ResearchPad - northern-blot https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The intergenic small non-coding RNA <i>ittA</i> is required for optimal infectivity and tissue tropism in <i>Borrelia burgdorferi</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14635 Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection mediated by the spirochetal bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, that is responsible for greater than 300,000 infections in the United States per year. As such, additional knowledge regarding how this pathogen modulates its regulatory armamentarium is needed to understand how B. burgdorferi establishes and maintains infection. The identification and characterization of small, non-coding RNA molecules in living systems, designated as sRNAs, has recalibrated how we view post-transcriptional regulation. Recently, over 1,000 sRNAs were identified in B. burgdorferi. Despite the identification of these sRNAs, we do not understand how they affect infectivity or B. burgdorferi pathogenesis related outcomes. Here, we characterize the ittA B. burgdorferi sRNA and show that it is essential for optimal infection using murine experimental infection as our readout. We also track the effect of this sRNA on the transcriptional and proteomic profile as the first step in providing mechanistic insight into how this important sRNA mediates its regulatory effect.

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<![CDATA[Identification and expression analysis of miRNAs and elucidation of their role in salt tolerance in rice varieties susceptible and tolerant to salinity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N52f944dc-26d8-4e67-9222-1bf646d955e0

Soil salinization is a serious problem for cultivation of rice, as among cereals rice is the most salt sensitive crop, and more than 40% of the total agricultural land amounting to approximately 80 million ha the world over is salt affected. Salinity affects a plant in a varieties of ways, including ion toxicity, osmotic stress and oxidative damage. Since miRNAs occupy the top place in biochemical events determining a trait, understanding their role in salt tolerance is highly desirable, which may allow introduction of the trait in the rice cultivars of choice through biotechnological interventions. High throughput sequencing of sRNAs in the root and shoot tissues of the seedlings of the control and NaCl treated Pokkali, a salt-tolerant rice variety, identified 75 conserved miRNAs and mapped 200 sRNAs to the rice genome as novel miRNAs. Expression of nine novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were confirmed by Northern blotting. Several of both conserved and novel miRNAs that expressed differentially in root and/or shoot tissues targeted transcription factors like AP2/EREBP domain protein, ARF, NAC, MYB, NF-YA, HD-Zip III, TCP and SBP reported to be involved in salt tolerance or in abiotic stress tolerance in general. Most of the novel miRNAs expressed in the salt tolerant wild rice Oryza coarctata, suggesting conservation of miRNAs in taxonomically related species. One of the novel miRNAs, osa-miR12477, also targeted L-ascorbate oxidase (LAO), indicating build-up of oxidative stress in the plant upon salt treatment, which was confirmed by DAB staining. Thus, salt tolerance might involve miRNA-mediated regulation of 1) cellular abundance of the hormone signaling components like EREBP and ARF, 2) synthesis of abiotic stress related transcription factors, and 3) antioxidative component like LAO for mitigation of oxidative damage. The study clearly indicated importance of osa-miR12477 regulated expression of LAO in salt tolerance in the plant.

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<![CDATA[Recruitment of Vps34 PI3K and enrichment of PI3P phosphoinositide in the viral replication compartment is crucial for replication of a positive-strand RNA virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5f5d5eed0c484caa846

