ResearchPad - nursing Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Incidence and determinants of Implanon discontinuation: Findings from a prospective cohort study in three health zones in Kinshasa, DRC]]> Kinshasa is Africa's third largest city and one of the continent’s most rapidly growing urban areas. PMA2020 data showed that Kinshasa has a modern contraceptive prevalence of 26.5% among married women in 2018. In Kinshasa’s method mix, the contraceptive implant recently became the dominant method among contraceptive users married and in union. This study provides insight into patterns of implant use in a high-fertility setting by evaluating the 24-month continuation rate for Implanon NXT and identifying the characteristics associated with discontinuation.MethodologyThis community-based, prospective cohort study followed 531 Implanon users aged 18–49 years at 6, 12 and 24 months. The following information was collected: socio-demographic characteristics, Method Information Index (MII) and contraceptive history. The main outcome variable for this study was implant discontinuation. The incidence rate of discontinuation is presented as events per 1000 person/months (p-m), from the date of enrolment. The Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to measure predictors of discontinuation.ResultsA total of 9158.13 p-m were available for analysis, with an overall incidence rate of 9.06 (95% CI: 9.04–9.08) removals per 1000 p-m. Of nine possible co-variates tested, the likelihood of discontinuation was higher among women who lived in military camps, had less than three children, never used injectables or implants in the past, had experienced heavy/prolonged bleeding, and whose MII score was less than 3.ConclusionIn addition to four client characteristics that predicted discontinuation, we identified one programmatic factor: quality of counseling as measured by the Method Information Index. Community providers in similar contexts should pay more attention to clients having less than three children, new adopters, and to clients living military camps as underserved population, where clients have less access to health facilities. More targeted counselling and follow-up is needed, especially on bleeding patterns. ]]> <![CDATA[Mobile technology intervention for weight loss in rural men: protocol for a pilot pragmatic randomised controlled trial]]> Men who are overweight or obese in the rural Midwestern USA are an unrepresented, at-risk group exhibiting rising rates of cardiovascular disease, poor access to preventive care and poor lifestyle behaviours that contribute to sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet. Self-monitoring of eating and activity has demonstrated efficacy for weight loss. Use of mobile technologies for self-monitoring eating and activity may address rural men’s access disparities to preventive health resources and support weight loss. Our pilot trial will assess the feasibility and acceptability of two mobile applications for weight loss in rural men to inform a future, full-scale trial.Methods and analysisA 6-month randomised controlled trial with contextual evaluation will randomise 80 men using a 1:1 ratio to either a Mobile Technology Plus (MT+) intervention or a basic Mobile Technology (MT) intervention in rural, midlife men (aged 40–69 years). The MT+ intervention consists of a smartphone self-monitoring application enhanced with discussion group (Lose-It premium), short message service text-based support and Wi-Fi scale. The MT group will receive only a self-monitoring application (Lose-It basic). Feasibility and acceptability will be evaluated using number of men recruited and retained, and evaluative focus group feedback. We seek to determine point estimates and variability of outcome measures of weight loss (kg and % body weight) and improved dietary and physical activity behaviours (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption surveys, data from Lose-It! application (kcal/day, steps/day)). Community capacity will be assessed using standard best practice methods. Descriptive content analysis will evaluate intervention acceptability and contextual sensitivity.Ethics and disseminationThis protocol was approved by the University of Nebraska Medical Center Institutional Review Board (IRB# 594–17-EP). Dissemination of findings will occur through and publish pilot data to inform the design of a larger clinical trial.Trial registration numberNCT03329079; preresults. Protocol V.10, study completion date 31 August 2020. Roles and responsibilities funder: NIH/NINR Health Disparities Section 1R15NR017522-01. ]]> <![CDATA[气管支气管成形术后患者的护理体会]]> <![CDATA[Perceptions of the technical staff of professional teams regarding injury prevention in Spanish national futsal leagues: a cross-sectional study]]>

Futsal is a sport with increasing popularity and level of performance, both in male and female categories. Also, there are several injuries along a season, so it is needed to know how to reduce this burden. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of technical staff on injury risk factors, risk testing and preventive measures, and the strategies used by them within professional male and female futsal teams. A cross-sectional study was designed during the 2017–2018 season. A total of 32 futsal teams involved in male and female Spanish national futsal leagues completed, through an online survey platform, a questionnaire about injury risk factors, risk testing and preventive measures. Findings showed that: (a) most teams reported enough human resources, but insufficient material and time resources, (b) the main risk factors detected were previous injuries, strength deficits and dehydration, (c) functional movement patterns, flexibility tests and self-report questionnaires were the most applied tests for detecting injury risks in their players and (d) most of the main preventive measures used by technical staff matched with the best valued by them. Technical staff defined properly the main risk factors in futsal performance, as well as they applied preventive strategies with scientific support. The information provided in this research could be of interest for sport scientists and technical staff when designing more accurate and efficient injury prevention programs in futsal.

