ResearchPad - nursing-science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Incidence and determinants of Implanon discontinuation: Findings from a prospective cohort study in three health zones in Kinshasa, DRC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7634 Kinshasa is Africa's third largest city and one of the continent’s most rapidly growing urban areas. PMA2020 data showed that Kinshasa has a modern contraceptive prevalence of 26.5% among married women in 2018. In Kinshasa’s method mix, the contraceptive implant recently became the dominant method among contraceptive users married and in union. This study provides insight into patterns of implant use in a high-fertility setting by evaluating the 24-month continuation rate for Implanon NXT and identifying the characteristics associated with discontinuation.MethodologyThis community-based, prospective cohort study followed 531 Implanon users aged 18–49 years at 6, 12 and 24 months. The following information was collected: socio-demographic characteristics, Method Information Index (MII) and contraceptive history. The main outcome variable for this study was implant discontinuation. The incidence rate of discontinuation is presented as events per 1000 person/months (p-m), from the date of enrolment. The Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to measure predictors of discontinuation.ResultsA total of 9158.13 p-m were available for analysis, with an overall incidence rate of 9.06 (95% CI: 9.04–9.08) removals per 1000 p-m. Of nine possible co-variates tested, the likelihood of discontinuation was higher among women who lived in military camps, had less than three children, never used injectables or implants in the past, had experienced heavy/prolonged bleeding, and whose MII score was less than 3.ConclusionIn addition to four client characteristics that predicted discontinuation, we identified one programmatic factor: quality of counseling as measured by the Method Information Index. Community providers in similar contexts should pay more attention to clients having less than three children, new adopters, and to clients living military camps as underserved population, where clients have less access to health facilities. More targeted counselling and follow-up is needed, especially on bleeding patterns. ]]> <![CDATA[The effects of the flipped classroom in teaching evidence based nursing: A quasi-experimental study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c9ed5eed0c484bd37a6

Background

Evidence-based nursing (EBN) has been an important training mechanism for improving the quality of clinical care. At present, the pedagogy focuses on the application of e-learning and team-based learning to enhance learners’ engagement and learning effectiveness.

Objectives

This study applied the flipped classroom approach to conduct evidence-based nursing (EBN) teaching. The aim of this study is to elevate the learning effectiveness of the flipped classroom group to the traditional teaching group in terms of knowledge and self-efficacy in practice.

Design

A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group with a quasi-experimental quantitative design.

Methods

The study recruited 151 nurses, of whom 75 were in the control group and 76 were in the experimental group. During the EBN course, the control group received training via traditional pedagogy while the experimental group engaged the flipped classroom approach. The learning effectiveness of EBN knowledge and self-efficacy in practice were evaluated across the three time points: pre-course, post-course, and one month after the course.

Results

In both group the scores of the EBN knowledge and self-efficacy in practice improved after training. The scores of the experimental group increased significantly than in the control group. However, the scores declined in both groups one month after the course. Even so, the experimental group’s score of self-efficacy in practice was still higher than that of the control group.

Conclusion

The implementation of the flipped classroom approach and team-based learning effectively enhanced the learners EBN knowledge accumulation and self-efficacy in practice. The research results can be used as an important reference for improving clinical nursing teaching quality.

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<![CDATA[Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf7a9

Background

Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments’ measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations.

Methods

A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990–2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument’s usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee’s criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments.

Results

After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar’s instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners’ Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory.

Conclusion

Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing instruments and to longitudinal studies.

