ResearchPad - nutritional-deficiencies https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Iodine nutritional status of pregnant women in an urban area of northern Taiwan in 2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14723 Pregnant women are considered as one of the most vulnerable groups for iodine deficiency. The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2013 revealed that the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of non-pregnant women of child-bearing age of 15–44 years was 124 μg/L, which was adequate in general, but insufficient according to pregnancy criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the iodine nutritional status of pregnant women in an urban area of Northern Taiwan. A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Random spot urine samples were collected from January to October, 2018 and UIC was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A food frequency questionnaire was also delivered to the participants. The overall median UIC was 225.3 μg/L (IQR: 109.1–514.2 μg/L) for 257 pregnant women ranging from 21–47 years-old. The distribution of UIC was as follows: 35.4% with UIC <150 μg/L, 17.1% with UIC within 150–249 μg/L, 21.8% with UIC within 250–499 μg/L, and 25.7% with UIC ≥500 μg/L. The use of prenatal multivitamin was very common among the participants: 79.4% (n = 204) took multivitamin either every day or less frequently, with 52.5% (n = 135) taking one pill every day, and only 20.6% (n = 53) never took multivitamin during their pregnancy. Other commonly consumed iodine-containing foods were dairy products and fish. Our results indicate that the iodine status in the studied women is adequate. However, efforts are still needed to avoid iodine deficiency as well as iodine excess.

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<![CDATA[Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on semen parameters of a cohort of 770 HIV-1 infected men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c78500cd5eed0c484007bb8

Background

HIV-1 infected patients show impaired semen parameters. Currently, it is not clear whether HIV-1 infection itself or antiretroviral therapy have an effect on semen parameters. We aim evaluate semen quality in a large cohort of fertile HIV-1 infected men under stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to assess the effect of HAART type and duration on semen parameters.

Materials and methods

Between January 2010 and June 2014, we enrolled in a retrospective case-control study 770 HIV-1 patients under stable HAART asking a reproductive counselling with their HIV negative partner. Co-infections with HBV or HCV, genital tract infections and known causes of infertility represented exclusion criteria. Semen samples were analysed and compared with the WHO reference values. A multivariate analysis including HAART type and duration, age, viral load and CD4 count, was performed on 600 patients out of 770.

Results

The median values of all semen parameters were significantly lower among HIV-1 infected patients compared to the WHO reference group, with a significant proportion of patients having values below the 5th percentile of the WHO reference value. In a multivariate analysis, only age and viral load negatively impacted progressive motility (β -0.3 (95% CI: -0.5; -0.0) %, p<0.05) and semen morphology (β -0.00 (95% CI: -0.00; -0.00) %, p≤0.01), while no associations were detected as regards HAART type and duration.

Conclusions

HIV-1 infected patients showed a significant impairment of semen parameters compared to the reference values. HAART type and duration showed no associations with semen quality. Further research is needed to investigate implications for clinical care of HIV infected men desiring a child.

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<![CDATA[Multiple micronutrient status and predictors of anemia in young children aged 12-23 months living in New Delhi, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730acd5eed0c484f37e90

Anemia has been identified as a severe public health concern among young children in India, however, information on the prevalence of anemia attributed to micronutrient deficiencies is lacking. We aimed to assess multiple micronutrient status (iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin D, folate and vitamin B12) in young Indian children and to investigate the role of these seven micronutrients and other non-nutritional factors on hemoglobin concentrations and anemia. One-hundred and twenty children aged 12 to 23 months were included in a cross-sectional nutritional assessment survey, of which 77 children provided a blood sample. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total body iron, zinc, selenium, retinol binding protein (RBP), folate, vitamin B12 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured, and adjusted for inflammation using C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), where appropriate. Predictors for hemoglobin and anemia were identified in multiple regression models. Most of the children were classified as anemic, of which 86 to 93% was associated with iron deficiency depending on the indicator applied. Deficiencies of folate (37%), and notably vitamin D (74%) were also common; fewer children were classified with deficiencies of vitamin B12 (29%), zinc (25%), and vitamin A (17%) and selenium deficiency was nearly absent. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies were common with over half (57%) deficient in three or more micronutrients, and less than 10% of children were classified with adequate status for all the micronutrients measured. Iron status was found to be the only nutritional factor statistically significantly inversely associated with anemia (P = 0.003) in multivariate analysis after controlling for sex. A coordinated multi-micronutrient program is urgently needed to combat the co-existing micronutrient deficiencies in these young children to improve micronutrient status and reduce the high burden of childhood anemia.

