ResearchPad - nutrition https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Hot melt extruded-based nano zinc as an alternative to the pharmacological dose of ZnO in weanling piglets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14461 This study was conducted to investigate the effects of hot-melt extruded ZnO nano-particles (HME-ZnO) as an alternative for P-ZnO on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, Zn bioavailability, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.MethodsA total of 450 piglets (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) were randomly allotted to five treatments based on initial body weight and sex. The experimental diets were fed in a meal form as phase 1 from d 0 to 14 and phase 2 from d 15 to 28. Treatments were the control diet without ZnO supplementation, the diet containing 2,500 ppm Zn as ZnO, and three diets containing 500, 1,000, or 2,500 ppm Zn as HME-ZnO.ResultsThe overall result showed a higher (p<0.01) average daily gain in weanling pigs fed ZnO-supplemented diets in comparison to the control diet. There was a decrease (p<0.01) in fecal score in the ZnO-supplemented diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnO improved (p<0.05) crude protein digestibility. The weanling pigs fed the P-ZnO diet had a lower (p< 0.01) Zn digestibility in the feces than HME-ZnO supplemented treatments. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with ZnO had greater (p<0.05) Lactobacillus spp. populations and lower Clostridium spp. (p<0.05) and Coliforms (p<0.01) populations in the ileum. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with increasing concentrations of HME-ZnO linearly decreased Clostridium spp. (p<0.05) and Coliforms (p<0.01) in the ileum. Lower (p<0.05) Clostridium spp. and Coliforms counts in the colon were observed in pigs fed with ZnO-supplemented diets. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with ZnO showed a greater (p<0.01) villus height in the duodenum.ConclusionDietary supplementation of HME-ZnO and P-ZnO showed a potential to improve the digestibility of protein, intestinal Coliform and Clostridium, villus height in duodenum and ileum. Moreover, HME-ZnO showed a higher Zn digestibility compared with P-ZnO. ]]> <![CDATA[Partial replacement of soybean meal by white lupine seeds in the diet of dairy cows]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14460 An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by white lupine seeds (WLS) on milk yield and quality, feed efficiency and rumen fermentation of high-yielding dairy cows.MethodsThirty multiparous cows of two breeds (20 Holstein and 10 Czech Pied cows) in early mid-lactation received three diets (treatments) in a 3×3 Latin square design with a 28-d period. The dietary treatments were as follows: CON (control total mixed ration with SBM, no WLS), WLS30 (30% of the SBM was replaced, on a dry matter basis, by WLS), and WLS50 (50% of the SBM was replaced by WLS).ResultsFeed intake by the cows was not affected (p = 0.331) by the diets. Milk production decreased with increasing proportions of WLS in the diet. Cows fed WLS50 yielded approximately 1 kg/d (p<0.001) less milk than cows fed the CON diet. The proportions of milk fat (p = 0.640), protein (p = 0.507), and lactose (p = 0.709) were not altered by the diet. For milk fat, feeding with WLS50 reduced the proportion of total saturated fatty acids (p<0.001) and increased the proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.001), mainly through oleic acid (p<0.001). No differences were found in feed efficiency, body weight, and blood plasma metabolites between groups. Rumen ammonia-N levels tended (p = 0.087) to increase with increasing proportions of WLS in the diet, whereas no effect of diet on rumen pH was found (p = 0.558).ConclusionWe did not identify the safe range within which raw WLS can efficiently replace SBM in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. In contrast, even partial replacement of SBM by WLS favorably changed the milk fatty acid profile. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of replacement of para-grass with oil palm compounds on body weight, food intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen functions and blood parameters in goats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14459 The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with oil palm frond (leaf) (OPF) with and without oil palm meal (OPM) on nutrient intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation and growth performance in goats.MethodsSix female crossbred goats were fed for 28 days of 3 diet treatments; 100% para-grass (T1); 50% para-grass + 50% OPF (T2), and 30% para-grass + 50% OPF + 20% OPM (T3). Body weight, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and urine volume, food intake, dry matter intake and water intake were measured daily. Nutrient digestibility was determined from five consecutive days of last week in each diet. Ruminal fluid, urine and blood were collected at the end for determination of rumen protozoa and volatile fatty acid contents, urinary allantoin excretion, blood cell count and chemistry profiles.ResultsGoats fed T2 and T3 showed higher dry matter and nutrients intakes while protein digestibility was suppressed compared