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<![CDATA[Staff Nurses’ Perceptions and Experiences about Structural Empowerment: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae7ab0ee8fa60bbde4a

The aim of the study reported in this article was to investigate staff nurses’ perceptions and experiences about structural empowerment and perceptions regarding the extent to which structural empowerment supports safe quality patient care. To address the complex needs of patients, staff nurse involvement in clinical and organizational decision-making processes within interdisciplinary care settings is crucial. A qualitative study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews of 11 staff nurses assigned to medical or surgical units in a 600-bed university hospital in Belgium. During the study period, the hospital was going through an organizational transformation process to move from a classic hierarchical and departmental organizational structure to one that was flat and interdisciplinary. Staff nurses reported experiencing structural empowerment and they were willing to be involved in decision-making processes primarily about patient care within the context of their practice unit. However, participants were not always fully aware of the challenges and the effect of empowerment on their daily practice, the quality of care and patient safety. Ongoing hospital change initiatives supported staff nurses’ involvement in decision-making processes for certain matters but for some decisions, a classic hierarchical and departmental process still remained. Nurses perceived relatively high work demands and at times viewed empowerment as presenting additional. Staff nurses recognized the opportunities structural empowerment provided within their daily practice. Nurse managers and unit climate were seen as crucial for success while lack of time and perceived work demands were viewed as barriers to empowerment.

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<![CDATA[A Morbidity Survey of South African Primary Care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9cab0ee8fa60ba417a

Background

Recent studies have described the burden of disease in South Africa. However these studies do not tell us which of these conditions commonly present to primary care providers, how these conditions may present and how providers make sense of them in terms of their diagnoses. Clinical nurse practitioners are the main primary care providers and need to be better prepared for this role. This study aimed to determine the range and prevalence of reasons for encounter and diagnoses found among ambulatory patients attending public sector primary care facilities in South Africa.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The study was a multi-centre prospective cross-sectional survey of consultations in primary care in four provinces of South Africa: Western Cape, Limpopo, Northern Cape and North West. Consultations were coded prior to analysis by using the International Classification of Primary Care-Version 2 in terms of reasons for encounter (REF) and diagnoses. Altogether 18856 consultations were included in the survey and generated 31451 reasons for encounter (RFE) and 24561 diagnoses. Women accounted for 12526 (66.6%) and men 6288 (33.4%). Nurses saw 16238 (86.1%) and doctors 2612 (13.9%) of patients. The top 80 RFE and top 25 diagnoses are reported and ongoing care for hypertension was the commonest RFE and diagnosis. The 20 commonest RFE and diagnoses by age group are also reported.

Conclusions/Significance

Ambulatory primary care is dominated by non-communicable chronic diseases. HIV/AIDS and TB are common, but not to the extent predicted by the burden of disease. Pneumonia and gastroenteritis are commonly seen especially in children. Women's health issues such as family planning and pregnancy related visits are also common. Injuries are not as common as expected from the burden of disease. Primary care providers did not recognise mental health problems. The results should guide the future training and assessment of primary care providers.

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<![CDATA[A Cluster-Randomised Trial of Staff Education to Improve the Quality of Life of People with Dementia Living in Residential Care: The DIRECT Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4cab0ee8fa60bdaa3c

Background

The Dementia In Residential care: EduCation intervention Trial (DIRECT) was conducted to determine if delivery of education designed to meet the perceived need of GPs and care staff improves the quality of life of participants with dementia living in residential care.

Methodology/Principal Findings

This cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in 39 residential aged care facilities in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. 351 care facility residents aged 65 years and older with Mini-Mental State Examination ≤24, their GPs and facility staff participated. Flexible education designed to meet the perceived needs of learners was delivered to GPs and care facility staff in intervention groups. The primary outcome of the study was self-rated quality of life of participants with dementia, measured using the QOL-Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QOL-AD) at 4 weeks and 6 months after the conclusion of the intervention. Analysis accounted for the effect of clustering by using multi-level regression analysis. Education of GPs or care facility staff did not affect the primary outcome at either 4 weeks or 6 months. In a post hoc analysis excluding facilities in which fewer than 50% of staff attended an education session, self-rated QOL-AD scores were 6.14 points (adjusted 95%CI 1.14, 11.15) higher at four-week follow-up among residents in facilities randomly assigned to the education intervention.