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<![CDATA[Health effects of micronutrient fortified dairy products and cereal food for children and adolescents: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52185fd5eed0c484797e44

Introduction

Micronutrient (MN) deficiencies cause a considerable burden of disease for children in many countries. Dairy products or cereals are an important food component during adolescence. Fortification of dairy products or cereals with MN may be an effective strategy to overcome MN deficiencies, but their specific impact on health in this age group is poorly documented.

Methods

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (registration number CRD42016039554) to assess the impact of MN fortified dairy products and cereal food on the health of children and adolescents (aged 5–15 years) compared with non-fortified food. We reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCT) using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library; latest search: January 2018), reference list screening and citation searches. Three pairs of reviewers assessed 2048 studies for eligibility and extracted data. We assessed the risk of bias and applied GRADE to rate quality of evidence.

Results

We included 24 RCT (often multi MN fortification) with 30 pair-wise comparisons mainly from low- and middle income countries. A very small and non-significant increase of haemoglobin values emerged (0.09 g/dl [95%-CI: -0.01 to 0.18]; 13 RCT with iron fortification; very low quality of evidence). No significant difference was found on anaemia risk (risk ratio 0.87 [95%-CI: 0.76 to 1.01]; 12 RCT; very low quality), but a significant difference in iron deficiency anaemia favouring fortified food was found (risk ratio 0.38 [95%-CI: 0.18 to 0.81]; 5 RCT; very low quality). Similar effects were seen for fortified dairy products and cereals and different fortification strategies (mono- vs. dual- vs. multi-MN). Follow-up periods were often short and the impact on anthropometric measures was weak (low quality of evidence) Very low quality of evidence emerged for the improvement of cognitive performance, functional measures and morbidity.

Conclusions

Fortification of dairy products and cereal food had only marginal health effects in our sample population from 5–15 years. Further evidence is needed to better understand the health impact of fortified dairy products and cereals in this age group.

Systematic review registration

The study protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 26 May 2016 (registration number CRD42016039554).

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of micronutrient-fortified rice consumption on anaemia and zinc status among vulnerable women in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f790d5eed0c4843863b9

Micronutrient deficiency is one of the biggest public health concerns in Bangladesh. As per World Health Organisation (WHO) in the 2016 report, 40% women of reproductive age suffer from anaemia. According to the National Micronutrient Survey 2011–2012, 57% women suffer from zinc deficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of fortified rice (FFR in addressing anaemia and zinc deficiency among vulnerable women. Baseline and endline surveys were conducted among female Vulnerable Group Development (VDG) beneficiaries in five districts in Bangladesh before and after 12 months of FFR distribution. The intervention group received 30 kg FFR; the control group received 30 kg non-FFR for every month from January 2013 to December 2013. The sample sizes were 870 women (435/group) at baseline and 800 (400/group) at endline. Difference-in-difference (DID) was estimated to measure the effect of FFR on anaemia and serum zinc. In the baseline survey, 39% of the FFR group and 34% of the non-FFR group had anaemia. At endline, 34% of women in the FFR group were anaemic compared to 40.7% in the non-FFR group. At endline, prevalence of anaemia was reduced in the FFR group by 4.8% but increased in the non-FFR group by 6.7%. The DID estimation showed the reduction in anaemia after 12 months of FFR consumption was significant (p = 0.035). The DID in mean haemoglobin level after 12 months of FFR consumption was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Zinc deficiency decreased by 6% in the FFR group at endline, though the DID was not significant. Most of the respondents of the FFR group reported that they received their entitled rice on a regular basis however only half of the non-FFR respondents received every month in 12 months. Anaemia was significantly associated with not consuming fortified rice, geographical region, older age and heavy menstrual bleeding (P<0.05). FFR reduced anaemia and zinc deficiency prevalence. Replacement of regular rice with FFR in the VGD programme is recommended to reduce anaemia among vulnerable groups.

