ResearchPad - obstetric-procedures https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[How much is enough? Exploring the dose-response relationship between cash transfers and surgical utilization in a resource-poor setting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14571 Cash transfers are a common intervention to incentivize salutary behavior in resource-constrained settings. Many cash transfer studies do not, however, account for the effect of the size of the cash transfer in design or analysis. A randomized, controlled trial of a cash-transfer intervention is planned to incentivize appropriate surgical utilization in Guinea. The aim of the current study is to determine the size of that cash transfer so as to maximize compliance while minimizing cost.MethodsData were collected from nine coastal Guinean hospitals on their surgical capabilities and the cost of receiving surgery. These data were combined with publicly available data about the general Guinean population to create an agent-based model predicting surgical utilization. The model was validated to the available literature on surgical utilization. Cash transfer sizes from 0 to 1,000,000 Guinean francs were evaluated, with surgical compliance as the primary outcome.ResultsCompliance with scheduled surgery increases as the size of a cash transfer increases. This increase is asymptotic, with a leveling in utilization occurring when the cash transfer pays for all the costs associated with surgical care. Below that cash transfer size, no other optima are found. Once a cash transfer completely covers the costs of surgery, other barriers to care such as distance and hospital quality dominateConclusionCash transfers to incentivize health-promoting behavior appear to be dose-dependent. Maximal impact is likely only to occur when full patient costs are eliminated. These findings should be incorporated in the design of future cash transfer studies. ]]> <![CDATA[Newborn body composition after maternal bariatric surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13862 In pregnancy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is increased risk of low birthweight in the offspring. The present study examined how offspring body composition was affected by RYGB.Material and methodsMother-newborn dyads, where the mothers had undergone RYGB were included. Main outcome measure was neonatal body composition. Neonatal body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 hours after birth. In a statistical model offspring born after RYGB were compared with a reference material of offspring and analyses were made to estimate the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, gestational age at birth and newborn sex on newborn body composition. Analyses were made to estimate the impact of maternal weight loss before pregnancy and of other effects of bariatric surgery respectively. The study was performed at a university hospital between October 2012 and December 2013.ResultsWe included 25 mother-newborn dyads where the mothers had undergone RYGB and compared them to a reference material of 311 mother-newborn dyads with comparable pre-pregnancy BMI. Offspring born by mothers after RYGB had lower birthweight (335g, p<0.001), fat-free mass (268g, p<0.001) and fat% (2.8%, p<0.001) compared with reference material. Only 2% of the average reduction in newborn fat free mass could be attributed to maternal pre-pregnancy weight loss whereas other effects of RYGB accounted for 98%. Regarding reduction in fat mass 52% was attributed to weight loss and 47% to other effects of surgery.ConclusionOffspring born after maternal bariatric surgery, had lower birthweight, fat-free mass and fat percentage when compared with a reference material. RYGB itself and not the pre-pregnancy weight loss seems to have had the greatest impact on fetal growth. ]]> <![CDATA[Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery: A web-based survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11233 Global surgery is a growing field studying the determinants of safe and affordable surgical care and advocating to gain the global health community's attention. In Cameroon, little is known about the level of knowledge and attitudes of students. Our survey aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery.Materials and methodsWe performed an anonymous online survey of final-year Cameroonian medical students. Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation analysis were used for bivariate analysis, and the alpha value was set at 0.05. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results204 respondents with a mean age of 24.7 years (±2.0) participated in this study. 58.3% were male, 41.6% had previously heard or read about global surgery, 36.3% had taken part in a global surgery study, and 10.8% had attended a global surgery event. Mercy Ships was well known (46.5%), and most students believed that surgical interventions were more costly than medical treatments (75.0%). The mean score of the global surgery evaluation was 47.4% (±29.6%), and being able to recognize more global surgery organizations was correlated with having assumed multiple roles during global surgery studies (p = 0.008) and identifying more global surgery indicators (p = 0.04). Workforce, infrastructure, and funding were highlighted as the top priorities for the development of global surgery in Cameroon.ConclusionMedical students are conscious of the importance of surgical care. They lack the opportunities to nurture their interest and should be taught global surgery concepts and skills. ]]> <![CDATA[Variation in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 in normal pregnancy with gestational age, sampling season, and complications: A longitudinal cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf1a2733-e0b1-4fc7-90ad-b2bfa4368f5f

Introduction

Low levels of vitamin D in pregnancy have been associated with the risk of a variety of pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D concentrations throughout pregnancy in healthy women, and most guidelines recommend high vitamin D levels. In the present study, we investigated 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy Caucasian Danish women in relation to season, gestational age and possible vitamin D-linked complications.