Conclusion

The education intervention directed at care facilities or GPs did not improve the quality of life ratings of participants with dementia as a group. This may be explained by the poor adherence to the intervention programme, as participants with dementia living in facilities where staff participated at least minimally seemed to benefit.

Trial Registration

ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN12607000417482

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<![CDATA[Differences in Statin Usage and Target-Goal Achievement between Departments at the Same Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6edd4

Objective

To compare use of statins and target-goal achievement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with or without stable coronary artery disease (CAD), between cardiology and endocrinology departments at a tertiary hospital.

Methods

A total of 966 patients with T2DM were enrolled, including 553 with stable CAD, from the departments of endocrinology and cardiology. Baseline characteristics, prescription of statins, and target-goal achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) during a 6-month follow-up period were analyzed.

Results

There was lower ratio of statin use in patients with T2DM, with or without CAD, in the department of endocrinology than in the department of cardiology (all P<0.05). At the 6-month follow-up, compared to patients with T2DM in the endocrinology department, target-goal achievement among patients with T2DM in the department of cardiology was higher (52.90% vs. 41.46%, P<0.01), indicating a significant improvement among patients in the department of cardiology but not for those in the department of endocrinology when compared to baseline. According to the new Chinese guidelines, the goal attainment rate was higher among patients with T2DM combined with CAD in the department of cardiology than in the department of endocrinology (27.62% vs. 19.05%, P<0.05). However, with regard to ATP III 2004, the goal attainment rate was similar for patients with T2DM combined with CAD in both departments during the 6-month follow-up (9.21% vs. 8.84%, P>0.05), with no apparent improvement compared to baseline.

Conclusions

There was differential and sub-optimal use of statins as well as low target-goal achievement among patients with T2DM, with or without CAD, in the departments of cardiology and endocrinology at the same tertiary hospital, with a lower rate of statin prescription and target-goal achievement of LDL-C in the department of endocrinology.

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<![CDATA[Intensive Patient Education Improves Glycaemic Control in Diabetes Compared to Conventional Education: A Randomised Controlled Trial in a Nigerian Tertiary Care Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dfab0ee8fa60b68fd4

Background

Diabetes is now a global epidemic, but most cases are now in low- and middle-income countries. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is key to enabling patients to manage their chronic condition and can reduce the occurrence of costly and devastating complications. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of different DSME programmes in resource limited settings.

Methods

We conducted an unblinded, parallel-group, individually-randomised controlled trial at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (Nigeria) to evaluate whether an intensive and systematic DSME programme, using structured guidelines, improved glycaemic control compared to the existing ad hoc patient education (clinical practice was unchanged). Eligible patients (≥18 years, HbA1c > 8.5% and physically able to participate) were randomly allocated by permuted block randomisation to participate for six months in either an intensive or conventional education group. The primary outcome was HbA1c (%) at six-months.

Results

We randomised 59 participants to each group and obtained six-month HbA1c outcomes from 53 and 51 participants in the intensive and conventional education groups, respectively. Intensive group participants had a mean six-month HbA1c (%) of 8.4 (95% CI: 8 to 8.9), while participants in the conventional education group had a mean six-month HbA1c (%) of 10.2 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.7). The difference was statistically (P < 0.0001) and clinically significant, with intensive group participants having HbA1c outcomes on average -1.8 (95% CI: -2.4 to -1.2) percentage points lower than conventional group participants. Results were robust to adjustment for a range of covariates and multiple imputation of missing outcome data.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a structured, guideline-based DSME intervention in a LMIC setting versus a pragmatic comparator. The intervention is potentially replicable at other levels of the Nigerian healthcare system and in other LMICs, where nurses/diabetes educators can run the programme.

Trial Registration

Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR20130200047835

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<![CDATA[How Do Nursing Students Use Digital Tools during Lectures?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da99ab0ee8fa60ba3051

Objectives

Teachers often wonder what students are doing during lectures, behind their computers, mobile phones and other digital tools. This study aimed to document the type of tools used during lectures by nursing students and what they do with them.