Tombusviruses depend on subversions of multiple host factors and retarget cellular pathways to support viral replication. In this work, we demonstrate that tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and the closely-related carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) recruit the cellular Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) into the large viral replication compartment. The kinase function of Vps34 is critical for TBSV replication, suggesting that PI(3)P phosphoinositide is utilized by TBSV for building of the replication compartment. We also observed increased expression of Vps34 and the higher abundance of PI(3)P in the presence of the tombusviral replication proteins, which likely leads to more efficient tombusvirus replication. Accordingly, overexpression of PI(3)P phosphatase in yeast or plants inhibited TBSV replication on the peroxisomal membranes and CIRV replication on the mitochondrial membranes. Moreover, the purified PI(3)P phosphatase reduced TBSV replicase assembly in a cell-free system. Detection of PI(3)P with antibody or a bioprobe revealed the enrichment of PI(3)P in the replication compartment. Vps34 is directly recruited into the replication compartment through interaction with p33 replication protein. Gene deletion analysis in surrogate yeast host unraveled that TBSV replication requires the vesicle transport function of Vps34. In the absence of Vps34, TBSV cannot efficiently recruit the Rab5-positive early endosomes, which provide PE-rich membranes for membrane biogenesis of the TBSV replication compartment. We found that Vps34 and PI(3)P needed for the stability of the p33 replication protein, which is degraded by the 26S proteasome when PI(3)P abundance was decreased by an inhibitor of Vps34. In summary, Vps34 and PI(3)P are needed for providing the optimal microenvironment for the replication of the peroxisomal TBSV and the mitochondrial CIRV.

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<![CDATA[Temperature-mediated biosynthesis of the phytotoxin phaseolotoxin by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola depends on the autoregulated expression of the phtABC genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be022f

Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola produces phaseolotoxin in a temperature dependent manner, being optimally synthesized between 18°C and 20°C, while no detectable amounts are present above 28°C. The Pht cluster, involved in the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin, contains 23 genes that are organized in five transcriptional units. The function of most of the genes from the Pht cluster is still unknown and little information about the regulatory circuitry leading to expression of these genes has been reported. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the participation of pht genes in the regulation of the operons coded into the Pht cluster. We conducted Northern blot, uidA fusions and reverse transcription-PCR assays of pht genes in several mutants unable to produce phaseolotoxin. This allowed us to determine that, in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121, genes phtABC are essential to prevent their own expression at 28°C, a temperature at which no detectable amounts of the toxin are present. We obtained evidence that the phtABC genes also participate in the regulation of the phtD, phtM and phtL operons. According to our results, we propose that PhtABC and other Pht product activities could be involved in the synthesis of the sulfodiaminophosphinyl moiety of phaseolotoxin, which indirectly could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the phtA operon.

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<![CDATA[The Conserved Dcw Gene Cluster of R. sphaeroides Is Preceded by an Uncommonly Extended 5’ Leader Featuring the sRNA UpsM]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db26ab0ee8fa60bd05f0

Cell division and cell wall synthesis mechanisms are similarly conserved among bacteria. Consequently some bacterial species have comparable sets of genes organized in the dcw (division and cell wall) gene cluster. Dcw genes, their regulation and their relative order within the cluster are outstandingly conserved among rod shaped and gram negative bacteria to ensure an efficient coordination of growth and division. A well studied representative is the dcw gene cluster of E. coli. The first promoter of the gene cluster (mraZ1p) gives rise to polycistronic transcripts containing a 38 nt long 5’ UTR followed by the first gene mraZ. Despite reported conservation we present evidence for a much longer 5’ UTR in the gram negative and rod shaped bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and in the family of Rhodobacteraceae. This extended 268 nt long 5’ UTR comprises a Rho independent terminator, which in case of termination gives rise to a non-coding RNA (UpsM). This sRNA is conditionally cleaved by RNase E under stress conditions in an Hfq- and very likely target mRNA-dependent manner, implying its function in trans. These results raise the question for the regulatory function of this extended 5’ UTR. It might represent the rarely described case of a trans acting sRNA derived from a riboswitch with exclusive presence in the family of Rhodobacteraceae.

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<![CDATA[Small Open Reading Frames, Non-Coding RNAs and Repetitive Elements in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da19ab0ee8fa60b7c306