Materials and methods

Eight hundred and one healthy Caucasian Danish women with an expected normal pregnancy were recruited among 2147 women attending first trimester screening. Seven blood samplings were planned throughout the pregnancy and delivery period. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were calculated.

Results

A total of 3304 samples from 694 women were available for 25(OH)D measurements. The mean (25th-75th percentiles) concentrations of 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 were 54.6 (38.8–68.6) nmol/L, 52.2 (36.4–66.4) nmol/L, and 2.4 (2.2–2.2) nmol/L, respectively. Season was the strongest predictor of 25(OH)D concentration, with the lowest values observed in winter and spring, where only 42% and 41% of samples, respectively, were above 50 nmol/L. Nearly all women had values below the suggested optimal level of 75 nmol/L, independent of season. 25(OH)D peaked at gestational weeks 21–34. Plasma 25(OH)D2 levels were low in all seasons. Women with complications during pregnancy had higher 25(OH)D (estimated difference 9.8 nmol/L, standard error 2.7, p<0.001) than did women without complications, and women giving birth vaginally had lower 25(OH)D than did those delivering via elective (10.0 nmol/L, standard error 2.1, p<0.001) or emergency cesarean section (6.8 nmol/L, standard error 2.2, p<0.001).

Conclusion

The 25(OH)D concentrations vary with both season and gestational age. Healthy women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than recommended, without an association with an increased risk of pregnancy complications. Guidelines for vitamin D in pregnancy may require revision.

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<![CDATA[High prevalence of caesarean birth among mothers delivered at health facilities in Bahir Dar city, Amhara region, Ethiopia. A comparative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc10b7a7b-4e34-4c06-9bc7-b9eb28d75615

Objective

The study aimed to assess and compare the prevalence of caesarean birth and associated factors among women gave birth at public and private health facilities in Bahir Dar city, Amhara region, Ethiopia.

Methods

An institution-based comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted from March1-April 15, 2019 at health facility provide emergency obstetrics service in Bahir Dar city. Study participants 724(362 for each public and private facility) were recruited using a systematic random sampling technique. Structured interview administered questionnaires and chart review checklist were used to collect data. The data were entered into Epi info version 7.2 and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 software. A binary logistic regression model was fitted and an adjusted odds ration with 95% CI was used to determine the presence and strength of association between independent variables and cesarean birth.

Results

The response rate was 98.3% and 97.2% for public and private health facilities respectively. The prevalence of caesarean birth in private health facilities was 198 (56.3%) (95%CI: 50.9, 61.4) and in public health facilities was 98 (27.5%) (95%CI: 22.8, 32.2). Overall prevalence of caesarean birth was 296 (41.8%) (95%CI: 38.4, 45.5). Breech presentation (AOR = 3.64; 95%CI:1.49, 8.89), urban residence (AOR = 6.54; 95%CI:2.59, 16.48) and being referred (AOR = 2.44; 95%CI:1.46, 4.08) were variables significantly associated with caesarean birth among public facilities whereas age between 15–24 (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI; 0.07, 0.52), government employe (AOR = 2.28; 95%CI: 1.39,3.75), self-employed (AOR = 3.73; 95%CI:1.15,8.59), para one (AOR = 6.79; 95%CI:2.02, 22.79), para two (AOR = 3.88; 95% CI:1.15,13.08), and wealth index being highest level of wealth asset AOR = 5.39; 95%CI:1.08, 26.8) in private health facility associated with caesarean birth.

Conclusions

We concluded that there is high prevalence of caesarean birth both in private and public facility. There is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of caesarean birth in public and private health facilities.

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<![CDATA[Impact of pharmacist-led antibiotic stewardship interventions on compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetric and gynecologic surgeries in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902c2d5eed0c484b9852c

Background

Inappropriate and excessive use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis are associated with the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis malpractices are common in obstetrics and gynecology settings and antibiotic stewardship is used to correct such malpractice.

Objective

To evaluate the impact of antibiotic stewardship interventions on compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis practice in obstetrics and gynecology surgeries.

Method

A prospective pre- and post-intervention study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals between May and December 2016. The duration of the each period was 3 months. Antibiotic stewardship interventions including development of a protocol, educational meeting and audit and feedback were implemented. Data were collected using the patient records and analyzed with SPSS version 23.