Methods

We carried out a descriptive, prospective, multicentre study including 1446 nursing students in Alsace (France). The students filled in an anonymous questionnaire at the end of a lesson they had just attended.

Results

99% of the students had taken at least one digital tool to the lesson. 90% had a mobile phone with them. It was mainly used for entertainment (particularly for sending and/or receiving text messages and consulting emails). 52% had a laptop with them. It was essentially used for academic tasks (taking notes, working on other teaching units or revising for exams).

Conclusion

Most nursing students take a phone or laptop to lectures with them with the intention of using them for entertainment and learning respectively. These results could guide training establishments in drafting their institutional policy concerning the use of digital tools in class.

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<![CDATA[Methodological Reporting of Randomized Trials in Five Leading Chinese Nursing Journals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9cab0ee8fa60ba4319

Background

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are not always well reported, especially in terms of their methodological descriptions. This study aimed to investigate the adherence of methodological reporting complying with CONSORT and explore associated trial level variables in the Chinese nursing care field.

Methods

In June 2012, we identified RCTs published in five leading Chinese nursing journals and included trials with details of randomized methods. The quality of methodological reporting was measured through the methods section of the CONSORT checklist and the overall CONSORT methodological items score was calculated and expressed as a percentage. Meanwhile, we hypothesized that some general and methodological characteristics were associated with reporting quality and conducted a regression with these data to explore the correlation. The descriptive and regression statistics were calculated via SPSS 13.0.

Results

In total, 680 RCTs were included. The overall CONSORT methodological items score was 6.34±0.97 (Mean ± SD). No RCT reported descriptions and changes in “trial design,” changes in “outcomes” and “implementation,” or descriptions of the similarity of interventions for “blinding.” Poor reporting was found in detailing the “settings of participants” (13.1%), “type of randomization sequence generation” (1.8%), calculation methods of “sample size” (0.4%), explanation of any interim analyses and stopping guidelines for “sample size” (0.3%), “allocation concealment mechanism” (0.3%), additional analyses in “statistical methods” (2.1%), and targeted subjects and methods of “blinding” (5.9%). More than 50% of trials described randomization sequence generation, the eligibility criteria of “participants,” “interventions,” and definitions of the “outcomes” and “statistical methods.” The regression analysis found that publication year and ITT analysis were weakly associated with CONSORT score.

Conclusions

The completeness of methodological reporting of RCTs in the Chinese nursing care field is poor, especially with regard to the reporting of trial design, changes in outcomes, sample size calculation, allocation concealment, blinding, and statistical methods.

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<![CDATA[Threshold of Musculoskeletal Pain Intensity for Increased Risk of Long-Term Sickness Absence among Female Healthcare Workers in Eldercare]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db43ab0ee8fa60bd78e4

Purpose

Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA) from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare.

Methods

Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004–2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM). Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR) analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0–9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain) in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks) during one-year follow-up.

Results

During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07–1.93]), neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10–1.96]) and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06–1.93]) were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0–9), respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0.

Conclusion

The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers.

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<![CDATA[Medical student, nursing student, and non-health care respondents' implicit attitudes toward doctors and patients: Development and a pilot study of a new implicit attitudes test (IAT)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafc657463d7e7d7e2e874c

Introduction

Medical educators have been concerned that medical students may decline in empathy for patients during the course of their training, based on studies measuring clinical empathy using psychometrically strong self-report measures. Clinical empathy is a complex construct, incorporating attitudes toward patients but also other components, such as professional detachment. Triangulation of extant measures with instruments based on nonreactive methods could provide a better understanding of whether and how physician attitudes toward patients may be changing during training. We sought to develop and pilot-test such a nonreactive method.

