ResearchPad - notes—imaging-methodology Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Modeling an equivalent b‐value in diffusion‐weighted steady‐state free precession]]> Diffusion‐weighted steady‐state free precession (DW‐SSFP) is shown to provide a means to probe non‐Gaussian diffusion through manipulation of the flip angle. A framework is presented to define an effective b‐value in DW‐SSFP.TheoryThe DW‐SSFP signal is a summation of coherence pathways with different b‐values. The relative contribution of each pathway is dictated by the flip angle. This leads to an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) estimate that depends on the flip angle in non‐Gaussian diffusion regimes. By acquiring DW‐SSFP data at multiple flip angles and modeling the variation in ADC for a given form of non‐Gaussianity, the ADC can be estimated at a well‐defined effective b‐value.MethodsA gamma distribution is used to model non‐Gaussian diffusion, embedded in the Buxton signal model for DW‐SSFP. Monte‐Carlo simulations of non‐Gaussian diffusion in DW‐SSFP and diffusion‐weighted spin‐echo sequences are used to verify the proposed framework. Dependence of ADC on flip angle in DW‐SSFP is verified with experimental measurements in a whole, human postmortem brain.ResultsMonte‐Carlo simulations reveal excellent agreement between ADCs estimated with diffusion‐weighted spin‐echo and the proposed framework. Experimental ADC estimates vary as a function of flip angle over the corpus callosum of the postmortem brain, estimating the mean and standard deviation of the gamma distribution as 1.50·10-4 mm2/s and 2.10·10-4 mm2/s.ConclusionDW‐SSFP can be used to investigate non‐Gaussian diffusion by varying the flip angle. By fitting a model of non‐Gaussian diffusion, the ADC in DW‐SSFP can be estimated at an effective b‐value, comparable to more conventional diffusion sequences. ]]> <![CDATA[Magnetization transfer and frequency distribution effects in the SSFP ellipse]]> To demonstrate that quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) parameters can be extracted from steady‐state free‐precession (SSFP) data with no external T 1 map or banding artifacts.MethodsSSFP images with multiple MT weightings were acquired and qMT parameters fitted with a two‐stage elliptical signal model.ResultsMonte Carlo simulations and data from a 3T scanner indicated that most qMT parameters could be recovered with reasonable accuracy. Systematic deviations from theory were observed in white matter, consistent with previous literature on frequency distribution effects.ConclusionsqMT parameters can be extracted from SSFP data alone, in a manner robust to banding artifacts, despite several confounds. ]]> <![CDATA[Whole‐heart T 1 mapping using a 2D fat image navigator for respiratory motion compensation]]>


To combine a 3D saturation‐recovery‐based myocardial T1 mapping (3D SASHA) sequence with a 2D image navigator with fat excitation (fat‐iNAV) to allow 3D T1 maps with 100% respiratory scan efficiency and predictable scan time.


Data from T1 phantom and 10 subjects were acquired at 1.5T. For respiratory motion compensation, a 2D fat‐iNAV was acquired before each 3D SASHA k‐space segment to correct for 2D translational motion in a beat‐to‐beat fashion. The effect of the fat‐iNAV on the 3D SASHA T1 estimation was evaluated on the T1 phantom. For 3 representative subjects, the proposed free‐breathing 3D SASHA with fat‐iNAV was compared to the original implementation with the diaphragmatic navigator. The 3D SASHA with fat‐iNAV was compared to the breath‐hold 2D SASHA sequence in terms of accuracy and precision.


In the phantom study, the Bland‐Altman plot shows that the 2D fat‐iNAVs does not affect the T1 quantification of the 3D SASHA acquisition (0 ± 12.5 ms). For the in vivo study, the 2D fat‐iNAV permits to estimate the respiratory motion of the heart, while allowing for 100% scan efficiency, improving the precision of the T1 measurement compared to non‐motion‐corrected 3D SASHA. However, the image quality achieved with the proposed 3D SASHA with fat‐iNAV is lower compared to the original implementation, with reduced delineation of the myocardial borders and papillary muscles.


We demonstrate the feasibility to combine the 3D SASHA T1 mapping imaging sequence with a 2D fat‐iNAV for respiratory motion compensation, allowing 100% respiratory scan efficiency and predictable scan time.