Results

A total of 226 and 238 surgical procedures were included in the pre- and post-intervention periods respectively. Age, length of stay and estimated blood loss were similar between the two groups. However, specialty and surgical procedures varied significantly. There was a significant increase in compliance with timing (from 14.2% to 43.3%) and duration (from 0% to 21.8%) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis after the interventions. The interventions significantly reduced the prescription of third generation cephalosporin (-8.6%), redundant antibiotic (-19.1%), antibiotic utilization (-3.8 DDD/procedure) and cost of antibiotic prophylaxis (-$4.2/procedure). There was no significant difference in the rate of surgical site infection between the two periods. Post-intervention group (OR: 5.60; 95% CI: 3.31–9.47), elective surgery (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.51–8.47) and hospital attended (OR: 9.89; 95% CI: 5.66–17.26) were significant predictors of compliance with timing while elective surgery (OR: 12.49; 95% CI: 2.85–54.71) and compliance with timing (OR: 58.55; 95% CI: 12.66–270.75) were significantly associated with compliance to duration of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis.

Conclusion

The interventions improve compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis and reduce antibiotic utilization and cost. However, there is opportunity for further improvement, particularly in non-elective surgical procedures.

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<![CDATA[How is women’s demand for caesarean section measured? A systematic literature review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89779cd5eed0c4847d317e

Background

Caesarean section rates are increasing worldwide, and since the 2000s, several researchers have investigated women’s demand for caesarean sections.

Question

The aim of this article was to review and summarise published studies investigating caesarean section demand and to describe the methodologies, outcomes, country characteristics and country income levels in these studies.

Methods

This is a systematic review of studies published between 2000 and 2017 in French and English that quantitatively measured women’s demand for caesarean sections. We carried out a systematic search using the Medline database in PubMed.

Findings

The search strategy identified 390 studies, 41 of which met the final inclusion criteria, representing a total sample of 3 774 458 women. We identified two different study designs, i.e., cross-sectional studies and prospective cohort studies, that are commonly used to measure social demand for caesarean sections. Two different types of outcomes were reported, i.e., the preferences of pregnant or non-pregnant women regarding the method of childbirth in the future and caesarean delivery following maternal request. No study measured demand for caesarean section during the childbirth process. All included studies were conducted in middle- (n = 24) and high-income countries (n = 17), and no study performed in a low-income country was found.

Discussion

Measuring caesarean section demand is challenging, and the structural violence leading to demand for caesarean section during childbirth while in the labour ward remains invisible. In addition, the caesarean section demand in low-income countries remains unclear due to the lack of studies conducted in these countries.

Conclusion

We recommend conducting prospective cohort studies to describe the social construction of caesarean section demand. We also recommend conducting studies in low-income countries because demand for caesarean sections in these countries is rarely investigated.

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<![CDATA[Hospital admission on weekends for patients who have surgery and 30-day mortality in Ontario, Canada: A matched cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff11d5eed0c484135a9a

Background

Healthcare interventions on weekends have been associated with increased mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, but these findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized that patients admitted to hospital on weekends who have surgery have an increased risk of death compared with patients who are admitted and have surgery on weekdays.

Methods and findings

This matched cohort study included 318,202 adult patients from Ontario health administrative and demographic databases, admitted to acute care hospitals from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015. A total of 159,101 patients who were admitted on weekends and underwent noncardiac surgery were classified by day of surgery (weekend versus weekday) and matched 1:1 to patients who both were admitted and had surgery on a weekday (Tuesday to Thursday); matching was based on age (in years), anesthesia basic unit value for the surgical procedure, median neighborhood household income quintile, resource utilization band (a ranking system of overall morbidity), rurality of home location, year of admission, and urgency of admission. Of weekend admissions, 16.2% (25,872) were elective and 53.9% (85,744) had surgery on the weekend of admission. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days of the date of hospital admission. The 30-day all-cause mortality for patients admitted on weekends who had noncardiac surgery was 2.6% (4,211/159,101) versus 2.5% (3,901/159,101) for those who were admitted and had surgery on weekdays (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.11; P = 0.03). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the increased odds of death according to the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed (weekend versus weekday). For urgent admissions on weekends (n = 133,229), there was no significant increase in odds of mortality when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09; P = 0.7) or on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.12; P = 0.2) compared to urgent admissions on weekdays. Elective admissions on weekends (n = 25,782) had increased risk of death both when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.98 to 5.49; P < 0.001) and when surgery was performed on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.81 to 4.03; P < 0.001). The main limitations of this study were the lack of data regarding reason for admission and cause of increased time interval from admission to surgery for some cases, the small number of deaths in some subgroups (i.e., elective surgery), and the possibility of residual unmeasured confounding from increased illness severity for weekend admissions.

