ResearchPad - norwegian-people https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Sexual norms and the intention to use healthcare services related to female genital cutting: A qualitative study among Somali and Sudanese women in Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15732 Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is a traditionally meaningful practice in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is associated with a high risk of long-term physical and psychosexual health problems. Girls and women with FGC-related health problems need specialized healthcare services such as psychosexual counseling, deinfibulation, and clitoral reconstruction. Moreover, the need for psychosexual counseling increases in countries of immigration where FGC is not accepted and possibly stigmatized. In these countries, the practice loses its cultural meaning and girls and women with FGC are more likely to report psychosexual problems. In Norway, a country of immigration, psychosexual counseling is lacking. To decide whether to provide this and/or other services, it is important to explore the intention of the target population to use FGC-related healthcare services. That is as deinfibulation, an already available service, is underutilized. In this article, we explore whether girls and women with FGC intend to use FGC-related healthcare services, regardless of their availability in Norway.MethodsWe conducted 61 in-depth interviews with 26 Somali and Sudanese participants with FGC in Norway. We then validated our findings in three focus group discussions with additional 17 participants.FindingsWe found that most of our participants were positive towards psychosexual counseling and would use it if available. We also identified four cultural scenarios with different sets of sexual norms that centered on getting and/or staying married, and which largely influenced the participants’ intention to use FGC-related services. These cultural scenarios are the virgin, the passive-, the conditioned active-, and the equal- sexual partner scenarios. Participants with negative attitudes towards the use of almost all of the FGC-related healthcare services were influenced by a set of norms pertaining to virginity and passive sexual behavior. In contrast, participants with positive attitudes towards the use of all of these same services were influenced by another set of norms pertaining to sexual and gender equality. On the other hand, participants with positive attitudes towards the use of services that can help to improve their marital sexual lives, yet negative towards the use of premarital services were influenced by a third set of norms that combined norms from the two aforementioned sets of norms.ConclusionThe intention to use FGC-related healthcare services varies between and within the different ethnic groups. Moreover, the same girl or woman can have different attitudes towards the use of the different FGC-related healthcare services or even towards the same services at the different stages of her life. These insights could prove valuable for Norwegian and other policy-makers and healthcare professionals during the planning and/or delivery of FGC-related healthcare services. ]]> <![CDATA[Low dose naltrexone: Effects on medication in rheumatoid and seropositive arthritis. A nationwide register-based controlled quasi-experimental before-after study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14fad5eed0c48467abf4

In recent years, low dose naltrexone (LDN) has been used as an off-label therapy for several chronic diseases. Results from small laboratory and clinical studies indicate some beneficial effects of LDN in autoimmune diseases, but clinical research on LDN in rheumatic disease is limited. Using a pharmacoepidemiological approach, we wanted to test the hypothesis that starting LDN leads to reduced dispensing of medicines used in the treatment of rheumatic disease. We performed a controlled before-after study based on the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) to compare prescriptions to patients one year before and one year after starting LDN in 2013. The identified patients (n = 360) were stratified into three groups based on LDN exposure. Outcomes were differences in dispensing of medicines used in rheumatic disease. In persistent LDN users, there was a 13% relative reduction in cumulative defined daily doses (DDD) of all medicines examined corresponding to -73.3 DDD per patient (95% CI -120,2 to -26.4, p = 0.003), and 23% reduction of analgesics (-21.6 DDD (95% CI -35.5 to -7.6, p<0.009)). There was no significant DDD change in patients with lower LDN exposure. Persistent LDN users had significantly reduced DDDs of NSAID and opioids, and a lower proportion of users of DMARDs (-6.7 percentage points, 95% CI -12.3 to-1.0, p = 0.028), TNF-α antagonists and opioids. There was a decrease in the number of NSAID users among patients with the least LDN exposure. Important limitations are that prescription data are proxies for clinical effects and that a control group unexposed to LDN is lacking. The results support the hypothesis that persistent use of LDN reduces the need for medication used in the treatment of rheumatic and seropositive arthritis. Randomised clinical trials on LDN in rheumatic disease are warranted.

