ResearchPad - nutrients https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Digestibility of black soldier fly larvae (<i>Hermetia illucens</i>) fed to leopard geckos (<i>Eublepharis macularius</i>)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7714 Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae have been marketed as an excellent choice for providing calcium to reptiles without the need of dusting or gut loading. However, previous studies have indicated that they have limited calcium digestibility and are deficient in fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E). In this feeding and digestibility trial, 24 adult male leopard geckos were fed one of three diets for 4 months: 1) whole, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; 2) needle pierced, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; or 3) whole, non-gut loaded larvae. Fecal output from the geckos was collected daily and apparent digestibility was calculated for dry matter, protein, fat, and minerals. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients among groups. Most nutrients were well digested by the leopard geckos when compared to previous studies, with the exception of calcium (digestibility co-efficient 43%), as the calcium-rich exoskeleton usually remained intact after passage through the GI tract. Biochemistry profiles revealed possible deficits occurring over time for calcium, sodium, and total protein. In regards to vitamin A digestibility, plasma and liver vitamin A concentrations were significantly higher in the supplemented groups (plasma- gut loaded groups: 33.38 ± 7.11 ng/ml, control group: 25.8 ± 6.72 ng/ml, t = 1.906, p = 0.04; liver- gut loaded groups: 28.67 ± 18.90 μg/g, control group: 14.13 ± 7.41 μg/g, t = 1.951, p = 0.03). While leopard geckos are able to digest most of the nutrients provided by BSF larvae, including those that have been gut loaded, more research needs to be performed to assess whether or not they provide adequate calcium in their non-supplemented form.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of anaemia and low intake of dietary nutrients in pregnant women living in rural and urban areas in the Ashanti region of Ghana]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7036aac7-9527-4ec9-a4ca-1b112d15d377

Background

Anaemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women and children worldwide. Because deficiencies in essential micronutrients such as iron, folate and vitamin B12 prior to and during gestation increase a woman’s risk of being anaemic, adequate dietary intake of such nutrients is vital during this important phase in life. However, information on the dietary micronutrient intakes of pregnant women in Ghana, particularly of those resident in rural areas is scanty. Thus, this study aimed to assess anaemia prevalence and dietary micronutrient intakes in pregnant women in urban and rural areas in Ghana.

Methods

A comparative cross sectional study design involving 379 pregnant women was used to assess the prevalence of anaemia and low intake of dietary nutrients in pregnant women living in rural and urban areas in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Anaemia status and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) were used as proxy for maternal nutritional status. Haemoglobin measurements were used to determine anaemia prevalence and the dietary diversity of the women were determined with a 24-hour dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire.

Results

Overall, anaemia was present in 56.5% of the study population. Anaemia prevalence was higher among rural residents than urban dwellers. Majority of the respondents had inadequate intakes of iron, zinc, folate, calcium and vitamin A. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from the first 24-hour recall was 3.81 ± 0.7. Of the 379 women, 28.8% met the minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were, gestational age, maternal age and dietary diversity score. Such that respondents with low DDS were more likely to be anaemic than those with high DDS (OR = 1.795, p = 0.022, 95% CI: 1.086 to 2.967).

Conclusions

A large percentage of pregnant women still have insufficient dietary intakes of essential nutrients required to support the nutritional demands during pregnancy. Particularly, pregnant women resident in rural areas require interventions such as nutrition education on the selection and preparation of diversified meals to mitigate the effects of undernutrition.