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<![CDATA[Measurement of micronutrient deficiency associated biomarkers in dried blood spots using a multiplexed immunoarray]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e5046d5eed0c484d7faf6

Simplifying blood collection is often critical when collecting specimens in remote and/or austere settings. The use of dried blood spots (DBS) offers a practical collection method suitable for a wide variety of analytes. A small volume of whole blood can be obtained rapidly through a minimally invasive heel- or finger-stick using a disposable safety lancet. Once dried, the samples require no further processing, are stable for months or longer, pose minimal risk of disease transmission, and are easy to ship. DBS are often used in demographic health surveys to assess infectious disease status in vulnerable populations. These samples can be used to screen biomarkers of micronutrient deficiency (MND) and inflammation. We recently described a multiplexed immunoarray, the Q-plex human micronutrient array, which can simultaneously quantify seven biomarkers related to MND, inflammation and malarial antigenemia using plasma (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, ferritin, histidine-rich protein 2, retinol binding protein, soluble transferrin receptor, and thyroglobulin). In this work, we present a protocol for preparing eluates from DBS samples and their measurement using a modified protocol for this new tool. We evaluated the concordance of analyte concentrations (excluding ferritin) from a panel ninety samples of DBS prepared from anticoagulated venous blood and paired K2-EDTA plasma. The results show high correlation between DBS eluates and wet plasma for five of the six analytes screened, suggesting the Q-plex human micronutrient array can be used with DBS samples, but also highlighting that anticoagulants can have a negative effects on some test components.

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<![CDATA[Trends in vitamin D supplement use in a general female and breast cancer population in Ireland: A repeated cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0aded5eed0c484426cbb

Background

Vitamin D has been linked with improved survival after breast cancer diagnosis but little is known about prescribing rates. This study investigates trends in vitamin D supplement use in both a general female and breast cancer population.

Methods

Women with a breast cancer diagnosis were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (n = 19870). Women who had any vitamin D claim between 2005 and 2011 were identified from pharmacy claims data (n = 8556). Prevalence rates were calculated as a proportion of all eligible women and by age (< 55 years, ≥ 55 years). Poisson regression was used to compare rates of vitamin D prescribing across years (risk ratio (RR), 95% CI).

Results

There was a statistically significant increase in women with a claim for vitamin D between 2005–2011, with the largest increase among breast cancer patients aged ≥ 55 years (RR = 2.26; 95% CI, 2.11–2.42).

Conclusion

This may have significant public health implications if associations between vitamin D and improved breast cancer survival prove to be causal.

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<![CDATA[Taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in golden retrievers fed commercial diets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ac0d5eed0c4844269f9

Introduction

Golden retrievers are over-represented in cases of taurine-deficient dilated cardiomyopathy and recently a surge in cases has prompted further investigation.

Objective

To describe the clinical, dietary, and echocardiographic features in golden retrievers diagnosed with taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy, and to determine specific dietary associations. A second aim was to determine the whole blood taurine concentrations in a representative sample of healthy golden retrievers.

Animals

Twenty-four client-owned golden retrievers with documented taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy and 52 healthy client-owned golden retrievers.

Methods

In this multicenter prospective observational study, baseline and follow-up echocardiographic data, complete diet and medical histories, and whole blood, plasma, or serum taurine concentrations were obtained. Baseline and follow-up echocardiographic data were compared. Associations were evaluated between specific diets and taurine deficiency or congestive heart failure. The prevalence of low whole blood taurine concentrations in the healthy golden retrievers was calculated.

Results

Twenty-three of 24 dogs diagnosed with taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy were fed diets that were either grain-free, legume-rich, or a combination of these factors. None of these diets were feeding trial tested using Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) procedures. Twenty-three of 24 dogs had significant improvement in their echocardiographic parameters and normalization of taurine concentrations following diet change and taurine supplementation. Nine of 11 dogs diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF) had resolution of their congestion at follow-up with five no longer requiring diuretic therapy and four tolerating diuretic dose reduction by >50%.

Conclusions

Certain diets and diet characteristics were associated with the development of taurine deficiency. Taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy in golden retrievers is likely multifactorial, including a combination of dietary, metabolic, and genetic factors.

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<![CDATA[Vitamin D and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028bad5eed0c484247f27

Objective

To compare vitamin D status in women with PCOS versus fertile women and subsequently evaluate the association between vitamin D status and metabolic disturbances in PCOS women.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional comparison study of 639 women with PCOS and 449 fertile women. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was stratified into a severe deficient (< 25 nmol/l), insufficient (25–50 nmol/l), moderate (50–75 nmol/l) and adequate (> 75 nmol/l) status. The main outcome measures were the difference in vitamin D status between PCOS and fertile women, and the association between serum 25(OH)D and metabolic disturbances in PCOS women only.

