1d5c-4de7-9d7f-858c002fde70

Objective

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn particle size and lipid form on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets for growing pigs.

Methods

In Exp. 1, thirty barrows (initial body weight [BW], 53.1±3.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 5 diets formulated with 96.9% corn ground to 441, 543, 618, 659, and 768 μm, respectively. In Exp. 2, thirty-six barrows (initial BW, 54.7±3.6 kg) were allotted to 1 of 6 diets formulated by including 2% or 15% corn germ (CG 2 or CG 15), 1% or 6% corn oil (CO 1 or CO 6), 1% CO+2% corn germ meal (CO 1+CGM 2), or 6% CO+15% corn germ meal (CO 6+CGM 15), respectively.

Results

The ATTD of gross energy (GE) and the digestible energy (DE) in diet and corn grain linearly decreased as the corn particle size increased (p<0.05) from 441 to 768 μm. Particle size had a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on the ATTD of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber in diets, and which firstly increased and then decreased as the corn particle size increased from 441 to 618 μm and 618 to 768 μm, respectively. The ATTD of GE, ether extract (EE), and the DE in CO 1 diet and CO 6 diet was greater (p<0.05) than that in CG 2 diet and CG 15 diet, respectively. The ATTD of EE in CO 6 diet and CO 6+CGM 15 diet was greater (p<0.05) than that in CO 1 diet and CO 1+CGM 2 diet.

Conclusion

Less than 618 μm was recommended for corn particle size in growing pig’s diet and extracted lipid had greater digestibility than the intact lipid in corn. Higher concentration of extracted CO had greater digestibility of EE compared with lower concentrations of CO diet.

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<![CDATA[Effect of including n-3/n-6 fatty acid feed sources in diet on fertility and hatchability of broiler breeders and post-hatch performance and carcass parameters of progeny]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7d07ce49-8eb6-41bd-be3f-b4364453f440

Objective

The present trial was conducted to determine the influence of different dietary fatty acid (omega-3 and omega-6) sources on reproductive performance of female broiler breeders and growth performance and carcass traits of their progeny.

Methods

Two hundred and twenty, 25 weeks old Ross-308 male (20) and female (200) broiler breeders were used in the experiment for the period of 6 weeks. All birds were randomly divided into four dietary treatments (containing 2% soybean oil, 2% sunflower oil, 2% flaxseed oil, and 2% fish oil) each with five replicates of one male and ten females. Throughout this experiment hatching performance of broiler breeders, progeny growth performance and carcass parameters were recorded.

Results

The results showed that the inclusion of different fatty acid sources in female broiler breeders diet had no significant effects (p>0.05) on number of fertile eggs, post-hatch mortality, and fertility rate. The soybean oil supplemented group had significantly (p<0.05) higher late embryonic mortality compared to other three treatments.

Conclusion

It was concluded that inclusion of 2% of different sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (especially 2% flax seed oil) in broiler breeders’ diet can reduce late embryonic mortality. The other reproductive characteristics of parents and growth and carcass characteristics of progeny remained unaltered by dietary sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

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<![CDATA[Effect of dietary sesame (Sesame indicum L) seed meal level supplemented with lysine and phytase on performance traits and antioxidant status of late-phase laying hens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na8330ad2-245a-4f60-89bf-1bb46cb9c51c

Objective

This study was performed to investigate the effects of supplementing sesame seed meal (SSM) with phytase and lysine on performance, egg quality, blood biochemical and antioxidant status of laying hens.

Methods

A total of 960, 56-wk-old laying hens were divided into 12 dietary groups with eight replicates per group (10 birds per replicate). A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 2×3×2 consisted of two levels of lysine supplement (0% and 10% over requirement), three SSM levels (0%, 10%, and 20%) with or without phytase (0 and 300 g/ton). The feeding trial lasted 10 weeks.

Results

Birds fed diets with 10% SSM had higher feed intake than groups fed 0% and 20% SSM. The addition of phytase to experimental feeds, improved feed conversion ratio, increased egg weight and mass (p<0.01). Egg quality criteria was not affected by supplementing phytase; however, supplementing 300 g/ton phytase to hens diet, led to a significant (p<0.05) increase in egg shell strength. Egg yolk cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index and total cholesterol were decreased (p<0.01) by diet containing 20% SSM. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased (p<0.05) in serum of hens fed 20% SSM than the other groups. It was also observed that total antioxidant capacity and total superoxide dismutase content of hens fed 20% SSM was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05).

Conclusion

As from results, dietary supplementation of SSM and phytase had no negative effects on laying hens performance or egg quality while improving the egg oxidative stability.

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<![CDATA[Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, serum hormones levels and gene expression of Na+, K+-ATPase in ducklings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b47847d463d7e71e4ceaa78

Objective

A 14-d trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, serum hormones levels and gene expression of Na+, K+-ATPase in ducklings.

Methods

A total of 704 ducklings were blocked on the basis of sex and body weight (BW), and then allocated randomly to one of the following two treatments: i) CON, basal diet and ii) AFB1, diets with 100% of normal corn replaced with AFB1 contaminated corn. There were 22 pens per treatment and 16 birds per pen. The concentration of AFB1 was 195.4 and 124.35 μg/kg in the contaminated corn and AFB1 diet, respectively.

Results

The AFB1 decreased average daily gain, average daily feed intake, d 7 BW, final BW in the whole trial, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) during d 8 to 14 and d 1 to 14 by 10% to 47% (p<0.05), while FCR during d 1 to 7 was increased (p<0.05). AFB1 did not affect mortality to 7 d of age, and then increased to 5.8% from 8 to 14 d of age (p<0.01). Apparent ileal gross energy digestibility was reduced by AFB1, whereas apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and amino acid was improved (p<0.01). Feeding AFB1 diets increased serum concentration of leptin and insulin-like growth factors-1 (IGF-1) (p<0.05), but had no effect on neuropeptide Y, ghrelin, cholecystokinin-8 or insulin (p>0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence relative expression of jejunal Na+, K+-ATPase gene (p>0.05).

Conclusion

Taken together, feeding corn naturally contaminated with AFB1 reduced growth performance, improved apparent ileal digestibility, and affected serum leptin and IGF-1 in ducklings from d 1 to 14.

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