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<![CDATA[Using morphological attributes for the fast assessment of nutritional responses of Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus [Thunb.] D. Don) seedlings to exponential fertilization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5094337c-fdbe-414d-8545-a46f7fbb230f

Culturing slowly growing tree seedlings is a potential approach for managing the conflict between the increasing demand for ornamental stock and the decreasing area of farmlands due to urbanization. In this study, Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus [Thunb.] D. Don) seedlings were raised in multishelves with light-emitting diode lighting in the spectrum of 17:75:8 (red:green:blue) at 190–320 μmol m-2 s-1 with controlled temperature and relative humidity at 19.5°C and 60%, respectively. Seedlings were fed by exponential fertilization (EF) (nitrogen [N]-phosphorus [P]2O5-K2O, 10-7-9) at eight rates of 0 (control), 20 (E20), 40 (E40), 60 (E60), 80 (E80), 100 (E100), 120 (E120), and 140 (E140) mg N seedling-1 for four months through 16 fertilizer applications. The nutritional responses of Buddhist pine seedlings can be identified and classified into various stages in response to increasing doses, up to and over 120 N seedling-1. Morphological traits, i.e., the green color index and leaf area (LA) obtained by digital analysis and the fine root growth, all remained constant in response to doses that induced steady nutrient loading. LA had a positive relationship with most of the nutritional parameters. A dose range between 60 and 120 mg N seedling-1 was recommended for the culture of Buddhist pine seedlings. At this range of fertilizer doses, measuring the leaf area through digital scanning can easily and rapidly indicate the inherent nutrient status of the seedlings.

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<![CDATA[Prenatal maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake and infant information processing at 4.5mo and 9mo: A longitudinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9ffd5eed0c48452a684

Previous research suggesting an association between maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognition has yet to assess whether there is a critical trimester for the observed effects. We used a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate DHA levels during both the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, in a sample of 125 pregnant women. Infants were assessed at 4.5 months and 9 months post-partum using specific tests of visual acuity, habituation, and visual attention. Based on maternal DHA levels during pregnancy, mothers were subdivided into high, medium, and low groups, and their infants compared for task performance using one-way ANOVAs with maternal DHA groups. On the 9 month visual acuity test, infants whose mothers were in the medium DHA group performed significantly better than those with mothers in the low or high DHA groups (p = 0.008). However, no significant finding was found for any of the other cognitive assessment measures. Despite a number of studies reporting a positive effect of higher DHA levels on cognitive development, this study fails to support those conclusions. We can, however, conclude that it appears to be DHA intake in the third trimester specifically, which is influencing the development of visual acuity towards the end of the first postnatal year.

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<![CDATA[A computer-based incentivized food basket choice tool: Presentation and evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f766d5eed0c48438606d

Objective

To develop and evaluate a low-cost computer-based tool to elicit dietary choices in an incentive compatible manner, which can be used on-line or as part of a laboratory study.

Methods

The study was conducted with around 255 adults. Respondents were asked to allocate a fixed monetary budget across a choice of around a hundred grocery items with the prospect of receiving these items with some probability delivered to their home by a real supermarket. The tool covers a broad range of food items, allows inference of macro-nutrients and calories, and allows the researcher to fix the choice set participants can choose from. We compare the information derived from our incentivized tool, and compare it to alternative low-cost ways of measuring dietary intake, namely the food frequency questionnaire and a one-shot version of the 24-hour dietary recall, which are both based on self-reports. We compare the calorie intake indicators derived from each tool with a number of biometric measures for each subject, namely weight, body-mass-index (BMI) and waist size.

Results

The results show that the dietary information collected is only weakly correlated across the three methods. We find that only the calorie intake measure from our incentivized tool is positively and significantly related to each of the biometric indicators. Specifically, a 10% increase in calorie intake is associated with a 1.5% increase in BMI. By contrast, we find no significant correlations for either of the two measures based on self-reports.

Conclusion

The computer-based tool is a promising new, low-cost measure of dietary choices, particularly in one-shot situations where such behaviours are only observed once, whereas other tools like 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires may be more suited when they are administered repeatedly. The tool may be useful for research conducted with limited time and budget.