Small open reading frames (sORFs) and genes for non-coding RNAs are poorly investigated components of most genomes. Our analysis of 1391 ORFs recently annotated in the soybean symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 revealed that 78% of them contain less than 80 codons. Twenty-one of these sORFs are conserved in or outside Alphaproteobacteria and most of them are similar to genes found in transposable elements, in line with their broad distribution. Stabilizing selection was demonstrated for sORFs with proteomic evidence and bll1319_ISGA which is conserved at the nucleotide level in 16 alphaproteobacterial species, 79 species from other taxa and 49 other Proteobacteria. Further we used Northern blot hybridization to validate ten small RNAs (BjsR1 to BjsR10) belonging to new RNA families. We found that BjsR1 and BjsR3 have homologs outside the genus Bradyrhizobium, and BjsR5, BjsR6, BjsR7, and BjsR10 have up to four imperfect copies in Bradyrhizobium genomes. BjsR8, BjsR9, and BjsR10 are present exclusively in nodules, while the other sRNAs are also expressed in liquid cultures. We also found that the level of BjsR4 decreases after exposure to tellurite and iron, and this down-regulation contributes to survival under high iron conditions. Analysis of additional small RNAs overlapping with 3’-UTRs revealed two new repetitive elements named Br-REP1 and Br-REP2. These REP elements may play roles in the genomic plasticity and gene regulation and could be useful for strain identification by PCR-fingerprinting. Furthermore, we studied two potential toxin genes in the symbiotic island and confirmed toxicity of the yhaV homolog bll1687 but not of the newly annotated higB homolog blr0229_ISGA in E. coli. Finally, we revealed transcription interference resulting in an antisense RNA complementary to blr1853, a gene induced in symbiosis. The presented results expand our knowledge on sORFs, non-coding RNAs and repetitive elements in B. japonicum and related bacteria.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA-21 Increases Proliferation and Cisplatin Sensitivity of Osteosarcoma-Derived Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b6a081

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor and poor prognosis for osteosarcoma patients is mainly due to chemotherapy resistance. MicroRNAs are important to maintain pathophysiological mechanisms of cancer and influence cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we tested the functions of microRNA-21 for malignant features as well as for drug resistance of osteosarcoma. We used Northern blot to measure microRNA-21 levels in osteosarcoma-derived cell lines. MicroRNA-21 activity was modulated by either expressing a sponge to decrease its activity in an osteosarcoma-derived cell line expressing high levels of microRNA-21 or by introducing pri-microRNA-21 in a cell line with low endogenous levels. Cell migration was determined in a scratch assay and cell proliferation was measured by performing growth curve analysis. Sensitivity of the cells towards chemotherapeutics was investigated by performing cell viability assays and calculating the IC50 values. While cell migration was unaffected by modulated microRNA-21 levels, microRNA-21 inhibition slowed proliferation and exogenously expressed microRNA-21 promoted this process. Modulated microRNA-21 activity failed to effect sensitivity of osteosarcoma-derived cell lines to doxorubicin or methotrexate. Contrarily, reduction of microRNA-21 activity resulted in enhanced resistance towards cisplatin while ectopic expression of microRNA-21 showed the opposite effect. Increased microRNA-21 levels repressed the expression of Sprouty2 and ectopic expression of Sprouty2 was able to largely rescue the observed effects of microRNA-21 in osteosarcoma. In summary, our data indicate that in osteosarcoma microRNA-21 expression is an important component for regulation of cell proliferation and for determining sensitivity to cisplatin.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of AgoshRNA maturation and loading into Ago2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafc65c463d7e7d7e2e874d

The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway was recently expanded by the discovery of multiple alternative pathways for processing of natural microRNA (miRNA) and man-made short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules. One non-canonical pathway bypasses Dicer cleavage and requires instead processing by Argonaute2 (Ago2), which also executes the subsequent silencing step. We named these molecules AgoshRNA, which generate only a single active RNA strand and thus avoid off-target effects that can be induced by the passenger strand of a regular shRNA. Previously, we characterized AgoshRNA processing by deep sequencing and demonstrated that—after Ago2 cleavage—AgoshRNAs acquire a short 3’ tail of 1–3 A-nucleotides and are subsequently trimmed, likely by the poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN). As a result, the mature single-stranded AgoshRNA may dock more stably into Ago2. Here we set out to analyze the activity of different synthetic AgoshRNA processing intermediates. Ago2 was found to bind preferentially to partially single-stranded AgoshRNA in vitro. In contrast, only the double-stranded AgoshRNA precursor associated with Ago2 in cells, correlating with efficient intracellular processing and reporter knockdown activity. These results suggest the presence of a cellular co-factor involved in AgoshRNA loading into Ago2 in vivo. We also demonstrate specific AgoshRNA loading in Ago2, but not Ago1/3/4, thus further reducing unwanted side effects.