Methods

We develop variations of an implicit association test (IAT) designed to measure attitudes toward physicians and patients based on speed of reaction to images of actors and positive and negative words. In the IATs, the same actors are photographed as doctors, clinic outpatients, hospitalized inpatients, and as a “general public” control. We examine preliminary evidence for their validity by collecting pilot data from internet participants (not involved in the health professions), medical students, and nursing students.

Results

Internet participants (n = 314) and nursing students (n = 31) had more negative associations (IAT scores) with doctors than did medical students (n = 89); nursing students and female internet participants had more positive associations with hospitalized patients than did medical students and male internet participants. Medical students’ associations with hospitalized patients varied by year of training.

Discussion

This IAT may provide insight into implicit attitudes among those who enter training for the health profession and changes in those attitudes that may be inculcated during that training.

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<![CDATA[Adherence as a Predictor of Sexual Behaviors in People Living with HIV/AIDS during the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Cameroon: Data from Stratall ANRS 12110/ESTHER Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad7ab0ee8fa60bb85b4

Objective

This study aims to investigate the time pattern of inconsistence condom use (ICU) during the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and its relationship with treatment adherence in naïve HIV-infected adult patients.

Methods

Data collection was nested within a longitudinal trial on HIV treatment. ICU was defined as reporting to have “never”, “sometimes” or “nearly always” used condoms with one’s main or casual partner(s) - either HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status in the three previous months. Adherence was defined as taking 100% of their ART prescribed doses in the 4 days before the visit and “not having interrupted treatment”, even once, for more than two consecutive days during the 4 previous weeks. Mixed logistic regression was used to study the relationship between adherence and ICU.

Results

Among the 459 patients enrolled, 212 (46%) during 334 visits reported to have had sexual intercourse at least once with their partner(s) – either HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status- during the first 12 months of ART. The proportion of ICU was 76%, 50% and 59% at month 0 (M0), month 6 (M6) and month 12 (M12), while 60% and 66% of patients were ART-adherent at M6 and M12, respectively. After adjustment for the frequency of sexual activity, type of sexual partner(s), perceived social class and desire for a child, patients adherent to ART were less likely to report ICU when compared with baseline (AOR [95% CI]: 0.38 [0.19–0.76]; P = 0.006).

Conclusions

Adherence to ART is associated with a lower risk of ICU but this result needs to be interpreted carefully. As adherence behaviors are not only determined by problems with the healthcare systems but also by social barriers encountered by patients in their daily life, counseling should not only be ART adherence-centered but also patient-centered, including sexual risk minimization and psychosocial support.

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<![CDATA[Factors Associated with Nursing Activities in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fcab0ee8fa60b72508

Background

Although nurses play an important role in humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HA/DR), little is known about the nursing activities that are performed in HA/DR. We aimed to clarify the nursing activities performed by Japanese nurses in HA/DR and to examine the factors associated with the frequency of nursing activities.

Methods

A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 147 nurses with HA/DR experience. The survey extracted information on demographic characteristics, past experience (e.g., disaster medical training experience, HA/DR experience), circumstances surrounding their dispatched to HA/DR (e.g., team size, disaster type, post-disaster phase, mission term), and the frequency of nursing activities performed under HA/DR. The frequency of nursing activities was rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Evaluation of nursing activities was conducted based on the “nursing activity score”, which represents the frequency of each nursing activity. Factors related to the nursing activity score were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results

Nurses were involved in 27 nursing activities in HA/DR, 10 of which were performed frequently. On analysis, factors significantly associated with nursing activity score were nursing license as a registered nurse (OR 7.79, 95% CI 2.95–20.57), two or more experiences with disaster medical training (OR 2.90 95%, CI 1.12–7.49) and a post-disaster phase of three weeks or longer (OR 8.77, 95% CI 2.59–29.67).

Conclusions

These results will contribute to the design of evidence-based disaster medical training that improves the quality of nursing activities.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis among Health Care Workers in High Burden Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacbab0ee8fa60bb4294

Background

Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Twenty-two high burden countries contributed to the majority of worldwide tuberculosis cases in 2015. Health care workers are at high risk of acquiring tuberculosis through occupational exposure.