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<![CDATA[Screening dietary biochanin A, daidzein, equol and genistein for their potential to increase DHA biosynthesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c8bd5eed0c484bd2fbe

Plant oil utilization in aquafeeds is still the most practical option, although it decreases the content of the nutritionally highly valuable omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) in fish. Phytoestrogens and their metabolites are putatively able to affect genes encoding proteins centrally involved in the biosynthesis of EPA and DHA due to their estrogenic potential. Thus, the aim of the study was to screen the potential of the phytoestrogens to stimulate the biosynthesis of EPA and DHA in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, the potential effects on growth performance, nutrient composition and hepatic lipid metabolism in rainbow trout were investigated. For that, a vegetable oil based diet served as a control diet (C) and was supplemented with 15 g/kg dry matter of biochanin A (BA), daidzein (DA), genistein (G) and equol (EQ), respectively. These five diets were fed to rainbow trout (initial body weight 83.3 ± 0.4 g) for 52 days. Growth performance and nutrient composition of whole body homogenates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Furthermore, feeding EQ to rainbow trout significantly increased DHA levels by +8% in whole body homogenates compared to samples of fish fed the diet C. A tendency towards increased DHA levels in whole body homogenates was found for fish fed the diet G. Fish fed diets BA and DA lacked these effects. Moreover, EQ and G fed fish showed significantly decreased hepatic mRNA steady state levels for fatty acyl desaturase 2a (delta-6) (fads2a(d6)). In contrast, carnitine palmitoyl transferases 1 (cpt1) hepatic mRNA steady state levels and hepatic Fads2a(d6) protein contents were not affected by the dietary treatment. In conclusion, when combined with dietary vegetable oils, equol and genistein seem to stimulate the biosynthesis of DHA and thereby increase tissue DHA levels in rainbow trout, however, only to a moderate extent.

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<![CDATA[Nutritional intake of Aplanochytrium (Labyrinthulea, Stramenopiles) from living diatoms revealed by culture experiments suggesting the new prey–predator interactions in the grazing food web of the marine ecosystem]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa552d5eed0c484ca3048

Labyrinthuleans (Labyrinthulea, Stramenopiles) are recognized as decomposers in marine ecosystems but their nutrient sources are not fully understood. We conducted two-membered culture experiments with labyrinthuleans and diatoms to discover where labyrinthuleans obtain their nutrients from. The results showed that Aplanochytrium strains obtained nutrients by consuming living diatoms. Aplanochytrium cells did not release digestive enzymes into the medium, but adhered to diatom cells via the tip of their characteristic ectoplasmic net system to obtain nutrients from them. The chloroplast and cell contents of the diatoms shrank and were absorbed, and then the number of Aplanochytrium cells rapidly increased as multiple aplanospores were released. To estimate the effect of labyrinthulean organisms including Aplanochytrium on marine ecosystem, we explored the dataset generated by the Tara Oceans Project from a wide range of oceanic regions. The average proportion of all labyrinthulean sequences to diatom sequences at each station was about 10%, and labyrinthulids, oblongichytrids, and aplanochytrids were the major constituent genera, accounting for more than 80% of labyrinthuleans. Therefore, these groups are suggested to greatly affect the marine ecosystem. There were positive correlations between aplanochytrids and phototrophs, green algae, and diatoms. At many stations, relatively large proportions of aplanochytrid sequences were detected in the size fraction larger than their cell size. This implied that Aplanochytrium cells increased their particle size by adhering to each other and forming aggregates with diatoms that are captured by larger zooplankton in the environment, thereby bypassing the food web pathway via aplanochytrids to higher predators. The intake of nutrients from diatoms by aplanochytrids represents a newly recognized pathway in the grazing food chain in the marine ecosystem.

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<![CDATA[Correlations between growth and wool quality traits of genetically divergent Australian lambs in response to canola or flaxseed oil supplementation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7c4d5eed0c484490c47