<![CDATA[Knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy of elderly caregivers in Chinese nursing homes: a cross-sectional study in Liaoning Province]]>


This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of elderly caregivers in Chinese nursing homes (NHs) and associated factors with regard to knowledge, attitude about elderly and self-efficacy.


A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 12 NHs in Liaoning Province, China.


A total of 403 caregivers from 12 NHs were surveyed.

Outcome measures

Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire composed of the Palmore’s Facts on Aging Quiz I, Kogan’s Attitude Towards Old People Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale and background characteristics of participants. An average score for knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy was calculated. Differences across groups were evaluated using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance. Multivariable linear regression models were established to estimate the associated factors.


The participating caregivers reported a relative low score on knowledge about the elderly (10.42±2.79), attitude towards old people (127.85±14.36) and self-efficacy (27.12±4.9). Multivariable regression analysis showed that respondents who had high educational level (β=0.212, 95% CI 0.193 to 0.824), received prejob training (β=0.193, 95% CI 0.081 to 1.169) and had high job satisfaction (general satisfaction: β=0.345, 95% CI 0.223 to 1.875; very satisfied: β=0.322, 95% CI 0.210 to 1.283) gave a positive rating on knowledge. Caregivers who were employed as formal staff (β=0.155, 95% CI 0.116 to 1.670), earned a high income (β=0.214, 95% CI 0.117 to 1.461) and had an interest in working with the elderly (β=0.141, 95% CI 0.088 to 1.508) tended to develop a positive attitude towards the elderly. However, caregivers who were female (β=−0.110, 95% CI −1.751 to −0.080) and had long work experience (β=−0.130, 95% CI −1.527 to −0.110) developed negative perception. Caregivers who were older (β=0.215, 95% CI 0.139 to 1.027), received prejob training (β=0.143, 95% CI 0.113 to 1.024), had an interest in working with the elderly (β=0.154, 95% CI 0.114 to 1.015), had high job satisfaction (β=0.177, 95% CI 0.116 to 1.223) and perceived better health status for the elderly (partial disability: β=0.437, 95% CI 0.259 to 1.600; no disability: β=0.288, 95%CI 0.153 to 1.211) gave a positive rating on self-efficacy.


Knowledge about the elderly, attitude towards old people and self-efficacy of elderly caregivers in Chinese NHs were at low levels. Some targeted intervention programmes, such as conducting professional training for aged care and a performance-based payment system, should be given priority to improve these attributes.

<![CDATA[Data on the endogenous conversion of tyrosol into hydroxytyrosol in humans]]>

Here we present new and original data on the endogenous conversion of tyrosol (Tyr) into hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) in humans and its effects on the cardiovascular system. A randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial was performed with individuals at cardiovascular risk (n = 33). They received white wine (WW) (females 1, males 2 standard drinks/day), WW plus Tyr capsules (WW + Tyr) (25mg Tyr capsule, one per WW drink), and water (control) ad libitum. Intervention periods were of 4 weeks preceded by three-week wash-out periods. We assessed the conversion of Tyr to OHTyr, its interaction with a polygenic activity score (PAS) from CYP2A6 and CYP2D6 genotypes, and the effects on cardiovascular risk markers. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Cardiovascular benefits of tyrosol and its endogenous conversion into hydroxytyrosol in humans. A randomized, controlled trial” [1].

<![CDATA[The effects of the flipped classroom in teaching evidence based nursing: A quasi-experimental study]]>


Evidence-based nursing (EBN) has been an important training mechanism for improving the quality of clinical care. At present, the pedagogy focuses on the application of e-learning and team-based learning to enhance learners’ engagement and learning effectiveness.


This study applied the flipped classroom approach to conduct evidence-based nursing (EBN) teaching. The aim of this study is to elevate the learning effectiveness of the flipped classroom group to the traditional teaching group in terms of knowledge and self-efficacy in practice.


A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group with a quasi-experimental quantitative design.


The study recruited 151 nurses, of whom 75 were in the control group and 76 were in the experimental group. During the EBN course, the control group received training via traditional pedagogy while the experimental group engaged the flipped classroom approach. The learning effectiveness of EBN knowledge and self-efficacy in practice were evaluated across the three time points: pre-course, post-course, and one month after the course.


In both group the scores of the EBN knowledge and self-efficacy in practice improved after training. The scores of the experimental group increased significantly than in the control group. However, the scores declined in both groups one month after the course. Even so, the experimental group’s score of self-efficacy in practice was still higher than that of the control group.


The implementation of the flipped classroom approach and team-based learning effectively enhanced the learners EBN knowledge accumulation and self-efficacy in practice. The research results can be used as an important reference for improving clinical nursing teaching quality.

