ResearchPad - nutrient-physiology-metabolism-and-nutrient-nutrient-interactions https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Increased Iron Status during a Feeding Trial of Iron-Biofortified Beans Increases Physical Work Efficiency in Rwandan Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ff71a67-609b-48a5-95f0-ff460c50dd90 Iron-biofortified staple foods can improve iron status and resolve iron deficiency. However, whether improved iron status from iron biofortification can improve physical performance remains unclear.ObjectiveThis study aimed to examine whether changes in iron status from an iron-biofortified bean intervention affect work efficiency.MethodsA total of 125 iron-depleted (ferritin <20 μg/L) female Rwandan university students (18–26 y) were selected from a larger sample randomly assigned to consume iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Bean; 86.1 mg Fe/kg) or conventional beans (control: 50.6 mg Fe/kg) twice daily for 18 wk (average of 314 g beans consumed/d). Blood biomarkers of iron status (primary outcome) and physical work efficiency (secondary outcome) were measured before and after the intervention. Work performed was assessed during 5-min steady-state periods at 0-, 25-, and 40-W workloads using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. Work efficiency was calculated at 25 W and 40 W as the work accomplished divided by the energy expended at that workload above that expended at 0 W. General linear models were used to evaluate the relation between changes in iron status biomarkers and work efficiency.ResultsThe Fe-Bean intervention had significant positive effects on hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and body iron stores but did not affect work efficiency. However, 18-wk change in hemoglobin was positively related to work efficiency at 40 W in the full sample (n = 119; estimate: 0.24 g/L; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.48 g/L; P = 0.044) and among women who were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L) at baseline (n = 43; estimate: 0.64 g/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 1.23 g/L; P = 0.036). Among women who were nonanemic at baseline, change in serum ferritin was positively related to change in work efficiency at 40 W (n = 60; estimate: 0.50 μg/L; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.95 μg/L; P = 0.027).ConclusionsIncreasing iron status during an iron-biofortified bean feeding trial improves work efficiency in iron-depleted, sedentary women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. ]]> <![CDATA[High Compared with Moderate Protein Intake Reduces Adaptive Thermogenesis and Induces a Negative Energy Balance during Long-term Weight-Loss Maintenance in Participants with Prediabetes in the Postobese State: A PREVIEW Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd24a793e-6dcc-4ef3-834b-b18f6ba848b9

ABSTRACT

Background

Weight loss has been associated with adaptations in energy expenditure. Identifying factors that counteract these adaptations are important for long-term weight loss and weight maintenance.

Objective

The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased protein/carbohydrate ratio would reduce adaptive thermogenesis (AT) and the expected positive energy balance (EB) during weight maintenance after weight loss in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state.

Methods

In 38 participants, the effects of 2 diets differing in protein/carbohydrate ratio on energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were assessed during 48-h respiration chamber measurements ∼34 mo after weight loss. Participants consumed a high-protein (HP) diet (n = 20; 13 women/7 men; age: 64.0 ± 6.2 y; BMI: 28.9 ± 4.0 kg/m 2) with 25:45:30% or a moderate-protein (MP) diet (n = 18; 9 women/9 men; age: 65.1 ± 5.8 y; BMI: 29.0 ± 3.8 kg/m 2) with 15:55:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Predicted resting energy expenditure (REEp) was calculated based on fat-free mass and fat mass. AT was assessed by subtracting measured resting energy expenditure (REE) from REEp. The main outcomes included differences in components of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and AT between groups.

Results

EB (MP = 0.2 ± 0.9 MJ/d; HP = −0.5 ± 0.9 MJ/d) and RQ (MP = 0.84 ± 0.02; HP = 0.82 ± 0.02) were reduced and REE (MP: 7.3 ± 0.2 MJ/d compared with HP: 7.8 ± 0.2 MJ/d) was increased in the HP group compared with the MP group (P < 0.05). REE was not different from REEp in the HP group, whereas REE was lower than REEp in the MP group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, EB was positively related to AT (rs = 0.74; P < 0.001) and RQ (rs = 0.47; P < 0.01) in the whole group of participants.

Conclusions

In conclusion, an HP diet compared with an MP diet led to a negative EB and counteracted AT ∼34 mo after weight loss, in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state. These results indicate the relevance of compliance to an increased protein/carbohydrate ratio for long-term weight maintenance after weight loss. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01777893.

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<![CDATA[ Dose-Dependent Increases in Whole-Body Net Protein Balance and Dietary Protein-Derived Amino Acid Incorporation into Myofibrillar Protein During Recovery from Resistance Exercise in Older Men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8014e1d5eed0c484a9e5fa

ABSTRACT

Background

Age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass is at least partly attributed to anabolic resistance to food intake. Resistance exercise sensitizes skeletal muscle tissue to the anabolic properties of amino acids.

Objective

The present study assessed protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, whole-body protein balance, and the myofibrillar protein synthetic response to ingestion of different amounts of protein during recovery from resistance exercise in older men.

Methods

Forty-eight healthy older men [mean ± SEM age: 66 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 25.4 ± 0.3] were randomly assigned to ingest 0, 15, 30, or 45 g milk protein concentrate after a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetitions of leg press and leg extension and 2 sets of 10 repetitions of lateral pulldown and chest press performed at 75–80% 1-repetition maximum. Postprandial protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, whole-body protein metabolism, and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were assessed using primed, continuous infusions of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, l-[ring-2H2]-tyrosine, and l-[1-13C]-leucine combined with ingestion of intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine and l-[1-13C]-leucine labeled protein.

Results

Whole-body net protein balance showed a dose-dependent increase after ingestion of 0, 15, 30, or 45 g of protein (0.015 ± 0.002, 0.108 ± 0.004, 0.162 ± 0.008, and 0.215 ± 0.009 μmol Phe · kg−1 · min−1, respectively; < 0.001). Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were higher after ingesting 30 (0.0951% ± 0.0062%/h, = 0.07) or 45 g of protein (0.0970% ± 0.0062%/h, < 0.05) than after 0 g (0.0746% ± 0.0051%/h). Incorporation of dietary protein–derived amino acids (l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine) into de novo myofibrillar protein showed a dose-dependent increase after ingestion of 15, 30, or 45 g protein (0.0171 ± 0.0017, 0.0296 ± 0.0030, and 0.0397 ± 0.0026 mole percentage excess, respectively; < 0.05).

Conclusions

Dietary protein ingested during recovery from resistance exercise is rapidly digested and absorbed. Whole-body net protein balance and dietary protein-derived amino acid incorporation into myofibrillar protein show dose-dependent increases. Ingestion of ≥30 g protein increases postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in older men. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial Register as NTR4492.

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