The correlations between growth and wool traits in response to canola and flaxseed oil supplementation were evaluated in Australian prime lambs. Sixty dual-purpose prime lambs including purebred Merino and crossbred lambs were allocated to one of five treatments of lucerne hay basal diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous wheat-based pellets. Treatments were: no oil inclusion (Control); 2.5% canola oil; 5% canola oil; 2.5% flaxseed oil and 5% flaxseed oil, with lamb groups balanced by breed and gender. Each lamb was daily supplemented with 1kg of pellets and had free access to lucerne hay and water throughout the 7-week feeding trial, after a 3-week adaptation. Individual animal basal and supplementary pellet feed intakes were recorded daily, while body conformation traits, body condition scores and liveweights were measured on days 0, 21, 35 and 49. The lambs were dye-banded on the mid-side and shorn before commencing the feeding trial and mid-side wool samples were collected from the same dye-banded area of each lamb at the end of the experiment. Correlations between wool quality traits and lamb performance were non-significant (P>0.05). Oil supplementation had no detrimental effect on lamb growth and wool quality traits (P > 0.05). Gender significantly affected wither height gain and fibre diameter. There were significant interactions between oil supplementation and lamb breed on chest girth. The correlations between clean fleece yield (CFY) and other wool quality traits were moderate ranging from 0.29 to 0.55. Moderate to high correlations between fibre diameter (FD) and other wool quality traits were detected (0.46–0.99) with the strongest relationship between FD and wool spinning fineness (SF). The relationship between CFY and wool comfort factor (CF) were positive, while negative relationships between CFY and the others were observed. A combination of 5% oil supplementation and genetics is an effective and strategic management tool for enhancing feed efficiency and growth performance without negative effects on wool quality in dual-purpose lamb production. This is a good outcome for dual-purpose sheep farmers. It essentially means the absorbed nutrients in supplemented lambs yielded good growth performance without any detrimental impact on wool quality; a win-win case of nutrient partitioning into the synthesis of muscle and wool without compromising either traits.

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<![CDATA[The interplay between voluntary food intake, dietary carbohydrate-lipid ratio and nutrient metabolism in an amphibian, (Xenopus laevis)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e67d5eed0c484d26705

Digestion of food and metabolism of frogs are little studied at the moment, and such processes could be very particular in the case of amphibians, given their ectothermic and carnivorous nature which may lead them to use nutrients through specific biochemical pathways. In the present study, 24 adult Xenopus laevis (six replicates with two frogs per treatment) were randomly assigned to two diets with different carbohydrate:fat ratio (4.5:1 and 2.1:1), changing the dietary glucogenic and lipogenic proportions. Food intake (FI) per unit metabolic body weight (MBW) as well as macronutrient digestibility were calculated, and circulating blood acylcarnitines and amino acids measured, in order to evaluate the effect of the diet treatments. Results demonstrated that food intake regulated most of the changes in the parameters evaluated; significant differences were obtained in crude protein and fat digestibilities through the effect of FI/MBW (p<0.05), whereas diet treatment had a significant effect on the levels of malonyl-CoA. Food intake also significantly impacted malonyl, isovaleryl, hydroxyisovaleryl and long chain fatty acid concentrations; significant (p<0.05) interactions between those metabolites were detected owing to diet. The findings obtained suggest that food intake was the main factor controlling digestion and metabolism in X. laevis, with frogs preferring to utilise protein and fat as primary sources for energy production in the citric acid cycle, reflecting characteristics of a strict carnivore physiological model.

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<![CDATA[Partitioning the efficiency of utilization of amino acids in growing broilers: Multiple linear regression and multivariate approaches]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab828d5eed0c484026eed