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<![CDATA[The fight to keep resistance at bay, epidemiology of carbapenemase producing organisms (CPOs), vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway, 2006 - 2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8bad5eed0c48496f045

Introduction

Scandinavian countries have traditionally had a low prevalence of resistant organisms, but have in recent years experienced a change in their epidemiology. We aim to describe the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in Norway, measure the importance of infections contracted abroad, and assess the morbidity and mortality associated with these resistant bacteria in Norway.

Methods and materials

We used data from the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases covering all findings of the selected resistant bacteria including both infections and colonisation, in the period 2006–2017. Annual trends were assessed using negative binomial regression. For MRSA, we were able to calculate the Morisita-Horn index and transmission numbers following importation in order to assess the effect this had on further domestic transmission.

Results

The incidence rates (per 100,000 personyears) of the three groups of resistant bacteria have increased during the period. In 2017 the incidence rates were 0.82 for CPOs, 7.09 for VRE and 43.8 for MRSA. 81% of CPO cases were diagnosed in hospitals, but 73% were infected abroad. Most VRE cases were infected in Norwegian hospitals, 85% were associated with hospitals outbreaks. MRSA was predominantly diagnosed in the community, only 21% were diagnosed in hospitals. Of all MRSA cases, 35% were infected in other countries. Most MRSA spa-types were not identified again after introduction, resulting in a transmission of MRSA equivalent to a mean of 0.30 persons infected from each spa-type identified (range: 0–22). The proportion of infections among all notified cases within each diagnose was 44% for MRSA, 9% for VRE and 45% for CPOs. Among persons notified with bacteraemia, the 30 days all-cause mortality were 20%, 16% and 50% for MRSA, VRE and CPOs respectively.

Discussion

The incidence rates of CPOs, VRE and MRSA in Norway are low, but increasing. The continuing increase of notified resistant bacteria highlights the need for a revision of existing infection prevention and control guidelines.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and correlates of self-reported disordered eating: A cross-sectional study among 90 592 middle-aged Norwegian women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217bbd5eed0c48479449a

Disordered eating (DE) is extensively studied among adolescents and young women. However, there is growing evidence that DE as well as the clinical eating disorders may occur at any age from childhood to advanced years. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of DE in a representative sample of middle-aged women from Norway. The study included 90 592 women (median age: 55 years) from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study who responded to a questionnaire between the years 2002–2005. Correlates of self-reported DE were assessed by logistic regression analyses. The overall period prevalence of DE between 2002–2005 was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.25–0.31) %, and was highest among women ≥ 66 years: 0.65 (0.60–0.70) %. DE was strongly associated with depression (Odds ratio [OR] 3.34 [95% confidence interval 2.53–4.41]), being unemployed (OR 1.78 [1.32–2.40]) and single (OR 1.66 [1.25–2.20]). Women with DE were more likely to report low energy intake (OR 1.41 [1.08–1.86]) and were less likely to be moderately physically active (OR 0.67 [0.47–0.95]). Using the largest study sample in the literature, the present findings confirm smaller studies showing that DE do occur in women in mid-life and older age as well. Our results contribute to address a somewhat under-communicated community health problem that needs attention in terms of age-specific treatment and prevention.

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<![CDATA[Anaesthetic efficacy of Aqui-S, Benzoak, and MS-222 on lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) fries. Impact from temperature, salinity, and fasting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c45bd5eed0c4845e8624