Objective

To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among health care workers in high burden countries.

Methods

Databases including MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science (Thompson-Reuters), and grey literature were searched for English language records on relevant medical subject headings (MeSH) terms of LTBI and health care providers. Literature was systematically reviewed using EPPI-Reviewer4 software. Prevalence and incidence of LTBI and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Pooled prevalence of LTBI and 95% CI were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis models and heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. Sub-group analysis was conducted to assess the cause of heterogeneity.

Results

A total of 990 records were identified. Of those, 18 studies from only 7 high burden countries representing 10,078 subjects were included. Tuberculin skin test results were available for 9,545 participants. The pooled prevalence of LTBI was 47% (95% CI 34% to 60%, I2 = 99.6%). In subgroup analyses according to the country of the study, the pooled prevalence of LTBI was lowest in Brazil (37%) and highest in South Africa (64%). The pooled prevalence of LTBI among medical and nursing students was 26% (95% CI 6% to 46%, I2 = 99.3%) while the prevalence among all types of health care workers was 57% (95% CI 44% to 70%, I2 = 99.1%). Incidence of LTBI was available for health care workers in four countries. The cumulative incidence ranged from 2.8% in Brazilian medical students to 38% among all types of health care workers in South Africa.

Conclusion

The findings of this study suggest that there is a high burden of LTBI among health care workers in high burden countries. Adequate infection control measures are warranted to prevent and control transmission in health care settings.

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<![CDATA[Lack of Awareness among Future Medical Professionals about the Risk of Consuming Hidden Phosphate-Containing Processed Food and Drinks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0dab0ee8fa60b783bd

Phosphate toxicity is an important determinant of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those undergoing hemodialysis treatments. CKD patients are advised to take a low phosphate-containing diet, and are additionally prescribed with phosphate-lowering drugs. Since these patients usually seek guidance from their physicians and nurses for their dietary options, we conducted a survey to determine the levels of awareness regarding the high phosphate content in commercially processed food and drinks among medical and nursing students at the Hirosaki University School of Medicine in Japan. For this survey, 190 medical and nursing students (average age 21.7±3 years) were randomly selected, and provided with a list of questions aimed at evaluating their awareness of food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate ingredients. While 98.9% of these students were aware of the presence of sugar in commercially available soda drinks, only 6.9% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid). Similarly, only 11.6% of these students were aware of the presence of phosphate in commercially processed food, such as hamburgers and pizza. Moreover, around two thirds of the surveyed students (67.7%) were unaware of the harmful effects of unrestricted consumption of phosphate-containing food and drinks. About 28% of the surveyed students consume such “fast food” once a week, while 40% drink at least 1∼5 cans of soda drinks/week. After realizing the potential long-term risks of consuming excessive phosphate-containing food and drinks, 40.5% of the survey participants considered reducing their phosphate intake by minimizing the consumption of commercially processed “fast food” items and soda drinks. Moreover, another 48.4% of students showed interest in obtaining more information on the negative health effects of consuming excessive amounts of phosphate. This survey emphasizes the need for educational initiative to raise awareness of the health risks posed by excessive consumption of phosphate additives.

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<![CDATA[Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2cab0ee8fa60b82e37

The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. “Assimilating to the hierarchical culture” emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses’ perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members’ satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

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<![CDATA[Geriatric Conditions in Acutely Hospitalized Older Patients: Prevalence and One-Year Survival and Functional Decline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db22ab0ee8fa60bcfa03

Background

To study the prevalence of eighteen geriatric conditions in older patients at admission, their reporting rate in discharge summaries and the impact of these conditions on mortality and functional decline one year after admission.

Method

A prospective multicenter cohort study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in two tertiary university teaching hospitals and one regional teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Patients of 65 years and older, acutely admitted and hospitalized for at least 48 hours, were invited to participate. Eighteen geriatric conditions were assessed at hospital admission, and outcomes (mortality, functional decline) were assessed one year after admission.