Determining the efficiency of amino acid (AA) utilization in growing animals is crucial to estimate their requirement accurately. In broiler chickens, the composition of AA in feather is different from feather-free body and the proportion of feathers will change along broiler’s growth, which may impact the efficiency of utilization on AA consumed. Therefore, in order to establish a method that predicts the efficiency of utilization for feather-free body and feather, two approaches were evaluated: a multiple linear regression and a multivariate analysis. Additionally, a new factorial model was proposed to predict AA requirements in broiler chickens. Data from 13 trials that evaluated the requirements for lysine (Lys), sulphur AA (SAA), threonine (Thr), and valine (Val) in male broilers were used for the analyses. Both methods of analysis were consistent in showing that the efficiency of utilization in feather-free body and feather were different. Using multiple linear regression, the values of efficiency of utilization estimated in feather-free body were 0.68, 0.72, 0.81, 0.79 (mg of amino acid deposited / mg of amino acid consumed above maintenance) and in feather were 0.58, 0.77, 0.78, and 1.57 (mg/mg) for Lys, SAA, Thr, and Val, respectively. Applying the multivariate approach, the corresponding predicted values were 0.68, 0.67, 4.23, 0.27 (mg/mg) in feather-free body and 1.16, 0.86, 0.16, and 1.10 (mg/mg) in feather, respectively. According to the results, efficiency of utilization may be related, to some extent, on the concentration determined in each tissue. The uncertainty around the amount of AA consumed for gain directed to feather-free body or feather deposition could be a limitation for multivariate analyses. The results indicated that multiple linear regression predictions may be better estimates of utilization efficiency. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the effect of age on deposition and partitioning of dietary AA in different parts of the broiler.

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<![CDATA[Comparing the capacity of five different dietary treatments to optimise growth and nutritional composition in two scleractinian corals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841e1d5eed0c484fcb088

Developing an optimal heterotrophic feeding regime has the potential to improve captive coral growth and health. This study evaluated the efficacy of three exogenous diets: Artemia nauplii (ART), a commercially available coral diet (Reef Roids) (RR), and a novel, micro-bound diet (ATF), against a comparatively natural, unfiltered seawater treatment (RAW), and an unfed, ultra-filtered seawater treatment (CTL), in adult Acropora millepora and Pocillopora acuta nubbins. After 90 days, both species showed significantly positive weight gain in response to one treatment (A. millepora–RAW, P. acuta–ART), and comparatively low growth in response to another (A. millepora–ATF, P. acuta–RR). The results highlighted substantial differences in the nutritional requirements between species. The nutritional composition of A. millepora in the best performing treatment was dominated by high-energy materials such as storage lipids and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, the P. acuta nutritional profile in the superior treatment showed a predominance of structural materials, including protein, phospholipids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study demonstrates that Artemia nauplii can successfully replace a natural feeding regime for captive P. acuta, yet highlights the considerable work still required to optimise supplementary feeding regimes for A. millepora.

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<![CDATA[Dietary restriction improves intestinal cellular fitness to enhance gut barrier function and lifespan in D. melanogaster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c16a4a7d5eed0c4844e0d4b

Loss of gut integrity is linked to various human diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanisms that lead to loss of barrier function remain poorly understood. Using D. melanogaster, we demonstrate that dietary restriction (DR) slows the age-related decline in intestinal integrity by enhancing enterocyte cellular fitness through up-regulation of dMyc in the intestinal epithelium. Reduction of dMyc in enterocytes induced cell death, which leads to increased gut permeability and reduced lifespan upon DR. Genetic mosaic and epistasis analyses suggest that cell competition, whereby neighboring cells eliminate unfit cells by apoptosis, mediates cell death in enterocytes with reduced levels of dMyc. We observed that enterocyte apoptosis was necessary for the increased gut permeability and shortened lifespan upon loss of dMyc. Furthermore, moderate activation of dMyc in the post-mitotic enteroblasts and enterocytes was sufficient to extend health-span on rich nutrient diets. We propose that dMyc acts as a barometer of enterocyte cell fitness impacting intestinal barrier function in response to changes in diet and age.

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<![CDATA[NAM gene allelic composition and its relation to grain-filling duration and nitrogen utilisation efficiency of Australian wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bce3d2b40307c69b197f505

Optimising nitrogen fertiliser management in combination with using high nitrogen efficient wheat cultivars is the most effective strategy to maximise productivity in a cost-efficient manner. The present study was designed to investigate the associations between nitrogen utilisation efficiency (NUtE) and the allelic composition of the NAM genes in Australian wheat cultivars. As results, the non-functional NAM-B1 allele was more responsive to the nitrogen levels and increased NUtE significantly, leading to a higher grain yield but reduced grain protein content. Nitrogen application at different developmental stages (mid-tillering, booting, and flowering) did not show significant differences in grain yield and protein content. The NAM-A1 allelic variation is significantly associated with the length of the grain-filling period. While the NAM-A1 allele a was associated with a short to moderate grain-filling phase, the alleles c and d were related to moderate to long grain-filling phase. Thus, selection of appropriate combinations of NAM gene alleles can fine-tune the duration of growth phases affecting sink-source relationships which offers an opportunity to develop high NUtE cultivars for target environments.