Large numbers of lumpfish are produced for the Norwegian salmon industry and are used to combat sea lice infestations. Periodically high mortality of farmed lumpfish demonstrates the need to improve farming conditions and animal welfare. As part of such efforts, the present work tested the efficacy of three anaesthetic chemicals on lumpfish fries (average weight of 0.97 g). The anaesthetic impact from salinity (15 ppt–18 ppt), temperature (12°C versus 7 and 18°C), and fasting conditions (three days) was also examined. Surgical anaesthesia was induced within 3 to 5 min (preferred time) at concentrations of 18 mg/L (Aqui-S), 37.5 mg/L (Benzoak), and 60 mg/L (buffered MS-222). Safety margins were regarded as low when using Aqui-S; therefore, this chemical was not considered suitable for prolonged exposures. The lumpfish made a rapid recovery from both Benzoak and MS-222 even after 20 min of exposure. A 6°C increase in exposure temperature (reaching 18°C) was found to delay or inhibit recovery. The effect of a 5°C decrease (down to 7°C) significantly reduced induction time for MS-222 and was insignificant for Aqui-S, while it prolonged Benzoak induction time significantly and gave a longer recovery period. Fasting resulted in 70% recovery after 20 min of Aqui-S exposure compared to 0% in fed fish but had only minor effects on Benzoak and MS-222. Use of brackish water (15 ppt–18 ppt) gave 20% recovery from Aqui-S and significantly shorter recovery time from MS-222 exposure, while the effects on Benzoak were insignificant.

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<![CDATA[Penalized negative binomial models for modeling an overdispersed count outcome with a high-dimensional predictor space: Application predicting micronuclei frequency]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f13d5eed0c484d714a0

Chromosomal aberrations, such as micronuclei (MN), have served as biomarkers of genotoxic exposure and cancer risk. Guidelines for the process of scoring MN have been presented by the HUman MicroNucleus (HUMN) project. However, these guidelines were developed for assay performance but do not address how to statistically analyze the data generated by the assay. This has led to the application of various statistical methods that may render different interpretations and conclusions. By combining MN with data from other high-throughput genomic technologies such as gene expression microarray data, we may elucidate molecular features involved in micronucleation. Traditional methods that can model discrete (synonymously, count) data, such as MN frequency, require that the number of explanatory variables (P) is less than the number of samples (N). Due to this limitation, penalized models have been developed to enable model fitting for such over-parameterized datasets. Because penalized models in the discrete response setting are lacking, particularly when the count outcome is over-dispersed, herein we present our penalized negative binomial regression model that can be fit when P > N. Using simulation studies we demonstrate the performance of our method in comparison to commonly used penalized Poisson models when the outcome is over-dispersed and applied it to MN frequency and gene expression data collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Our countgmifs R package is available for download from the Comprehensive R Archive Network and can be applied to datasets having a discrete outcome that is either Poisson or negative binomial distributed and a high-dimensional covariate space.

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<![CDATA[Health complaints among adolescents in Norway: A twenty-year perspective on trends]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa570d5eed0c484ca453d

Purpose

Examine time trends in health complaints among adolescents in Norway between 1994 and 2014 and among population subgroups, e.g., age and gender, as well as their interactions.

Methods

Norwegian data on 11-16-year-olds were drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and analyzed for 1994 (n = 4,952), 1998 (n = 5,026), 2002 (n = 5,023), 2006 (n = 4,711), 2010 (n = 4,342) and 2014 (n = 3,422). Design adjusted linear regression that accounts for clustering effects was used to examine mean scores of two subscales of the HBSC-symptom checklist: psychological and somatic health complaints.

Results

Psychological and somatic health complaints among adolescents in Norway followed somewhat different trajectories, but the mean scores of both types of health complaints appeared to increase during the 20-year period. For psychological health complaints, there was a three-way interaction between age, gender and time, indicating that increasing trends in health complaints depended on both age and gender, in which older adolescent girls had a greater increase over time relative to younger adolescents and boys.

Conclusions

Findings from this study, together with earlier findings, suggest that there has been an increasing trend in health complaints among adolescents in Norway from 1994 to 2014, especially among older adolescent girls. Future research should examine if trends in health complaints also depend on gender and age in other contexts. This will help the planning and implementation of tailored and effective interventions.

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<![CDATA[Perinatal death and exposure to dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy in the population-based MoBa cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ed9d5eed0c484d2886a

Objectives

The aim was to gain knowledge regarding the risk of perinatal death related to exposure to dental amalgam fillings in the mother.