Results

Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower in PCOS women compared to fertile controls (mean 25(OH)D of 49.0 nmol/l versus 64.5 nmol/l). An adjusted significant difference was seen between serum 25(OH)D and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) (β = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63–0.91; p < 0.01), HDL-cholesterol (β = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05–0.60, p < 0.01) and apolipoprotein A1 (β = 26.2; 95% CI: 7.5–45.0, p < 0.01) between the highest vitamin D group compared to the lowest vitamin D group.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates that women with PCOS have a significantly lower serum 25(OH)D compared to fertile controls. A compromised vitamin D status in PCOS women is associated with a higher HOMA-IR and an unfavourable lipid profile. Large randomized controlled trials are necessary to explore the causality of this linkage.

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<![CDATA[Iodine status of children and knowledge, attitude, practice of iodised salt use in a remote community in Kerema district, Gulf province, Papua New Guinea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841dcd5eed0c484fcaf4d

Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental impairment in communities with suboptimal iodine intake. Objective of the present study was to assess in more detail the iodine status and knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) relating to use of iodised salt in a remote community in Kotidanga area, Kerema district, Gulf province, Papua New Guinea. This prospective school and community based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2017. Simple random sampling was used to select schools. Multistage sampling was used to randomly select 300 children aged 6 to 12 years, of which 289 consented to participate in the study. A single urine sample was collected from each of the consenting children, as well as a salt sample from their households. Discretionary salt intake was assessed in a sub-sample of the children’s households. Salt iodine content and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were analysed. A semi-structured modified Food and Agriculture Organisation questionnaire was used to assess KAP of three different community groups. Only 64% of households had salt on the day of data collection. Mean iodine content in household salt samples was 29.0 ± 19.1 ppm. Iodine content was below 30.0 ppm in 54.8% and below 15.0 ppm in 31.2% of salt samples. Mean per capita discretionary intake of household salt was 2.9 ± 1.8 g/day. Median UIC was 25.5 μg/L and Interquartile Range was 15.0 to 47.5 μg/L, indicating moderate status iodine nutrition. Median UIC was 34.3 μg/L for children in households with salt, compared to 15.5 μg/L for children in households without salt, indicating severe iodine deficiency in the latter group. The three community groups had limited knowledge about importance of using iodised salt and consequences of iodine deficiency on health outcomes. This remote community has limited access to adequately iodised household salt due to high cost, inappropriate packaging, storage and food preparation, resulting in iodine deficiency. Strategies to increase iodine intake are needed.

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<![CDATA[Projected effectiveness of mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour, milk, and edible oil with multiple micronutrients among Mongolian adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6da1c2463d7e4dccc5faf5

Industrial fortification of wheat flour is a potentially effective strategy for addressing micronutrient deficiencies in Mongolia, given its ubiquitous consumption and centralized production. However, Mongolia has not mandated fortification of any foods except for salt with iodine. This study modeled the effectiveness and safety of mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour alone and in combination with edible oil and milk in reducing the prevalence of multiple micronutrient intake deficiencies among healthy non-pregnant adults in Mongolia. Six days of diet records (3 summer, 3 winter) were collected from 320 urban and rural adults across the country and analyzed for food and nutrient consumption using a purpose-built food composition table, and the Intake Monitoring and Planning Program (IMAPP) was used to project the effects of fortification on summer and winter bioavailable micronutrient intake and intake deficiency under different fortification guidelines within population subgroups defined by urban or rural locality and sex. Projections showed that flour fortification would be effective in reducing intake deficiencies of thiamin and folate, while marginal benefits of fortification with iron and riboflavin would be smaller given these nutrients’ higher baseline consumption, and fortification with zinc, niacin, and vitamin B12 may be unnecessary. Fortification of flour, oil, and milk with vitamins A, D, and E at levels suggested by international guidelines would substantially reduce vitamin A intake deficiency and would increase vitamin D intake considerably, with the greatest benefits elicited by flour fortification and smaller benefits by additionally fortifying oil and milk. These results support mandatory industrial fortification of wheat flour, edible oil, and milk with iron, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, and vitamins A, D, and E in Mongolia. Considerations will be necessary to ensure the fortification of these nutrients is also effective for children, for whom the potential benefit of zinc, niacin, and vitamin B12 fortification should be assessed.