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<![CDATA[Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6cab0ee8fa60b93218

Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3’ proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed independent of rRNA synthesis under specific conditions where further synthesis of ribosomes is not needed.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da76ab0ee8fa60b96b81

Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

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<![CDATA[The Enzymatic Paradox of Yeast Arginyl-tRNA Synthetase: Exclusive Arginine Transfer Controlled by a Flexible Mechanism of tRNA Recognition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db31ab0ee8fa60bd2125

Identity determinants are essential for the accurate recognition of transfer RNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. To date, arginine determinants in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified exclusively in vitro and only on a limited number of tRNA Arginine isoacceptors. In the current study, we favor a full cellular approach and expand the investigation of arginine determinants to all four tRNA Arg isoacceptors. More precisely, this work scrutinizes the relevance of the tRNA nucleotides at position 20, 35 and 36 in the yeast arginylation reaction. We built 21 mutants by site-directed mutagenesis and tested their functionality in YAL5, a previously engineered yeast knockout deficient for the expression of tRNA Arg CCG. Arginylation levels were also monitored using Northern blot. Our data collected in vivo correlate with previous observations. C35 is the prominent arginine determinant followed by G36 or U36 (G/U36). In addition, although there is no major arginine determinant in the D loop, the recognition of tRNA Arg ICG relies to some extent on the nucleotide at position 20. This work refines the existing model for tRNA Arg recognition. Our observations indicate that yeast Arginyl-tRNA synthetase (yArgRS) relies on distinct mechanisms to aminoacylate the four isoacceptors. Finally, according to our refined model, yArgRS is able to accommodate tRNA Arg scaffolds presenting N34, C/G35 and G/A/U36 anticodons while maintaining specificity. We discuss the mechanistic and potential physiological implications of these findings.

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<![CDATA[Tor1 and CK2 kinases control a switch between alternative ribosome biogenesis pathways in a growth-dependent manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd086

Ribosome biogenesis is a major energy-consuming process in the cell that has to be rapidly down-regulated in response to stress or nutrient depletion. The target of rapamycin 1 (Tor1) pathway regulates synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the level of transcription initiation. It remains unclear whether ribosome biogenesis is also controlled directly at the posttranscriptional level. We show that Tor1 and casein kinase 2 (CK2) kinases regulate a rapid switch between a productive and a non-productive pre-rRNA processing pathways in yeast. Under stress, the pre-rRNA continues to be synthesized; however, it is processed differently, and no new ribosomes are produced. Strikingly, the control of the switch does not require the Sch9 kinase, indicating that an unrecognized Tor Complex 1 (TORC1) signaling branch involving CK2 kinase directly regulates ribosome biogenesis at the posttranscriptional level.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of the Microprocessor in Dictyostelium: The Role of RbdB, a dsRNA Binding Protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da85ab0ee8fa60b9c06a

We identified the dsRNA binding protein RbdB as an essential component in miRNA processing in Dictyostelium discoideum. RbdB is a nuclear protein that accumulates, together with Dicer B, in nucleolar foci reminiscent of plant dicing bodies. Disruption of rbdB results in loss of miRNAs and accumulation of primary miRNAs. The phenotype can be rescued by ectopic expression of RbdB thus allowing for a detailed analysis of domain function. The lack of cytoplasmic dsRBD proteins involved in miRNA processing, suggests that both processing steps take place in the nucleus thus resembling the plant pathway. However, we also find features e.g. in the domain structure of Dicer which suggest similarities to animals. Reduction of miRNAs in the rbdB- strain and their increase in the Argonaute A knock out allowed the definition of new miRNAs one of which appears to belong to a new non-canonical class.