Design

Population-based observational cohort study.

Setting

The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a Norwegian birth cohort of children born in 1999–2008 conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.

Participants

72,038 pregnant women with data on the number of teeth filled with dental amalgam.

Main outcome measures

Data on perinatal death (stillbirth ≥ 22 weeks plus early neonatal death 0–7 days after birth) were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.

Results

The absolute risk of perinatal death ranged from 0.20% in women with no amalgam-filled teeth to 0.67% in women with 13 or more teeth filled with amalgam. Analyses including the number of teeth filled with amalgam as a continuous variable indicated an increased risk of perinatal death by increasing number of teeth filled with dental amalgam (crude OR 1.065, 95% CI 1.034 to 1.098, p<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders (mothers' age, education, body mass index, parity, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol consumption during pregnancy) included as categorical variables, there was still an increased risk for perinatal death associated with increasing number of teeth filled with amalgam (ORadj 1.041, 95% CI 1.008 to 1.076, p = 0.015). By an increased exposure from 0 to 16 teeth filled with amalgam, the model predicted an almost doubled odds ratio (ORadj 1.915, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.28). In groups with 1 to 12 teeth filled with amalgam the adjusted odds ratios were slightly, but not significantly, increased. The group with the highest exposure (participants with 13 or more teeth filled with amalgam) had an adjusted OR of 2.34 (95% CI 1.27 to 4.32; p = 0.007).

Conclusion

The current findings suggest that the risk of perinatal death could increase in a dose-dependent way based on the mother’s number of teeth filled with dental amalgam. However, we cannot exclude that the relatively modest odds ratios could be a result of residual confounding. Additional studies on the relationship between exposure to dental amalgam fillings during pregnancy and perinatal death are warranted.

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<![CDATA[The effect of an extra piece of fruit or vegetables at school on weight status in two generations - 14 years follow-up of the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bce3d0840307c69b197f4fd

Background

The obesity epidemic presents a major public health challenge, and a poor diet quality has been identified as one of the most important contributing factors. Whereas a sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with several positive health outcomes, the long-term effect on overweight and obesity is unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate if one year with free school fruit had any effect on weight status 14 years later, and if it affected the birth weight of the participants’ children.

Methods

In 2001, 10 -12-year old Norwegian children, received one year of free school fruit in the intervention study “Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks” (FVMM) and in 2016, a total of 1081 participants of 2049 eligible responded to a follow-up survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate if one year of free school fruit was associated with weight status and with birthweight status of the offspring. The analyses were adjusted for gender, educational level, and the offspring analysis also for parents’ weight status, and the nested design (child/parent).

Results

The odds ratios of being overweight (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.24) or having a child with high or low birth weight (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.30) in the intervention group compared to the control group were not statistically significant, 14 years after the intervention period.

Conclusions

One year of free school fruit did not have an effect on weight status on the participants or birth weight of their offspring, 14 years after the intervention period. Although, results from the present study contribute to fill the knowledge gaps concerning long-term effects of public health efforts on weight status, more follow-up studies with larger samples are warranted.

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<![CDATA[Survival and years of life lost in various aetiologies of dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in Norway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae990540307c0c23a1c159

Introduction

Alzheimer’s disease patients are reported to have higher survival rate compared to patients with vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. There is a paucity of studies investigating survival including persons with cognitive decline and dementia of various aetiologies.

Objectives

We aimed to compare survival for patients with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, mixed Alzheimer’s/vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s disease, and other dementias compared to the general Norwegian population, taking into account the role of gender, cognitive function, function in everyday activities, comorbidity and education.

Methods

Patients (N = 4682), ≥65 years, in the The Norwegian register of persons assessed for cognitive symptoms (NorCog) during 2009–2017 were followed for mortality in the National Registry until January 2018. Flexible parametric survival models were applied to estimate relative survival, life expectancy and years of life lost for diagnostic groups compared with the general population.