with those for T1. Crude fat digestibility declined in T2 but maintained after adding the OPM (T3). High fat intake by giving OPF and OPM corresponded to a higher ruminal acetate/propionate ratio (C2/C3) and serum cholesterol level. An increased urinary allantoin/creatinine ratio was found in T2 and T3 compared with T1, implying an increased number of ruminal microbes.ConclusionIncreased dry matter intake in T2 and T3 suggested that oil palm by-products are partly useful as a replacement for para-grass in goats. Replacement with the by-products increased plasma cholesterol level, which suggested that these products are a useful energy source. Changes in rumen parameters suggested an increased microbial number and activity suitable for acetate production. However, the limited digestibility of protein implies that addition of high protein feeds may be recommended to increase body weight gain of goats. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of <i>Astragalus membranaceus</i> roots supplementation on growth performance, serum antioxidant and immune response in finishing lambs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14458 Astragalus membranaceus root is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine with many biological active constituents. This study was conducted to examine the effects of Astragalus membranaceus root powder (AMP) on growth performance, serum antioxidant and immune response in finishing lambs.MethodsA total of thirty-six Guangling fat-tailed ram lambs (body weight = 19±2 kg, mean ±standard deviation) were randomly assigned to one of six treatments for a 40 d feeding period, with the first 10 d for adaptation. Treatments consisted of the lambs’ basal diets with addition of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 g/kg of diet of AMP.ResultsResponse to supplementation level of AMP was quadratic (p≤0.032) for final weight and ADG with the greatest at 10 g/kg of diet, but dry matter intake was not affected (p≥ 0.227) by treatments. The increase of AMP supplementation resulted in a quadratic response in contents of triglyceride and creatinine (p<0.05), with the lowest values for 10 and 20 g/kg of diet, respectively. A linear and quadratic decrease was observed in activity of alkaline phosphatase in serum of lambs. As the AMP supplementation increased, the activities of total superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity increased linearly (p≤0.018) and hydroxyl radical (OH) decreased linearly (p = 0.002). For catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA), quadratic (p≤0.001) effects were observed among treatments, with the greatest CAT and lowest MDA values at 10 g/kg AMP. Additionally, supplementing AMP up to a level of 10 or 15 g/kg of diet quadratically increased immunoglobulin and interleukin contents in the serum.ConclusionThe results indicated that AMP can be used as natural feed additive in the ration of lambs to improve ADG, antioxidant status, and immune functions, and the optimal dose was 10 g/kg of diet under the condition of this experiment. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of wild or mutated inoculants on rye silage and its rumen fermentation indices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14455 This study was conducted to confirm the effects of new inoculants producing-antifungal or esterase substances on rye silage and its rumen fermentation indices by comparing wild with mutated types.MethodsRye harvested at dough stage was ensiled into 3 L mini bucket silo (1 kg) for 90 d in triplicate following: distilled water at 20 μL/g (CON); Lactobacillus brevis 100D8 (AT) and its inactivation of antifungal genes (AT-m) at 1.2×105 cfu/g, respectively; and Leuconostoc holzapfelii 5H4 (FD) and its inactivation of esterase genes (FD-est) at 1.0×105 cfu/g, respectively. After silo opened, silage was sub-sampled for the analysis of ensiling quality and its rumen fermentation indices.ResultsAmong the wild type inoculants (CON vs AT vs FD), FD inoculant had higher (p<0.05) in vitro digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, the total degradable fraction, and total volatile fatty acid in rumen, while AT inoculant had higher (p<0.05) lactate, acetate, and lactic acid bacteria in silage. Silage pH and the potentially degradable fraction in rumen increased (p<0.05) by inactivation of antifungal activity (AT vs AT-m), but lactate, acetate, and lactic acid bacteria of silage decreased (p<0.05). In silage, acetate increased (p< 0.05) by inactivation of esterase activity (FD vs FD-est) with decreases (p<0.05) of pH, ammonia-N, lactate, and yeast. Moreover, inactivation of esterase activity clearly decreased (p<0.05) in vitro digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, the total degradable fraction, and total volatile fatty acid in the rumen.ConclusionThis study concluded that FD inoculant confirmed esterase activity on rye silage harvested at dough stage, while AT inoculant could not be confirmed with antifungal activity due to the absence of mold in all silages. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of <i>Macleaya cordata</i> and <i>Magnolia officinalis</i> plant extracts on oxidative stress control in lambs fed a high-concentrate diet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14452 The objective of this experiment was to compare conventional antioxidants and plant extracts for oxidative stress control in lambs fed a high-concentrate diet.MethodsForty-eight male Dorper×Santa Ines lambs with an initial weight of 20±1.49 kg and 60 days of age, were used to evaluate the effects of feeding a combination of Macleaya cordata and Magnolia officinalis plant extracts (0 vs 320 mg/kg dry matter [DM]) in combination with selenium+vitamin E (0 vs 100 IU/kg DM of vitamin E and 0.1 mg/kg DM of selenium) in a completely randomized block design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The animals were housed in individual pens and received a high-concentrate diet consisting of 80% whole corn and 20% protein pellet for 60 days. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and every 14 days for performance monitoring. Three blood samplings were performed during the experimental period for the evaluation of oxidative and protein parameters.ResultsThe treatments with vitamin E and selenium as additives had a positive influence on final weight, daily weight gain, carcass weight, and selenium content in longissimus muscle (p = 0.01). Plant extracts tended to improve final weight (p = 0.064) and daily weight gain (p = 0.059), showing similar effect as selenium and vitamin E. There was no effect of treatment on blood proteins, indicating that the animals were healthy throughout the experiment.ConclusionThe use of plant extracts had a similar effect as the addition of selenium and vitamin E, with dietary inclusion of additives resulting in better performance of lambs but both supplements did not have strong influence on oxidative stress. ]]> <![CDATA[Nutritional value and <i>in situ</i> degradability of fruit-vegetable byproducts and their feeding effects on performance of growing Hanwoo steers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14449 This study was conducted to evaluate nutritional value and in situ degradability of fruit-vegetable byproducts and their feeding effects on performance of growing Hanwoo steers.MethodsNutritional value and in situ degradability of cabbage, Chinese cabbage and fruit-vegetable byproducts were assessed. In vivo feeding trial was also performed for 12 weeks. Thirty-six growing steers were randomly allocated into three groups according to body weight (BW) and age in 12 pens (4 replications/treatment) and assigned to one of the three dietary treatments: control (byproduct 0%), FV-B (fruit-vegetable byproduct 20%), and CA-B (cabbage peel 15% plus Chinese cabbage peel 15%, total byproduct 30%).ResultsThe crude protein contents of cabbage, Chinese cabbage and fruit-vegetable byproducts were 18.69%, 20.20%, and 10.07%, respectively. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were higher in cabbage (22.31%) and Chinese cabbage (28.83%) than fruit-vegetable (13.94%). Higher concentrations of non-fiber carbohydrate were observed for fruit-vegetable (66.72%) than cabbage (44.93%) and Chinese cabbage byproducts (24.69%). The effective degradability (ED) of both dry matter (DM) and NDF for fruit-vegetable byproduct (DM, 84.69%; NDF, 85.62%) was higher (p<0.05) than cabbage (DM, 68.47%; NDF, 55.97%) and Chinese cabbage byproducts (DM, 68.09%; NDF, 54.22%). The DM intake was not different among treatments because the amount of feed was kept constant according to the BW of growing steers to prevent overweight during the growing period. The average daily gain during the whole experimental period was not different among treatments (1.26, 1.25, and 1.34 kg/d for control, FV-B, and CA-B). The ED of both DM and NDF degradability of the total mixed ration (TMR) diets were very similar among treatments. Feed conversion ratio during the whole period showed no significant difference among treatments.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that fruit-vegetable and cabbage byproducts up to 20% and 30% (as fed basis), respectively can be included in TMR diets for growing beef cattle. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of dietary cation and anion difference on eating, ruminal function and plasma leptin in goats under tropical condition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14447 This study was carried out to determine the effects of elevated dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) on dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation pattern in lactating dairy goats under tropical conditions.MethodsTen dairy goats were divided into two groups of five animals each. The groups received diets at different DCAD levels, either a control diet (22.81 mEq/100 g dry matter [DM], DCAD-23) or a DCAD-39 diet (39.08 mEq/100 g DM, DCAD-39). After parturition, DMI and water intake were recorded daily. Ruminal fluid and urine were collected, and nutrient digestibility measurements were carried out at 8th weeks postpartum (PP-8). Blood samples were collected at PP-4 and PP-8 to measure plasma leptin.ResultsDry matter intake/body weight (DMI/BW) at PP-8 of the animals fed the DCAD-39 diet was significantly higher than those fed with DCAD-23 diet (p<0.05). Animals fed with DCAD-39 consumed more water than those fed DCAD-23 over 24 h, particularly at night (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, acetate concentration, and urinary allantoin excretion increased with the DCAD-39 diet, whereas ruminal butyrate concentration was lower with the DCAD-39 diet. On the other hand, other ruminal parameters, such as total volatile fatty acid concentration, propionate molar proportion and acetate/propionate average ratio, were not affected by increased DCAD supplementation. Apparent digestibility was improved by increased DCAD supplementation. Plasma leptin concentration was higher with DCAD supplementation.ConclusionWhen feeding goats with DCAD-39 under tropical conditions, an increase in DMI was associated with improved apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. An increase in plasma leptin concentration could not explain the effect of high DCAD on DMI. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate and lipase supplementation on growth performance, gut health, and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14445 To evaluate calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate (CSL) performance as an exogenous emulsifier together with lipase for broiler diets.MethodsIn total, 252 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated in a completely randomized design to give 6 replications per treatment with 7 birds in each cage. There were six dietary treatments representing a 2×3 factorial arrangement consisted of two energy levels (standard energy [positive control, PC] and −100 kcal/kg of the requirement level [negative control, NC]) and three dietary treatments (without additives [CON], CON+CSL [CSL], and CON+CSL+lipase [CSL-Lipase]). Corn and soybean meal-based experimental diets containing vegetable oil were formulated. Growth performance, blood parameters, visceral organ weights, ileal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and cytokine gene expression were measured.ResultsBirds fed a diet including CSL increased (p<0.05) lipase level in blood compared to birds fed a diet including CSL-Lipase on day 21. Similarly, higher (p<0.05) liver weight was observed in birds fed a diet including either CSL or CSL-Lipase on day 21. Birds fed NC diet with CSL improved (p<0.05) nutrient digestibility compared to the NC diet on day 21. However, birds fed a diet supplemented with CSL or CSL-Lipase did not affect (p>0.05) the weight gain, feed efficiency, ileal morphology, and cytokine concentrations during the experiment period, regardless of dietary energy levels.ConclusionOur results indicated that CSL has a role in improving nutrient digestibility in young birds when supplemented to a corn-soybean meal based broiler diet. ]]> <![CDATA[Nutritional value and <i>in situ</i> degradability of oak wood roughage and its feeding effects on growth performance and behavior of Hanwoo steers during the early fattening period]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14443 This study was conducted to evaluate changes in nutritional value and in situ dry matter (DM) degradability of oak and pine wood before and after steam-digestion process (60 min/160°C/6 atm) and feeding effect of the oak roughage on performance and behavior of Hanwoo steers.MethodsChemical composition and tannin concentration were analyzed for oak and pine trees before and after the pretreatment. In situ DM and effective degradability of these samples were assessed using a nylon bag method. In vivo trial was performed to estimate animal performance and behavior, using steers fed total mixed ration (TMR) diets containing 0% (control), 25% (OR-25), and 50% (OR-50) of the oak roughage. Eighteen steers were allocated into nine pens (2 steers/pen, 3 pens/treatment) for 52 days according to body weight (BW) and age.ResultsBy the steam-digestion treatment, the neutral detergent-insoluble fiber was decreased from 86.5% to 71.5% for oak and from 92.4% to 80.5% for pine, thereby increasing non-fiber carbohydrate. In situ DM degradability of treated oak reached 38% at 72 h, whereas that of untreated oak was only 11.9%. The 0 h degradability of the treated pine increased from 5.9% to 12.1%, but the degradability was unchanged thereafter. Animal performance including BW, average daily gain, DM intake, and feed conversion ratio was not different among control and oak treatments. No differences were detected in animal behavior such as lying, standing, rumination, drinking, and eating, except walking. Walking was higher in control than oak treatments with numerically higher eating and lower lying times, probably due to bulkier characteristics of rice straw in the diet.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that the oak roughage can be substituted for 50% of total forage or 100% of rice straw in TMR diets at early fattening stage of Hanwoo steers. ]]> <![CDATA[SNP markers for low molecular glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at the <i>Glu-A3</i> and <i>Glu-B3</i> loci in bread wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13817 The content and composition of seed storage proteins is largely responsible for wheat end-use quality. They mainly consist of polymeric glutenins and monomeric gliadins. According to their electrophoretic mobility, gliadins and glutenins are subdivided into several fractions. Glutenins are classified as high molecular weight or low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs, respectively). LMW-GSs are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci. We designed a set of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are able to detect SDS-PAGE alleles at the Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. The SNP markers captured the diversity of alleles in 88 international reference lines and 27 Mexican cultivars, when compared to SDS-PAGE and STS markers, however, showed a slightly larger percent of multiple alleles, mainly for Glu-B3. SNP markers were then used to determine the Glu-1 and Glu-3 allele composition in 54 CIMMYT historical lines and demonstrated to be useful tool for breeding programs to improve wheat end product properties.