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<![CDATA[Fetal Huanjiang mini-pigs exhibit differences in nutrient composition according to body weight and gestational period]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6003a9463d7e38dd0d05bb

Low birth weight may negatively affect energy storage and nutrient metabolism, and impair fetal growth and development. We analyzed effects of body weight (BW) and gestational period on nutrient composition in fetal Huanjiang mini-pigs. Fetuses with the lowest BW (LBW), middle BW (MBW), and highest BW (HBW) were collected at days 45, 75, and 110 of gestation. Crude protein (CP), crude fat, amino acid (AA), and fatty acid (FA) concentrations were determined. The BW gain, carcass weight, fat percentage, and uterus weight of sows increased as gestation progressed, as did litter weight, average individual fetal weight, fetal body weight, and dry matter (DM). The concentrations of Ala, Arg, crude fat, Gly, Pro, Tyr, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, C18:3n3, C18:3n6, C20:0, C20:3n6, saturated FA (SFA), and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) increased significantly as gestation progressed. The percentage of skeleton, and the ratio of the liver, lung, and stomach to BW decreased as gestation progressed. There were also significant reductions in the concentrations of CP, Asp, Glu, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Ser, Thr, essential AA (EAA), acidic AA, C17:0, C20:4n6, C22:6n3, unsaturated FA (UFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3PUFA, n-6PUFA as gestation progressed, and reductions in EAA/total AA (TAA), PUFA/SFA, and n-3/n-6 PUFA. The LBW fetuses exhibited the lowest BW and crude fat, C14:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:2n6c, and MUFA concentrations at days 75 and 110 of gestation. They also exhibited lower Tyr concentration at day 45 of gestation and lower Glu concentration at day 75 of gestation than HBW fetuses. These findings suggest that LBW fetuses exhibit lower amounts of crude fat and several FAs during mid-gestation and late-gestation, which may in turn affect adaptability, growth, and development.

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<![CDATA[Regulatory effects of root pruning on leaf nutrients, photosynthesis, and growth of trees in a closed-canopy poplar plantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b0e539f463d7e030321d288

A plantation of 5-year-old poplar Populus × euramericana cv. ‘Neva’ was used to study the regulatory effects of root pruning on nutrients, photosynthetic characteristics, and water-use efficiency (WUE) of leaves and growth rates of diameter at breast height (DBH; 1.3 m), tree height, and volume. Six root-pruning treatments were conducted with different combinations of intensity (at a distance of six, eight or ten times DBH from the trunk) and orientation (on two or four sides of the trees). Results showed that the N, P, K, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of leaves were all significantly decreased by root pruning over the initial period following root pruning (30 days), but increased in the subsequent investigations. The values of the above indexes peaked in 8–2 treatment (i.e., eight times DBH distance on two sides). The leaf WUE in 8–2 treatment, and average growth rates of DBH, tree height and volume, were the highest among all treatments within 3 years of root pruning. The results indicated that the root pruning based on the appropriate selection of intensity and orientation had significant positive effects on leaf nutrients, photosynthesis, and growth of trees in a closed-canopy poplar plantation.