<![CDATA[A view to a kill? – Ambient bacterial load of frames and lenses of spectacles and evaluation of different cleaning methods]]>

Surfaces with regular contact with the human body are typically contaminated with microorganisms and might be considered as fomites. Despite spectacles being widespread across populations, little is known about their microbial contamination. Therefore, we swab-sampled 11 worn spectacles within a university setting as well as 10 worn spectacles in a nursing home setting. The microbial load was determined by aerobic cultivation. All spectacles were found to be contaminated with bacteria, with nose pads and ear clips having the highest density, i.e. at sites with direct skin contact. Summed over all sites, the median microbial load of the university spectacles (1.4 ± 10.7 x 103 CFU cm-2) did not differ significantly from the spectacles tested in the nursing home (20.8 ± 39.9 x 103 CFU cm-2). 215 dominant bacterial morphotypes were analyzed by MALDI biotyping. 182 isolates could be assigned to 10 genera, with Staphylococcus being the most common. On genus-level, bacterial diversity was greater on nursing home spectacles (10 genera) compared to the university environment (2 genera). Four cleaning methods were investigated using lenses artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, a 1:2 mixture of E. coli and M. luteus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (the dominant isolate in our study), respectively. Best cleaning results (99% -100% median germ reduction) were obtained using impregnated wipes; dry cleaning was less effective (85% -90% median germ reduction). Finally, 10 additional worn university spectacles were cleaned with wipes impregnated with an alcohol-free cleaning solution before sampling. The average bacterial load was significantly lower (0.09 ± 0.49 x 103 CFU cm-2) compared to the uncleaned university spectacles previously investigated. Spectacles are significantly contaminated with bacteria of mostly human skin origin—including significant amounts of potentially pathogenic ones and may contribute to eye infections as well as fomites in clinical environments.

<![CDATA[The dataset for relationship between the nurses to patients ratio and patients satisfaction with nursing care]]>

The nurse to patient ratio is one of the impressive nursing care features. Evaluation of patient satisfaction with nursing care according to the number of available agents can be a valuable tool for understanding the quality of service the patient receive it used to adjust appropriate strategies. This data article involved 402 patients who were ready for discharge, in East Gilan hospitals in Iran in 2013. Data were collected through questionnaires PSI. Its validity and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach׳s alpha) were 90%. The obtained data showed that there are differences in nurses to patients ratio in hospitals and mean satisfaction was 72.6 ± 17.8. However, no relationship was found between patient satisfaction and nurses to patients ratio. Patients’ satisfaction with nursing care, regardless of the nurses to patients ratio indicates that nurses are trying to attract the patient׳s consent under any circumstances. In the intensive care unit was a decrease in the number of patients each nurse to provide more direct attention leads more satisfaction.

<![CDATA[A positive attitude towards provision of end-of-life care may protect against burnout: Burnout and religion in a super-aging society]]>


The aim of our study was to investigate factors associated with burnout of nurses and care workers in nursing homes and geriatric hospitals in Japan. The use of Buddhist priests, the major religion in Japan, was also explored.


Questionnaires for nurses and care workers were sent to 10 care facilities. The survey questions included basic demographic information, the Japanese Burnout Index and the Japanese version of the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care Of Dying Scale Form B. They also asked questions about use of Buddhist priests for tasks such as helping to manage the anxiety or distress of patients, families, and staff, or providing sutra chanting.


In total, 323 questionnaires were returned, of which 260 were used for analysis. Only 18 (6.9%) answered that they had any religious beliefs, which was relatively low compared to 27% from governmental survey data. In total, however, 71% expressed a need for Buddhist priests to help with anxiety or distress among patients. A positive attitude towards providing end-of-life care was a protective factor against depersonalization. It was, however, also related to lower feelings of personal accomplishment.


Care homes and geriatric hospitals may want to consider calling more on religious resources as a support for staff and patients.

<![CDATA[Patients’ Main Concerns About Having a Sibling Stem Cell Donor – A Grounded Theory Study]]>


There is limited knowledge about the perspective of patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) about having a sibling as donor. It is essential to understand the main concerns of stem cell recipients in order to enable nurses to provide person-centred care.


The study aim was to explore patients’ main concerns about having a sibling stem cell donor and how the patients handle them, from immediately before until one year after transplantation.


Twenty-eight interviews were performed prospectively during one year with ten adult sibling stem cell recipients with a mean age of 52 years (range 19-68 years). The interviews were analyzed by the Grounded Theory method.


The core category Recompensation summarises the process in the generated grounded theory including the three main categories; Invest, Compensate and Celebrate. Recompensation is defined as a lasting compensation given by the recipient to the sibling donor for the loss or harm suffered or effort made. The sense of having to reward, protect, appreciate, maintain peace and work on the relationship with the sibling donor at the same time as having to accept a serious illness, cope with their situation and promote their own recovery is strenuous for the recipients.