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<![CDATA[Splicing-Mediated Autoregulation Modulates Rpl22p Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db42ab0ee8fa60bd74fe

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, splicing is critical for expression of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs), which are among the most highly expressed genes and are tightly regulated according to growth and environmental conditions. However, knowledge of the precise mechanisms by which RPG pre-mRNA splicing is regulated on a gene-by-gene basis is lacking. Here we show that Rpl22p has an extraribosomal role in the inhibition of splicing of the RPL22B pre-mRNA transcript. A stem loop secondary structure within the intron is necessary for pre-mRNA binding by Rpl22p in vivo and splicing inhibition in vivo and in vitro and can rescue splicing inhibition in vitro when added in trans to splicing reactions. Splicing inhibition by Rpl22p may be partly attributed to the reduction of co-transcriptional U1 snRNP recruitment to the pre-mRNA at the RPL22B locus. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of RPL22B pre-mRNA splicing contributes to the down-regulation of mature transcript during specific stress conditions, and provide evidence hinting at a regulatory role for this mechanism in conditions of suppressed ribosome biogenesis. These results demonstrate an autoregulatory mechanism that fine-tunes the expression of the Rpl22 protein and by extension Rpl22p paralog composition according to the cellular demands for ribosome biogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Combined Activity of DCL2 and DCL3 Is Crucial in the Defense against Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2cab0ee8fa60bd163c

Viroids are self replicating non-coding RNAs capable of infecting a wide range of plant hosts. They do not encode any proteins, thus the mechanism by which they escape plant defenses remains unclear. RNAi silencing is a major defense mechanism against virus infections, with the four DCL proteins being principal components of the pathway. We have used Nicotiana benthamiana as a model to study Potato spindle tuber viroid infection. This viroid is a member of the Pospiviroidae family and replicates in the nucleus via an asymmetric rolling circle mechanism. We have created knock-down plants for all four DCL genes and their combinations. Previously, we showed that DCL4 has a positive effect on PSTVd infectivity since viroid levels drop when DCL4 is suppressed. Here, we show that PSTVd levels remain decreased throughout infection in DCL4 knockdown plants, and that simultaneous knockdown of DCL1, DCL2 or DCL3 together with DCL4 cannot reverse this effect. Through infection of plants suppressed for multiple DCLs we further show that a combined suppression of DCL2 and DCL3 has a major effect in succumbing plant antiviral defense. Based on our results, we further suggest that Pospoviroids may have evolved to be primarily processed by DCL4 as it seems to be a DCL protein with less detrimental effects on viroid infectivity. These findings pave the way to delineate the complexity of the relationship between viroids and plant RNA silencing response.

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<![CDATA[Export of Precursor tRNAIle from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm in Human Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf6ab0ee8fa60bc3063

In the current concept, tRNA maturation in vertebrate cells, including splicing of introns, trimming of 5’ leader and 3’ trailer, and adding of CCA, is thought to occur exclusively in the nucleus. Here we provide evidence to challenge this concept. Unspliced intron-containing precursor tRNAIle was identified in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions, which are synthesized in the cytoplasm. Northern blot, confocal microscopy and quantitative RT-PCR further verified enrichment of this unspliced tRNAIle within the cytoplasm in human cells. In addition to containing an intron, the cytoplasmic precursor tRNAIle also contains a short incompletely processed 5´ leader and a 3´ trailer, which abundance is around 1000 fold higher than the nuclear precursor tRNAIle with long 5’ leader and long 3’ trailer. In vitro data also suggest that the cytoplasmic unspliced end-immature precursor tRNAIle could be processed by short isoform of RNase Z, but not long isoform of RNase Z. These data suggest that precursor tRNAs could export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in human cells, instead of be processed only in the nucleus.