Results

Patients with vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s had the shortest survival, followed by mixed dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, unspecified dementia, mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline. At age 70 years, men with vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s had life expectancy of 4.7 years, which corresponded to 10.3 years of life lost compared to the general population. Years of life lost for other diagnoses were 10.0 years for mixed dementia, 9.2 years for Alzheimer’s disease, 9.3 years for other dementias, 5.2 years for mild cognitive impairment and 2.2 years for subjective cognitive decline. Corresponding years of life lost in women were: 12.7 years, 10.5 years, 9.8 years, 10.6 years, 7.8 years, and 2.6 years. Poor relative survival among dementia patients was associated with male gender, comorbidity, low cognitive function, and low function in activities of daily living.

Conclusions

Compared with the general population, patients with subjective cognitive decline had no significant loss in life expectancy, while patients with mild cognitive impairment and all dementia subtypes had large losses, especially those with a diagnosis of vascular dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson’s.

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<![CDATA[Physical activity of first graders in Norwegian after-school programs: A relevant contribution to the development of motor competencies and learning of movements? Investigated utilizing a mixed methods approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na4320f45-eb83-44d9-ba84-dc0e45fa3635

Background

Development of motor competencies and learning of movements in children is dependent on varied physical activity (PA). After-school programs (ASP) might provide opportunities for young schoolchildren to participate in PA. The aim of the current study was to investigate the PA of first graders in ASP and to consider its contribution to the development of motor competencies and the learning of movements.

Methods

The study was performed utilizing a mixed methods design. A total of 42 first graders were sampled from 14 ASPs in Norway. Direct observations of the children’s activities were conducted for the duration of one entire ASP day. PA intensity was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, while the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to analyze the quantitative data.

Results

The median PA time among the observed children was 61.5 minutes. The median stationary time was 75.9 minutes. There was considerable variation within the sample. Girls were significantly more engaged in stationary behavior than boys. Frequent changes in activity type and intensity were typical features of the children’s ASP day. PA duration and intensity were significantly higher outdoors than indoors. Adult-managed time had longer periods of stationary behavior than child-managed time. The PA at all intensity levels contained barrier-breaking movements—especially at light intensity levels.

Conclusion

Most of the first graders studied were engaged in a variety of activity types of different duration and intensity levels, favorable for the development of motor competencies and for the learning of movements. Hence, it is reasonable to highlight that light PA, in combination with moderate and vigorous PA, is also of great importance for children during the time they spend in ASP. Ultimately, there is a need for staff members who can also stimulate varied PA among the most stationary children.

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<![CDATA[Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 “Gait Keeper” mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf6be

The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT) is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C) to adenine (A) in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3) gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age). Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications) were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

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<![CDATA[Do family and neighbourhood matter in secondary school completion? A multilevel study of determinants and their interactions in a life-course perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdba2b

Background

Completion of secondary education is important for individuals’ future health and health behaviour. The fundamental purpose of this study is to investigate the variation and clustering of school completion in families and neighbourhoods. Secondly, we aim to examine the impact of individuals’ family structure and neighbourhood of residence and examine to what extent parental education level moderates these associations.

Methods

Longitudinal register data for 30% of the entire Norwegian population aged 21–27 years in 2010 (N = 107,003) was extracted from Statistic Norway´s event database. Three-level logistic regression models, which incorporated individual, family, and neighbourhood contextual factors, were applied to estimate the family and neighbourhood general contextual effects and detect possible educational differences in the impact of family structure and urban place of residence in school completion.

Results

Completion rates were significantly higher within families with higher education level (79% in tertiary educated families vs. 61% and 48% in secondary and primary educated families respectively) and were strongly correlated within families (ICC = 39.6) and neighbourhoods (ICC = 5.7). Several structural factors at the family level negatively associated with school completion (e.g., family disruption, large family size, and young maternal age) were more prevalent and displayed more negative impact among primary educated individuals. Urban residence was associated with school completion, but only among the tertiary educated.