The main concern for stem cell recipients during their first post-transplant year is to recompensate the sibling donor by investing, compensating and celebrating her/him. Although there is a positive aspect of recompensation, it can also imply pressure and guilt.

<![CDATA[Role of Blood Lipids in the Development of Ischemic Stroke and its Subtypes]]>

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

<![CDATA[Multidisciplinary approach to the management of pulmonary embolism patients: the pulmonary embolism response team (PERT)]]>

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal disease with a broad range of treatment options that spans multiple specialties. The rapid evolution and expansion of novel therapies to treat PE make it a disease process that is well suited to a multidisciplinary approach. In order to facilitate a rapid, robust response to the diagnosis of PE, some hospitals have established multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs). The PERT model is based on existing multidisciplinary teams such as heart teams and rapid response teams. A PERT is composed of clinicians from the range of specialties involved in the treatment of PE, including pulmonology critical care, interventional radiology, cardiology, and cardiothoracic surgery among others. A PERT is a 24/7 consult service that is able to provide expert advice on the initial management of PE patients and convene in real time to develop a consensus treatment plan specifically tailored to the needs of a particular patient and consistent with the capabilities of the institution. In this review, we discuss the rationale for establishing a PERT and its potential benefits. We discuss considerations in forming a PERT and present case studies of several PERTs currently in operation at different institutions. We also discuss potential difficulties in forming a PERT and review evidence that has been generated by some of the PERTs that have been in operation the longest.

<![CDATA[]]> ]]> <![CDATA[Anxiety After Stroke]]>

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

<![CDATA[Neutralization tiers of HIV-1]]>

Purpose of review

HIV-1 isolates are often classified on the basis of neutralization ‘tier’ phenotype. Tier classification has important implications for the monitoring and interpretation of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses. The molecular basis that distinguishes the multiple neutralization phenotypes of HIV-1 has been unclear. We present a model based on the dynamic nature of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins and its impact on epitope exposure. We also describe a new approach for ranking HIV-1 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses.

Recent findings

The unliganded trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein spike spontaneously transitions through at least three conformations. Neutralization tier phenotypes correspond to the frequency by which the trimer exists in a closed (tiers 2 and 3), open (tier 1A), or intermediate (tier 1B) conformation. An increasing number of epitopes become exposed as the trimer opens, making the virus more sensitive to neutralization by certain antibodies. The closed conformation is stabilized by many broadly neutralizing antibodies.


The tier 2 neutralization phenotype is typical of most circulating strains and is associated with a predominantly closed Env trimer configuration that is a high priority to target with vaccines. Assays with tier 1A viruses should be interpreted with caution and with the understanding that they detect many antibody specificities that do not neutralize tier 2 viruses and do not protect against HIV-1 infection.

<![CDATA[Primary Intravenous Set Consumption Across 3 Branded Infusion Pumps]]>

Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.

<![CDATA[Clinical Evaluation of a Skin Protectant for the Management of Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis]]>


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an investigational skin protectant product at managing severe skin breakdown associated with incontinence.


Open-label, nonrandomized, prospective study.


The sample comprised 16 patients; inclusion criteria were: patients older than 18 years, cared for in the intensive care unit of a level I trauma center hospital or in long-term care facilities in the northeast region of the United States, and had incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). Twelve of the patients had epidermal skin loss and 4 had severe redness.


The investigational product is a formulation based on acrylate chemistry. The skin protectant application schedule was twice weekly for up to 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 applications during the study period. The skin was evaluated via a skin assessment instrument specifically designed for use in this study; this instrument has not undergone validation studies. The main outcome measure was changes in the instrument score over time. In addition, complete reepithelialization was recorded when observed, and pain scores (associated with IAD) were noted in participants who were able to report pain.


The IAD score improved in 13 of 16 patients, remained unchanged in 1 patient, and deteriorated in 2 patients. The median percent improvement in the skin assessment instrument was 96% (P = .013). Four of the patients with epidermal skin loss had complete reepithelialization of the skin surface with 4 to 6 applications of the skin protectant, and 5 had substantial improvement. The 4 patients with severe red skin returned to healthy normal skin with 2 to 4 skin protectant applications. Substantial pain reduction was reported by all 9 patients who reported pain at enrollment. No adverse events associated with the skin protectant application were reported during data collection.


Results of this study suggest that an acrylate-based product, evaluated here for the first time in patients, may be effective as a protective barrier in the presence of continued incontinence. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings.

<![CDATA[The Effect of Educational Intervention Regarding the Knowledge of Mothers on Prevention of Accidents in Childhood]]> <![CDATA[Keloid Management: A Retrospective Case Review on a New Approach Using Surgical Excision, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and In-office Superficial Photon X-ray Radiation Therapy]]>