ResearchPad - obesity-biology-and-integrated-physiology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is Adipose Tissue a Reservoir for Viral Spread, Immune Activation, and Cytokine Amplification in Coronavirus Disease 2019?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16599 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), the worst pandemic in more than a century, has claimed >125,000 lives worldwide to date. Emerging predictors for poor outcomes include advanced age, male sex, preexisting cardiovascular disease, and risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and, more recently, obesity. This article posits new obesity‐driven predictors of poor COVID‐19 outcomes, over and above the more obvious extant risks associated with obesity, including cardiometabolic disease and hypoventilation syndrome in intensive care patients. This article also outlines a theoretical mechanistic framework whereby adipose tissue in individuals with obesity may act as a reservoir for more extensive viral spread, with increased shedding, immune activation, and cytokine amplification. This paper proposes studies to test this reservoir concept with a focus on specific cytokine pathways that might be amplified in individuals with obesity and COVID‐19. Finally, this paper underscores emerging therapeutic strategies that might benefit subsets of patients in which cytokine amplification is excessive and potentially fatal.

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<![CDATA[The critical period for brown adipocyte development: Genetic and environmental influences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af8cf2e463d7e0de97e2e3f

Objective

The current review summarizes recent advances in the origin of brown adipocytes in rodents and humans.

Methods

This review describes recent insights into induction of the brown adipocyte phenotype (BAP) in white fat (WAT) revealed by murine studies during the early postnatal period and reversible temperature transitions. The origin of adipocytes and identity of progenitors as indicated by lineage tracing experiments are reviewed.

Results

We describe a genetic model for brown adipocyte development that involves the appearance of brown adipocytes in WAT at 21 days of age and a mechanism of post‐weaning involution relevant for acquisition of the BAP in fully functional WAT in mice. Under normal physiological conditions, the BAP is dormant with the potential to be stimulated by changes in the external environment. Current evidence for the acquisition of brown adipocytes by interconversion of mature adipocytes versus de novo recruitment of progenitors suggests that mechanisms for acquisition of the BAP in WAT in mice are depot‐specific and controlled by allelic variation.

Conclusions

Although the BAP is highly variable among mice, there is no information on genetic variability in the expression of brown adipocytes in humans. Thus, deeper understanding of genetic mechanisms underlying development of functional brown adipocytes is crucial.

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