Conclusions

Investment in the resources in the individuals’ immediate surroundings, including family and neighbourhood, may address a substantial portion of the social inequalities in the completion of upper secondary education. The high intra-familial correlation in school completion suggests that public health policies and future research should acknowledge family environments in order to improve secondary education completion rates among young people within lower educated families.

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<![CDATA[Helicopter emergency medical services in major incident management: A national Norwegian cross-sectional survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdba34

Objective

Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) aim to bring a highly specialised crew to the scene of major incidents for triage, treatment and transport. We aim to describe experiences made by HEMS in Norway in the management of major incidents.

Design

Doctors, rescue paramedics and pilots working in Norwegian HEMS and Search and Rescue Helicopters (SAR) January 1st 2015 were invited to a cross-sectional study on experiences, preparedness and training in major incident management.

Results

We identified a total of 329 Norwegian crewmembers of which 229 (70%) responded; doctors 101/150, (67%), rescue paramedics 64/78 (82%), pilots 64/101, (63%). HEMS and SAR crewmembers had experience from a median of 2 (interquartile range 0–6) major incidents. Road traffic incidents were the most frequent mechanism and blunt trauma the dominating injury. HEMS mainly contributed with triage, treatment and transport. Communication with other emergency services prior to arrival was described as bad, but good to excellent when cooperating on scene. The respondents called for more interdisciplinary exercises.

Conclusion

HEMS and SAR crewmembers have limited exposure to major incident management. Interdisciplinary training on frequent scenarios with focus on cooperation and communication is called for.

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<![CDATA[Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd98

Background

Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery.

Methods

This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: “snack meal”, “main meal”, and “evening meal”. Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at <37 gestational weeks. A Cox regression model was used to assess associations with preterm delivery.

Results

After adjustments, the “main meal” pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery.

Conclusion

Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.

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<![CDATA[Geographical trends of PFAS in cod livers along the Norwegian coast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdff46

The level of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) was determined in North East Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) liver samples from 15 Norwegian fjords and harbors. Five harbors in the eastern part of Norway, six harbors in the western part and four harbours in the northern part. A total of 200 samples were analyzed for 16 PFAS. Determination of PFAS were carried out by LC-MS/MS following sample clean up by solid phase extraction and ultracentrifugation. The predominating PFAS was PFOS, which was found to be higher than the level of quantification (1.5 μg kg-1 wet weight) in 72% of the samples. The highest level of PFOS found was 21.8 μg kg-1 wet weight in a sample from Kragerø in the eastern part of Norway. A significantly higher level of PFOS was found in the eastern fjords and harbors compared to fjords and harbors in the western and northern part of Norway. Within the northern fjords and harbors elevated PFOS levels were found in Narvik, which may indicate a local source there. Variations in PFOS of the cod livers thus reflect differences in levels of pollution between the areas.

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<![CDATA[Cross-Breeding Is Inevitable to Conserve the Highly Inbred Population of Puffin Hunter: The Norwegian Lundehund]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcf00

The Norwegian Lundehund is a highly endangered native dog breed. Low fertility and high frequency predisposition to intestinal disorder imply inbreeding depression. We assessed the genetic diversity of the Lundehund population from pedigree data and evaluated the potential of optimal contribution selection and cross-breeding in the long-term management of the Lundehund population. The current Norwegian Lundehund population is highly inbred and has lost 38.8% of the genetic diversity in the base population. Effective population size estimates varied between 13 and 82 depending on the method used. Optimal contribution selection alone facilitates no improvement in the current situation in the Lundehund due to the extremely high relatedness of the whole population. Addition of (replacement with) 10 breeding candidates of foreign breed to 30 Lundehund breeders reduced the parental additive genetic relationship by 40–42% (48–53%). Immediate actions are needed to increase the genetic diversity in the current Lundehund population. The only option to secure the conservation of this rare breed is to introduce individuals from foreign breeds as breeding candidates.