Conclusions

When patients have surgery during their hospitalization, admission on weekends in Ontario, Canada, was associated with a small but significant proportional increase in 30-day all-cause mortality, but there was significant heterogeneity in outcomes depending on the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed. An increased risk of death was found only for elective admissions on weekends; whether this is a function of patient-level factors or represents a true weekend effect needs to be further elucidated. These findings have potential implications for resource allocation in hospitals and the redistribution of elective surgery to weekends.

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<![CDATA[Who elects the weekend?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff10d5eed0c4841359e5

Chaim M. Bell and Lauren Lapointe-Shaw discuss the meaning of the "weekend effect" in outcomes for hospital admissions and surgeries, and comment on surprising new results published in PLOS Medicine this week.

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<![CDATA[Revisiting aneuploidy profile of surgically retrieved spermatozoa by whole exome sequencing molecular karyotype]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bddd5eed0c48491eb66

Previous studies, including our own, have reported that spermatozoa isolated from the testis have remarkably higher occurrence of aneuploidy once isolated from azoospermic men. This notion, however, did not translate into a lower pregnancy rate nor a greater proportion of miscarriages. Indeed, ICSI offspring generated from surgically retrieved gametes did not suffer from increased karyotypic aneuploidy than children generated from ejaculated specimens. In recent years, aneuploidy assessments on a larger number of cells and utilizing more chromosome probes have reported a progressive decrease in chromosomal aberrations in spermatozoa directly retrieved from the seminiferous tubules. In light of the availability of more accurate molecular genetic techniques, we have decided to challenge the notion that sampling epididymal and testicular tissues yields spermatozoa with higher incidence of aneuploidy than those retrieved in the ejaculate. In a retrospective manner, we have carried out an analysis by FISH with 9 chromosome probes on at least 1000 cells from the ejaculates of 87 consenting men and the specimens of 6 azoospermic men, while spermatozoa of fertile donors were used as control. Aneuploidy by FISH yielded 0.9% for the donor control but rose in the study group to 3.6% in the ejaculated, 1.2% for the epididymal, and 1.1% for testicular spermatozoa. There were no differences in autosomal or gonosomal disomies, nor nullisomies. In this group, once the specimens of these men were used for ICSI, ejaculated spermatozoa yielded a 22% clinical pregnancy rate that resulted in 62.5% pregnancy loss. The surgically retrieved specimens yielded a 50% clinical pregnancy rate that progressed to term. To confirm our findings, in a prospective analysis, DNA sequencing was carried out on the ejaculates and surgical samples of 22 men with various spermatogenic characteristics. In this comparison, the findings were similar with actually a higher incidence of aneuploidy in the ejaculated spermatozoa (n = 16) compared to those surgically retrieved (n = 6) (P<0.0001). For this group, the clinical pregnancy rate for the ejaculated specimens was 47.2% with 29.4% pregnancy loss, while the surgically retrieved yielded a 50% clinical pregnancy rate, all progressing to term. A subsequent prospective combined assessment on ejaculated and surgically retrieved spermatozoa by FISH and NGS was performed on non-azoospermic men with high DNA fragmentation in their ejaculate. The assessment by FISH evidenced 2.8% chromosomal defects in the ejaculated and 1.2% in testicular biopsies while by NGS became 8.4% and 1.3% (P = 0.02), respectively. Interestingly, we evidenced a pregnancy rate of 0% with ejaculated while 100% with the testicular spermatozoa in this latter group. This indicates that improved techniques for assessing sperm aneuploidy on a wider number of cells disproves earlier reports and corroborates the safe utilization of testicular spermatozoa with a positive impact on chances of pregnancy.

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<![CDATA[Mode of delivery and offspring adiposity in late adolescence: The modifying role of maternal pre-pregnancy body size]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7c2d5eed0c484490c0d

Objective

To study the association between mode of delivery and offspring BMI in late adolescence in a large cohort that predated the obesity epidemic, and assess the role of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (ppBMI) in this association.