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<![CDATA[Helicobacter pylori Antibodies and Iron Deficiency in Female Adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3aab0ee8fa60bd45a0

Objective

Iron deficiency (ID) is a common clinical problem worldwide, affecting primarily females. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been shown to be associated with ID. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence of HP antibodies in female adolescents, and to find out if there was a correlation between HP infection and ID. The secondary aim was to study if regularly performed sporting activity, have any association to HP infection, in itself.

Design

A controlled clinical trial.

Setting

A senior high school in Gothenburg, Sweden.

Subjects

All female athletes at a senior high school for top-level athletes were offered to take part, and 56 athletes took part in the study. The control group consisted of a random sample of age-matched non-athlete students of which 71 entered the study.

Main outcome measures

Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were defined by the use of levels of haemoglobin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin, as previously described. HP IgG-antibodies were detected by ELISA.

Results

18 of 127 (14%) adolescent females had antibodies against HP. Only 3% had IDA, while 50% had ID. In total, 66% of the HP positive females had ID compared to 48% of the negative females (p = 0.203). No correlation between sporting activity and HP infection was found. Regarding ethnicity, 11/28 of subjects from medium-high risk areas were HP-positive, compared to 7/99 coming from low-risk areas (p<0.001).

Conclusion

The main finding of this study is that the prevalence of HP IgG antibodies was 14% in adolescent females. We could not find any difference regarding frequency of ID and IDA, between HP positive and negative individuals. Ethnicity is of great importance for the risk of HP infection, while sporting activity itself seems to have no association to HP-infection.

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<![CDATA[The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da11ab0ee8fa60b79835

Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system’s response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake.

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<![CDATA[Estimation of Dietary Iron Bioavailability from Food Iron Intake and Iron Status]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b74244

Currently there are no satisfactory methods for estimating dietary iron absorption (bioavailability) at a population level, but this is essential for deriving dietary reference values using the factorial approach. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for estimating dietary iron absorption using a population sample from a sub-section of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Data were analyzed in 873 subjects from the 2000–2001 adult cohort of the NDNS, for whom both dietary intake data and hematological measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations) were available. There were 495 men aged 19–64 y (mean age 42.7±12.1 y) and 378 pre-menopausal women (mean age 35.7±8.2 y). Individual dietary iron requirements were estimated using the Institute of Medicine calculations. A full probability approach was then applied to estimate the prevalence of dietary intakes that were insufficient to meet the needs of the men and women separately, based on their estimated daily iron intake and a series of absorption values ranging from 1–40%. The prevalence of SF concentrations below selected cut-off values (indicating that absorption was not high enough to maintain iron stores) was derived from individual SF concentrations. An estimate of dietary iron absorption required to maintain specified SF values was then calculated by matching the observed prevalence of insufficiency with the prevalence predicted for the series of absorption estimates. Mean daily dietary iron intakes were 13.5 mg for men and 9.8 mg for women. Mean calculated dietary absorption was 8% in men (50th percentile for SF 85 µg/L) and 17% in women (50th percentile for SF 38 µg/L). At a ferritin level of 45 µg/L estimated absorption was similar in men (14%) and women (13%). This new method can be used to calculate dietary iron absorption at a population level using data describing total iron intake and SF concentration.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Providing Multiple Micronutrients in Powder through Primary Healthcare on Anemia in Young Brazilian Children: A Multicentre Pragmatic Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8cab0ee8fa60b9e33b

Background

Multiple micronutrients in powder (MNP) are recommended by WHO to prevent anemia in young children. However, evidences for its effectiveness in different populations and improvements in other outcomes (e.g. linear growth and vitamin A deficiency) are scarce.

Methods

A multicentre pragmatic controlled trial was carried out in primary health centres. At study baseline, a control group (CG) of children aged 10- to 14 months (n = 521) was recruited in the routine healthcare for assessing anemia, anthropometric and micronutrient status. At the same time, an intervention group (IG) of infants aged 6- to 8 months (n = 462) was recruited to receive MNP daily in complementary feeding over a period of 60 days. Both study groups were compared when the IG infants reached the age of the CG children at enrolment.