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<![CDATA[Science deserves to be judged by its contents, not by its wrapping: Revisiting Seglen's work on journal impact and research evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc183

The scientific foundation for the criticism on the use of the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) in evaluations of individual researchers and their publications was laid between 1989 and 1997 in a series of articles by Per O. Seglen. His basic work has since influenced initiatives such as the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), the Leiden Manifesto for research metrics, and The Metric Tide review on the role of metrics in research assessment and management. Seglen studied the publications of only 16 senior biomedical scientists. We investigate whether Seglen’s main findings still hold when using the same methods for a much larger group of Norwegian biomedical scientists with more than 18,000 publications. Our results support and add new insights to Seglen’s basic work.

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<![CDATA[Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli Resistant to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in the Norwegian Broiler Production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0bab0ee8fa60b77b3d

Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have been detected in the Norwegian broiler production, despite the fact that antimicrobial agents are rarely used. The genetic mechanism responsible for cephalosporin resistance is mainly attributed to the presence of the blaCMY-2 gene encoding a plasmid-mediated AmpC-beta-lactamase (pAmpC). The aim of this study was to characterize and compare blaCMY-2 containing Escherichia coli isolated from the intestinal flora of broilers and retail chicken meat (fillets) to identify possible successful clones and/or resistance plasmids widespread in the Norwegian broiler production. Methods used included PCR based phylotyping, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and whole genome sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of an IncK plasmid carrying blaCMY-2 was determined. Intestinal isolates displayed a higher degree of genetic diversity than meat isolates. A cluster of genetically related isolates belonging to ST38, phylogroup D, carrying blaCMY-2 containing IncK plasmids was identified. Furthermore, genes encoding plasmid stability systems (relBE/stbDE and pndAC) were identified on the IncK plasmid. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of a subset of isolates confirmed a close genetic relationship within the two most prevalent STs. The IncK plasmids within these two STs also shared a high degree of similarity. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli with the same genetic characteristics have been identified in the broiler production in other European countries, and the IncK plasmid characterized in this study showed close homology to a plasmid isolated from retail chicken meat in the Netherlands. The results indicate that both clonal expansion and horizontal transfer of blaCMY-2 containing plasmids contribute to dissemination of cephalosporin resistant E. coli in the broiler production. The presence of plasmid stability systems may explain why the IncK plasmid containing blaCMY-2 is maintained and disseminated in the Norwegian broiler production in absence of selection pressure from the use of antimicrobial agents.

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<![CDATA[Variability in the sxt Gene Clusters of PSP Toxin Producing Aphanizomenon gracile Strains from Norway, Spain, Germany and North America]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac5ab0ee8fa60bb2309

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production. The strain NIVA-CYA 851 was identified as A. gracile using 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and was confirmed to produce neosaxitoxin, saxitoxin and gonyautoxin 5 by LC-MS. The whole sxt gene clusters (circa 27.3 kb) of four A. gracile strains: NIVA-CYA 851 (Norway); NIVA-CYA 655 & NIVA-CYA 676 (Germany); and UAM 529 (Spain), all from latitudes between 40° and 59° North were sequenced and compared with the sxt gene cluster of reference strain A. gracile NH-5 from the USA. All five sxt gene clusters are highly conserved with similarities exceeding 99.4%, but they differ slightly in the number and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (In/Dels). Altogether 178 variable sites (44 SNPs and 4 In/Dels, comprising 134 nucleotides) were found in the sxt gene clusters of the Norwegian, German and Spanish strains compared to the reference strain. Thirty-nine SNPs were located in 16 of the 27 coding regions. The sxt gene clusters of NIVA-CYA 851, NIVA-CYA 655, NIVA-CYA 676 and UAM 529, were characterized by 15, 16, 19 and 23 SNPs respectively. Only the Norwegian strain NIVA-CYA 851 possessed an insertion of 126 base pairs (bp) in the noncoding area between the sxtA and sxtE genes and a deletion of 6 nucleotides in the sxtN gene. The sxtI gene showed the highest variability and is recommended as the best genetic marker for further phylogenetic studies of the sxt gene cluster of A. gracile.

This study confirms for the first time the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in Norwegian waters, representing the northernmost occurrence of PSP toxin producing A. gracile in Europe known so far.

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