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<![CDATA[MSTN, mTOR and FoxO4 Are Involved in the Enhancement of Breast Muscle Growth by Methionine in Broilers with Lower Hatching Weight]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75e94

Broilers with lower hatching weight (HW) present poorer performance than those with high HW, but there is limited research on the growth regulation of broilers with lower HW. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary methionine (Met) levels on the growth performance and breast muscle yield of broilers with different HW and underlying mechanisms. A total of 192 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48.3±0.1 g, and light: 41.7±0.1 g) were allocated to a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 6 replicates of 8 chicks per replicate cage. Control starter (1–21 d) and finisher (22–42 d) diets were formulated to contain 0.50% and 0.43% Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high Met treatment were 0.60% and 0.53%. Light chicks had lower body weight gain (BWG) and breast muscle yield than heavy chicks when the broilers were fed the control diets. High Met diets improved BWG, gain to feed ratio and breast muscle yield in light but not heavy chicks. Decreased DNA content and increased RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios in breast muscle were induced by high Met diets only in light chicks. MSTN mRNA level was decreased by high Met diets only in light chicks, and this decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in MSTN gene exon 1 methylation. In addition, high Met diets increased mTOR phosphorylation, but decreased FoxO4 phosphorylation in breast muscle of light chicks. In conclusion, the BWG and breast muscle yield of light chicks were improved by increasing dietary Met levels probably through alterations of MSTN transcription and phosphorylation of mTOR and FoxO4.

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<![CDATA[Vitamin A and Feeding Statuses Modulate the Insulin-Regulated Gene Expression in Zucker Lean and Fatty Primary Rat Hepatocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db29ab0ee8fa60bd0f74

Unattended hepatic insulin resistance predisposes individuals to dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and many other metabolic complications. The mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance at the gene expression level remains unrevealed. To examine the effects of vitamin A (VA), total energy intake and feeding conditions on the insulin-regulated gene expression in primary hepatocytes of Zucker lean (ZL) and fatty (ZF) rats, we analyze the expression levels of hepatic model genes in response to the treatments of insulin and retinoic acid (RA). We report that the insulin- and RA-regulated glucokinase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expressions are impaired in hepatocytes of ZF rats fed chow or a VA sufficient (VAS) diet ad libitum. The impairments are partially corrected when ZF rats are fed a VA deficient (VAD) diet ad libitum or pair-fed a VAS diet to the intake of their VAD counterparts in non-fasting conditions. Interestingly in the pair-fed ZL and ZF rats, transient overeating on the last day of pair-feeding regimen changes the expression levels of some VA catabolic genes, and impairs the insulin- and RA-regulated gene expression in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that VA and feeding statuses modulate the hepatic insulin sensitivity at the gene expression level.

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<![CDATA[The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc86fc

The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose’s self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality.

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<![CDATA[Micronutrient Supplementation and Deworming in Children with Geohelminth Infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b85e99 ]]> <![CDATA[Modeled Dietary Impact of Pizza Reformulations in US Children and Adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da54ab0ee8fa60b8e7db

Background and Objective

Approximately 20% of US children and adolescents consume pizza on any given day; and pizza intake is associated with higher intakes of energy, sodium, and saturated fat. The reformulation of pizza products has yet to be evaluated as a viable option to improve diets of the US youth. This study modeled the effect on nutrient intakes of two potential pizza reformulation strategies based on the standards established by the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS).

Methods

Dietary intakes were retrieved from the first 24hr-recall of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–12, for 2655 participants aged 4–19 years. The composition of pizzas in the NHANES food database (n = 69) were compared against the NNPS standards for energy, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, added sugars, and protein. In a reformulation scenario, the nutrient content of pizzas was adjusted to the NNPS standards if these were not met. In a substitution scenario, pizzas that did not meet the standards were replaced by the closest pizza, based on nutrient content, that met all of the NNPS standards.

Results

Pizzas consistent with all the NNPS standards (29% of all pizzas) were significantly lower in energy, saturated fat and sodium than pizzas that were not. Among pizza consumers, modeled intakes in the reformulation and substitution scenarios were lower in energy (-14 and -45kcal, respectively), saturated fat (-1.2 and -2.7g), and sodium (-143 and -153mg) compared to baseline.

Conclusions

Potential industry wide reformulation of a single food category or intra-category food substitutions may positively impact dietary intakes of US children and adolescents. Further promotion and support of these complimentary strategies may facilitate the adoption and implementation of reformulation standards.

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