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<![CDATA[Co-opting ATP-generating glycolytic enzyme PGK1 phosphoglycerate kinase facilitates the assembly of viral replicase complexes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab13e46463d7e501f4d0c4d

The intricate interactions between viruses and hosts include exploitation of host cells for viral replication by using many cellular resources, metabolites and energy. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), similar to other (+)RNA viruses, induces major changes in infected cells that lead to the formation of large replication compartments consisting of aggregated peroxisomal and ER membranes. Yet, it is not known how TBSV obtains the energy to fuel these energy-consuming processes. In the current work, the authors discovered that TBSV co-opts the glycolytic ATP-generating Pgk1 phosphoglycerate kinase to facilitate the assembly of new viral replicase complexes. The recruitment of Pgk1 into the viral replication compartment is through direct interaction with the viral replication proteins. Altogether, we provide evidence that the ATP generated locally within the replication compartment by the co-opted Pgk1 is used to fuel the ATP-requirement of the co-opted heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) chaperone, which is essential for the assembly of new viral replicase complexes and the activation of functional viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The advantage of direct recruitment of Pgk1 into the virus replication compartment could be that the virus replicase assembly does not need to intensively compete with cellular processes for access to ATP. In addition, local production of ATP within the replication compartment could greatly facilitate the efficiency of Hsp70-driven replicase assembly by providing high ATP concentration within the replication compartment.

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<![CDATA[Expression, maturation and turnover of DrrS, an unusually stable, DosR regulated small RNA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc002

Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the ability to adjust to stresses encountered in a range of host environments, adjustments that require significant changes in gene expression. Small RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role as post-transcriptional regulators of prokaryotic gene expression, where they are associated with stress responses and, in the case of pathogens, adaptation to the host environment. In spite of this, the understanding of M. tuberculosis RNA biology remains limited. Here we have used a DosR-associated sRNA as an example to investigate multiple aspects of mycobacterial RNA biology that are likely to apply to other M. tuberculosis sRNAs and mRNAs. We have found that accumulation of this particular sRNA is slow but robust as cells enter stationary phase. Using reporter gene assays, we find that the sRNA core promoter is activated by DosR, and we have renamed the sRNA DrrS for DosR Regulated sRNA. Moreover, we show that DrrS is transcribed as a longer precursor, DrrS+, which is rapidly processed to the mature and highly stable DrrS. We characterise, for the first time in mycobacteria, an RNA structural determinant involved in this extraordinary stability and we show how the addition of a few nucleotides can lead to acute destabilisation. Finally, we show how this RNA element can enhance expression of a heterologous gene. Thus, the element, as well as its destabilising derivatives may be employed to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in mycobacteria in combination with different promoter variants. Moreover, our findings will facilitate further investigations into the severely understudied topic of mycobacterial RNA biology and into the role that regulatory RNA plays in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[ARGONAUTE10 promotes the degradation of miR165/6 through the SDN1 and SDN2 exonucleases in Arabidopsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcf03

The degradation of small RNAs in plants and animals is associated with small RNA 3′ truncation and 3′ uridylation and thus relies on exonucleases and nucleotidyl transferases. ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins associate with small RNAs in vivo and are essential for not only the activities but also the stability of small RNAs. AGO1 is the microRNA (miRNA) effector in Arabidopsis, and its closest homolog, AGO10, maintains stem cell homeostasis in meristems by sequestration of miR165/6, a conserved miRNA acting through AGO1. Here, we show that SMALL RNA DEGRADING NUCLEASES (SDNs) initiate miRNA degradation by acting on AGO1-bound miRNAs to cause their 3′ truncation, and the truncated species are uridylated and degraded. We report that AGO10 reduces miR165/6 accumulation by enhancing its degradation by SDN1 and SDN2 in vivo. In vitro, AGO10-bound miR165/6 is more susceptible to SDN1-mediated 3′ truncation than AGO1-bound miR165/6. Thus, AGO10 promotes the degradation of miR165/6, which is contrary to the stabilizing effect of AGO1. Our work identifies a class of exonucleases responsible for miRNA 3′ truncation in vivo and uncovers a mechanism of specificity determination in miRNA turnover. This work, together with previous studies on AGO10, suggests that spatially regulated miRNA degradation underlies stem cell maintenance in plants.

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