]]>
<![CDATA[The association between national income and adult obesity prevalence: Empirical insights into temporal patterns and moderators of the association using 40 years of data across 147 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13857 At a country level, population obesity prevalence is often associated with economic affluence, reflecting a potential adverse outcome concomitant with economic growth. We estimated the pattern and strength of the empirically observed relationship between national income and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating role of countries’ macro-environments on this relationship.MethodsWe assembled data on national obesity prevalence, income and a range of variables that characterize macro-environments related to 147 countries from multiple international organizations and databases. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the relationship (elasticities) between national income (using Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, GDPPC) and adult obesity prevalence, and the moderating effects of five different dimensions (globalization orientation, demographic characteristics, economic environment, labor market characteristics, and strength of health policies) of countries’ macro-environments on the income elasticities. Using the latest (2019–2024) available national income growth projections from the International Monetary Fund, we forecast future global trends in obesity prevalence.FindingsOver the 40-years 1975–2014, adult obesity prevalence increased at a declining rate with GDPPC across the 147 countries. The mean income elasticity estimates were 1.23 (95% credible interval 1.04–1.42) for males and 1.01 (0.82–1.18) for females. The elasticities were positively associated with the extent of political globalization and negatively associated with urbanization and share of agriculture in the national GDP. Income based projections indicate that obesity prevalence would continue to grow at an average annual rate of 2.47% across the studied countries during 2019–2024.ConclusionsPopulation obesity prevalence exhibits a positive relationship with national income and there is no evidence that the relationship, while weakening, actually turns negative at higher income levels (“obesity Kuznets curve”). Based on current trends, global obesity prevalence will continue to increase during 2019–2024, with the rate of growth higher in low- and middle-income countries. As most people currently live in low- and middle-income countries with rising incomes, our findings underscore the urgent societal imperatives for effective policy initiatives, especially those that target the concomitant “nutrition transition” process with economic affluence, to break or at least further weaken the positive relationship of population obesity prevalence with national income. ]]> <![CDATA[The Transformative Influence of La Varenne's <i>Le Cuisinier Francois</i> (1651) on French Culinary Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13791 The current proliferation of modern cookbooks targeted to the public at large makes it impossible to conceive of there being any that could have had an overriding influence on culinary practice or eating preferences, even at a local level. However, when there was a historical absence of cookbooks for a half-century, as there was in France in the first half of the seventeenth century, it is argued herein that the advent of a single cookbook in 1651, Le Cuisinier Francois by La Varenne, could have had a transformational influence on culinary practice over the ensuing half-century. The book went into more than 50 subsequent editions in the second half of the century. La Varenne stated clearly that his intent was to provide a guide for professional cooks. However, it is hypothesized in this article that the widespread and enduring success of the book was due to its attraction to and acquisition by the general public, including household cooks. This can be ascribed to (i) the fact that there had been no French cookbook describing novel culinary approaches in the preceding 50 years, (ii) La Varenne's concise, uncomplicated, and practical style of presentation of recipes, and (iii) his selection of principal ingredients, which were within the reach of the household cook and which reflected the availability of foods at the time of writing. Furthermore, because Le Cuisinier Francois was laid out according to widely observed religious practices, finding the best options for the appropriate day of the month became an easy task for the user. La Varenne initiated a departure from an earlier style of heavily spiced cooking to one that was based on natural flavors, a limited use of spices, and uncomplicated cooking methods. Thus, rather than assuming that the enduring popularity of the book was due to its widespread use by culinary professionals, it is argued that its style and substance must have imparted a sense of empowerment and confidence in the home cook and that, in these terms, La Varenne's influence on culinary practice was far more widespread and truly transformative, accounting for the remarkable success of Le Cuisinier Francois.