Results

639 patients were included, with a mean age of 78 years. IADL impairment (83%), polypharmacy (61%), mobility difficulty (59%), high levels of primary caregiver burden (53%), and malnutrition (52%) were most prevalent. Except for polypharmacy and cognitive impairment, the reporting rate of the geriatric conditions in discharge summaries was less than 50%. One year after admission, 35% had died and 33% suffered from functional decline. A high Charlson comorbidity index score, presence of malnutrition, high fall risk, presence of delirium and premorbid IADL impairment were associated with mortality and overall poor outcome (mortality or functional decline). Obesity lowered the risk for mortality.

Conclusion

Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent and associated with poor health outcomes after admission. Early recognition of these conditions in acutely hospitalized older patients and improving the handover to the general practitioner could lead to better health outcomes and reduce the burden of hospital admission for older patients.

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<![CDATA[Positive and Negative Relationship between Anxiety and Depression of Patients in Pain: A Bifactor Model Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad2ab0ee8fa60bb6c2b

Background

The relationship between anxiety and depression in pain patients has not been clarified comprehensively. Previous research has identified a common factor in anxiety and depression, which may explain why depression and anxiety are strongly correlated. However, the specific clinical features of anxiety and depression seem to pull in opposite directions.

Objective

The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of depression and anxiety, based on data from pain patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This model should account for the positive correlation between depression and anxiety in terms of a general factor and also demonstrate a latent negative correlation between the specific factors underlying depression and anxiety.

Methods

The anxiety and depression symptoms of pain patients were evaluated using the HADS and the severity of their pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We developed a hierarchical model of the data using an IRT method called bifactor analysis. In addition, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with unidimensional, bidimensional, and tridimensional models. The correlations among anxiety, depression, and pain severity were compared, based on both the bidimensional model and our hierarchical model.

Results

The bidimensional model analysis found that there was a large positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.638), and both scores were significantly positively correlated with pain severity. After extracting general factor of distress using bifactor analysis, the specific factors underlying anxiety and depression were weakly but significantly negatively correlated (r = −0.245) and only the general factor was significantly correlated with pain severity. Compared with the three first-order models, the bifactor hierarchical model had the best model fit.

Conclusion

Our results support the hypothesis that apart from distress, anxiety and depression are inversely correlated. This finding has not been convincingly demonstrated in previous research.

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<![CDATA[Health situation of migrant and minority nurses: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4099f2463d7e5a04eefaef

Introduction

Globally, life expectancy together with multimorbidity and chronic diseases are increasing. This leads to a growing demand for care and hence for healthcare personnel and nurses. To meet this demand, healthcare workers from abroad are increasingly hired. The nurses’ workplace in general is characterized by physically and psychologically demanding tasks, while that of migrant and minority nurses is additionally characterized by discriminatory practices. The present knowledge about the health of migrant and minority nurses and the terminology in this context are diverse. Thus, the purpose of this review is to systematically identify and synthesize international publications that explicitly focus on migrant nurses’ health.

Materials and methods

A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using the databases Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science. The screening process was conducted in several phases. This review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines while the methodological quality assessment of the included papers was performed with the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT).

Results

Out of 11,599 citations initially obtained, 14 empirical studies were included in the final synthesis. The methodological quality of the empirical studies and reviews was diverse. The majority of the studies were conducted in the US and the nurses under study migrated from countries like the Philippines, India, Europe, and Africa. Among migrant nurses of different origins, there are differences in their physiological responses to stress. Migrant nurses and native nurses differ in reporting work-related injuries.

Discussion

Migrant and minority nurses are at high risk of work-related injuries and discrimination than native or majority nurses. However, mixed results were obtained, namely that the reported health of migrant nurses either improves over time or it decreases. This review revealed that discrimination is the leading cause of impaired health amongst migrant and minority nurses.

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