Results

In CG, the prevalence of anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) < 110 g/L], iron deficiency (ID, plasma ferritin < 12 μg/L or TfR > 8.3 mg/L), and vitamin A deficiency (VAD, serum retinol < 0.70μmol/L) were 23.1%, 37.4%, and 17.4%, respectively. Four to six months after enrolment, when the IG participants had the same age of the controls at the time of testing, the prevalence of anemia, ID and VAD in IG were 14.3%, 30.1% and 7.9%, respectively. Adjusting for city, health centre, maternal education, and age, IG children had a lower likelihood of anemia and VAD [Prevalence Ratio (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.45, 0.88) and 0.45 (0.29, 0.69), respectively] when compared with CG children. The adjusted mean distributions of Hb and length-for-age Z-scores improved by 2 SE in the IG compared to CG children.

Conclusions

MNP effectively reduced anemia and improved growth and micronutrient status among young Brazilian children.

Trial Registration

Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos RBR-5ktv6b

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<![CDATA[Micronutrient Supplementation and Deworming in Children with Geohelminth Infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b85e99 ]]> <![CDATA[ApaI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor affects health-related quality of life in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc407

Background

Polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune conditions.

Methods

We investigated the incidence of VDR polymorphisms (rs1544410-BsmI; rs7975232-ApaI; rs731236-TaqI) in a group of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, n = 275) and in healthy controls (n = 376). Additionally, correlations of the VDR polymorphisms with clinical and biochemical factors of the disease were analysed.

Results

The genotype and allele distributions of these polymorphisms in PSC patients were similar to those observed in controls. However, the ApaI polymorphism was associated with an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The generic SF-36 questionnaire showed that the Role-Physical (p = 0.01), Role-Emotional (p = 0.01), Physical Component Summary (p = 0.01) and Mental Component Summary (p = 0.003) scores were significantly affected. Similarly, the disease-specific questionnaires, PBC-40 and PBC-27, demonstrated that carriers of the C allele suffered from more severe Itch (p = 0.03 assessed by PBC-40 and PBC-27), more Fatigue (p = 0.02 assessed by PBC-40 and PBC-27) and Impaired Cognitive Capacity (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03). Correspondingly, individuals who were AA homozygotes (non-carriers of the C allele of ApaI) had higher summary scores for the Physical (p = 0.01) and Mental Components (p = 0.006) measured with SF-36. Moreover, they experienced less itch (p = 0.03) and less Fatigue (p = 0.03) and had better Cognitive Abilities (p = 0.04) as assessed by the PBC-40 and PBC-27 questionnaires. No associations between other VDR polymorphisms and clinical or laboratory findings were made.

Conclusion

In summary, this study is the first to show that the ApaI polymorphisms in VDR may exert an effect on disease-related symptoms and quality of life in patients with PSC.

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<![CDATA[Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4eab0ee8fa60bdb3e2

Background

The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.

Objective

In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.

Methods

Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation) were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL), mildly deficient (DEF), or supplemental (SUPP) quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.

Results

No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.

Conclusions

In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating alters offspring weight gain, lipid metabolism and tumor growth in a sex-specific fashion. These results highlight the need to better define how paternal nutrition affects the health of offspring.

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<![CDATA[Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8cab0ee8fa60b9e337

Background

Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3–23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and retinol binding protein (RBP) were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI) was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored.

Results

Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%). Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF) significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin.

Conclusion

Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children.

Trial Registration

German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004379

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<![CDATA[Cottonseed Oil in Diets for Broilers in the Pre-Starter and Starter Phases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1fab0ee8fa60bcef62

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude cottonseed oil in isoenergetic diets, with or without supplementation of ferrous sulfate, on performance variables, relative weight of organs, and blood parameters of broilers, and on the economic viability of diets in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age. A total of 600 male birds of the Ross line were distributed in a completely randomized design in a (4×2) factorial arrangement with eight treatments (0, 2, 4, and 6% cottonseed oil with and without ferrous sulfate), and five replicates. The following variables were studied: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, weight of organs, blood parameters, and yield of carcass and cuts at 21 days. No effects of the levels of cottonseed oil were found on the performance of animals aged 1 to 7 days, or on the relative weights of the organs. In this same period, the weight gain, and the relative weights of heart, liver, and intestine of the animals that received ferrous sulfate were decreased, and feed conversion was worsened. In the period from 1 to 21 days, weight gain increased linearly with the increase in the levels of cottonseed oil. Blood parameters were not influenced by the diets. Crude cottonseed oil can be utilized in diets for broilers in the periods from 1 to 7 and 1 to 21 days of age at up to 6% of inclusion, and supplementation with ferrous sulfate is unnecessary if the differences in metabolization of the cottonseed oil are considered, with and without, it during the diet formulation process.

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