]]>
<![CDATA[Likely questionnaire-diagnosed food allergy in 78, 890 adults from the northern Netherlands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13854 It is challenging to define likely food allergy (FA) in large populations which limited the number of large studies regarding risk factors for FA.ObjectiveWe studied the prevalence and characteristics of self-reported FA (s-rFA) in the large, population-based Dutch Lifelines cohort and identified associated risk factors.MethodsLikely food allergic cases (LikelyFA) were classified based on questionnaire reported characteristics consistent with FA. Subjects with atypical characteristics were classified as Indeterminate. We investigated 13 potential risk factors for LikelyFA such as birth mode and living on a farm and addressed health-related quality of life (H-RQOL).ResultsOf the 78, 890 subjects, 12.1% had s-rFA of which 4.0% and 8.1% were classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate, respectively. Younger age, female sex, asthma, eczema and nasal allergy increased the risk of LikelyFA (p-value range <1.00*10−250–1.29*10−7). Living in a small city/large village or suburb during childhood was associated with a higher risk of LikelyFA than living on a farm (p-value = 7.81*10−4 and p = 4.84*10−4, respectively). Subjects classified as Indeterminate more often reported depression and burn-out compared to those without FA (p-value = 1.46*10−4 and p = 8.39*10−13, respectively). No association was found with ethnicity, (duration of) breastfeeding, birth mode and reported eating disorder. Mental and physical component scores measuring H-RQOL were lower in both those classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate compared to those without FA.ConclusionThe prevalence of s-rFA among adults is considerable and one-third reports characteristics consistent with LikelyFA. Living on a farm decreased the risk of LikelyFA. The association of poorer H-RQOL as well as depression and burn-out with questionable self-perceived FA is striking and a priority for future study. ]]> <![CDATA[Nutrition Intervention Using Behavioral Change Communication without Additional Material Inputs Increased Expenditures on Key Food Groups in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12384 Behavioral change communication (BCC) promotes skills and knowledge to improve infant and young child feeding, but without additional material inputs, recipients must develop strategies to translate knowledge into action. Using data from the Alive & Thrive initiative in Bangladesh (2010–2014), we aimed to test whether households receiving the intensive intervention (opposed to the nonintensive intervention) increased expenditures on key foods for mothers and children (e.g., foods that were promoted by the intervention and also changed in maternal and child diets).MethodsThe intensive intervention provided interpersonal counseling, community mobilization, and mass media campaigns to promote breastfeeding and complementary feeding. A cluster-randomized design compared 20 subdistricts randomly assigned to the intensive (4281 households) or nonintensive (4284 households) intervention. Measures included food and nonfood expenditures, dietary diversity, and women's economic resources. Linear and logistic regression tested difference-in-differences (DD) in expenditures and dietary diversity, accounting for subdistricts as clusters, and the association between maternal and child consumption of specific food groups and corresponding food expenditures.ResultsExpenditures on eggs and flesh foods increased more in intensive areas than in nonintensive areas by 53 (P < 0.01) and 471 (P < 0.01) taka/mo, respectively. Household food expenditures increased more in intensive areas by 832 taka (P = 0.02), whereas changes in nonfood expenditures did not differ. Women's employment and control of income increased more in intensive areas by 12 (P = 0.03) and 13 (P < 0.01) percentage points, respectively, while jewelry ownership decreased more by 23 percentage points (P < 0.01). Higher expenditures on food groups were reflected in higher consumption by women and children.ConclusionsRecipients in the intensive intervention mobilized additional resources to improve diets, reflected in increased expenditures and consumption of promoted foods. BCC interventions should document how recipients produce desired results without additional material inputs, particularly for behaviors that likely require additional resources. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01678716. ]]> <![CDATA[Resetting the Narrative in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition Research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10006 As the oldest continuous living civilizations in the world, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have strength, tenacity, and resilience. Initial colonization of the landscape included violent dispossession and removal of people from Country to expand European land tenure and production systems, loss of knowledge holders through frontier violence, and formal government policies of segregation and assimilation designed to destroy ontological relationships with Country and kin. The ongoing manifestations of colonialism continue to affect food systems and food knowledges of Aboriginal peoples, and have led to severe health inequities and disproportionate rates of nutrition-related health conditions. There is an urgent need to collaborate with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to address nutrition and its underlying determinants in a way that integrates Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ understandings of food and food systems, health, healing, and well-being. We use the existing literature to discuss current ways that Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are portrayed in the literature in relation to nutrition, identify knowledge gaps that require further research, and propose a new way forward.

]]>
<![CDATA[Independent effects of 15 commonly prescribed drugs on all-cause mortality among US elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9089 Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) also have hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Consequently, they are taking medications for all three conditions concurrently and the effect of one drug could be confounded with that of another. This study aimed to determine the independent effects of 15 commonly prescribed medications for three conditions on the risk of all-cause mortality among elderly patients with T2DM.Research design and methodsA cohort of 360 437 elderly patients with T2DM from 2007 to 2016 US Medicare data was traced along with cumulative uses of 8 diabetes, 6 hypertension and 1 hyperlipidemia drugs. The relative risk of all-cause mortality for each study drug was estimated using an extended Cox regression analysis adjusting for the concurrent use of other study drugs.ResultsCompared with the no use of each study medication, mortality risk declined with use of 3 diabetes drugs, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (HR=0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.84), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (HR=0.75; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.80) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (HR=0.94; 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98), the use of 3 blood pressure medications, diuretics (HR=0.89; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.92), angiotensin receptor blockers (HR=0.86; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.89), ACE inhibitors (HR=0.98; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.01) as well as statins (HR=0.83; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.85). It increased moderately with insulin (HR=1.55; 95% CI 1.51 to 1.59), sulfonylureas (HR=1.16; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.20), a small inconsistent amount with metformin (HR=1.05), beta-blockers (HR=1.07), dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (HR=0.99) and non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (HR=1.05). The use of thiazolidinedione had no effect.ConclusionAmong older patients with diabetes, mortality risk decreased importantly with three new diabetes drugs, 3 blood pressure drugs and statins. It increased moderately with sulfonylurea and insulin. Studies of aggressive use of new T2DM drugs instead of sulfonylureas and insulin are needed. Our statin results empirically validate two national guidelines for using statins in older patients with diabetes. However, 23% of study patients never took a statin, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention. ]]> <![CDATA[Brazilian vegetarians diet quality markers and comparison with the general population: A nationwide cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7851 Vegetarianism is an increasingly common practice worldwide. Despite good evidence from other countries regarding vegetarians’ diet quality, data from the Brazilian population is still scarce.ObjectiveTo characterize the vegetarian Brazilian population and evaluate their diet quality compared to the general Brazilian population.MethodsWe performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire, previously validated for the Brazilian population, to evaluate diet quality markers of vegetarians. The invitation to participate in the survey was spread nationwide, aimed at vegetarian communities. Individuals who considered themselves vegetarians and were at least 18 years old were eligible to participate. The results on regular intake and intake adequacy were compared among vegetarians and between genders using the Pearson’s chi-square test. The body mass index (BMI) were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test verified normality. All analyses considered bilateral hypotheses and a significance level of 5% (p <0.05).ResultsBrazilian vegetarians presented better diet quality markers, such as higher regular weekly intake and adequate daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and lower regular intake of soft drinks when compared to the general Brazilian population. Vegetarians also presented a proportionally higher consumption of natural foods and lower consumption of processed foods. Among vegetarians, a higher proportion of vegans showed positive results regarding diet markers analysis, when compared to vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians.ConclusionsVegetarians showed better results of diet adequacy when compared to the general population in Brazil, and vegans fared better when compared with other vegetarians. Despite the good results found, a large proportion of the participants still did not achieve the fruits and vegetables daily intake, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. ]]> <![CDATA[Towards universal coverage for nutrition services in children under five years—A descriptive analysis of the capacity of level one hospitals to provide nutrition services in five provinces of Zambia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7846 Malnutrition continues to be a major public health challenge in Zambia. To effectively address this, health systems must be well strengthened to deliver an effective continuum of care. This paper examines health systems issues and services in relation to nutritional support to children under five years, in order to identify gaps and propose interventions towards universal coverage of essential nutrition services.MethodsThis analysis utilized data from a cross sectional mixed-methods study on factors associated with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in under-five children to assess health facility nutrition services on offer at select level-one hospitals in five out of ten provinces in Zambia. Stata version 13 was used for analysis. We conducted univariate analysis to assess nutrition services offered, functionality of equipment and tools, availability of human resource and human resource development, and availability of drugs used for assessment and management of nutrition-related health outcomes.ResultsWe found large variations in the level of nutrition services on offer across districts and provinces. Eighty-eight percent of all the hospitals sampled provided group nutrition counseling and 92% of the hospitals in our sample offered individual nutrition counseling to their clients. Overall, the existence of referral and counter-referral systems between the Community Based Volunteers and hospitals were the lowest among all services assessed at 48% and 58% respectively. We also found inadequate numbers of human resource across all cadres with an exception of nutritionists as recommended by the Ministry of Health.ConclusionsThis study has revealed a number of gaps in the health system and health service delivery that requires to be addressed; most notably, a lack of tools, policies and guidelines, drugs and health specialists to help care for malnourished infants and children. Our findings also reveal inadequate referral systems between the community and health facilities in the management of severe acute malnutrition. Achieving universal coverage for nutrition services in Zambia will require a lot more attention to the health systems issues found in this study. ]]> <![CDATA[Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with alcoholism: A nationwide, population-based nested case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7832 Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as a multifactorial disease and shares many risk factors with alcoholism. However, the association between alcoholism and CRC remains controversial.ObjectivesIn this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between alcoholism and risk of CRC.MethodsWe performed a large-scale, population-based nested case-control study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2013, derived from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, and collected data from 2000 to 2013. There were 49,095 diagnosed cases of CRC defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Each case was matched with three controls by sex, age, index date of CRC, and annual medical visits; a total of 147,285 controls were identified. Multiple risk factors of CRC in alcoholism cases were investigated using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis.ResultsAmong 49,095 cases of CRC, alcoholism was associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.631; 95% CI, 1.565–1.699) in multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting other CRC risk factors, and in stratified analysis with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, there was a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism duration and CRC risk in >1 year, > 2 years, >5 years, and > 11 years groups (adjusted ORs, 1.875, 2.050, 2.662 and 2.670; 95% CI, 1.788–1.967, 1.948–2.158, 2.498–2.835, and 2.511–2.989 respectively).ConclusionAn association between alcoholism and risk of CRC was found in this study. Furthermore, patients with longer alcoholism history showed higher likelihood of developing CRC, which indicates a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism exposure and CRC. Further research on colorectal tumorigenesis is needed. ]]>