Study design

We conducted a historical prospective study in the setting of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (JPS), a population-based cohort that includes all 17,003 births to residents of West Jerusalem, between 1974 and 1976. Offspring’s BMI at age 17 was obtained upon army recruitment and was available for 11,001 of cohort participants. The associations were examined using logistic regressions, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and for proxies for indication for C-Section birth. Analyses were then stratified by quartiles of ppBMI.

Results

C-Section was associated with offspring overweight/obesity, with adjusted OR of 1.44 (95%CI:1.14–1.82). Significant interaction of ppBMI with mode of delivery was observed, such that the associations of C-Section with overweight/obesity were limited to the upper quartile of ppBMI (adjusted OR = 1.70, 95%CI:1.18–2.43). Restricting the analyses to singleton first births and excluding pregnancies complicated with toxemia and gestational diabetes yielded similar findings.

Conclusions

C-Section was positively associated with being overweight/obese at age 17. Importantly, ppBMI modified this association, with a significant association between C-Section and overweight/obesity evident only among offspring born to mothers in the highest ppBMI quartile. In light of the growing rates of obesity in women of reproductive age, these results should be considered in patient-doctor shared decisions related to selection of mode of delivery, in the absence of a clear medical indication.

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<![CDATA[Predicting peripartum blood transfusion in women undergoing cesarean delivery: A risk prediction model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b51d5eed0c4846eb57d

Objective

There has been an appreciable rise in postpartum hemorrhage requiring blood transfusions in the United States. Our objective is to better define patients at greatest risk for peripartum transfusion at the time of cesarean in order to identify cases for early intervention and monitoring.

Methods

Our study is a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study. Cases of intraoperative and immediate postpartum blood transfusion among women undergoing cesarean delivery were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify antepartum and intrapartum risk factors that were independently associated with blood transfusion. A risk calculator was then developed to predict the need for transfusion.

Results

Of 56,967 women, 1488 (2.6%) required any blood transfusion. The strongest risk factors for peripartum blood transfusion included anemia (odds ratio [OR] 3.7, 95% CI 3.3–4.3), abruption on presentation (OR 3.3, CI 2.6–4.1), general anesthesia (OR 5.2, CI 4.4–6.1) and abnormal placentation (OR 92.0, CI 57.4–147.6). An antepartum (model 1) and combined antepartum plus intrapartum risk model (model 2) were developed (model 1 AUC = 0.77, model 2 AUC = 0.83) and internally validated.

Conclusions

Among women who required cesarean delivery, we were able to identify risk factors which predispose women to peripartum blood transfusion and developed a prediction model with good discrimination.

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<![CDATA[Uterine rupture among mothers admitted for obstetrics care and associated factors in referral hospitals of Amhara regional state, institution-based cross-sectional study, Northern Ethiopia, 2013-2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028c2d5eed0c484248048

Background

Maternal morbidity and mortality have been one of the most challenging health problems that concern the globe over the years. Uterine rupture is one of the peripartum complications, which cause nearly about one out of thirteen maternal deaths. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of uterine rupture among obstetric case in referral hospitals of Amhara Regional State, Northern Ethiopia.

Methods

Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from Dec 5-2017-Jan 5–2018 on uterine rupture. During the study randomly selected 750 charts were included by using simple random sampling method. Data were checked, coded and entered into Epi info version 7.2 and then exported to SPSS Version 20 for Analysis. Binary Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of uterine rupture and 95% Confidence Interval of odds ratio at p-value less than 0.05 was taken as a significance level.

Result

The overall prevalence of uterine rupture was 16.68% (95% CI: 14%, 19.2%). Distance from health facility >10km (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.44; 95%CI:1.13,5.28), parity between II and IV (AOR = 7.26;95% (3.06,17.22)) and ≥V (AOR = 12.55;95% CI 3.64,43.20), laboring for >24hours(AO = 3.44; 95% CI:1.49,7.92), with referral paper(AOR = 2.94;95%CI:1.28,6.55) diagnosed with obstructed labor (AOR = 4.88;95%CI: 2.22,10.70), precipitated labor (AOR = 3.59;95%CI:1.10,11.77), destructive delivery (AOR = 5.18;95%: 1.22,20.08), No partograph (AOR = 5.21; 95% CI: 2.72,9.97), CPD(AOR = 4.08;95%CI:1.99,8.33), morbidly adherent placenta (AOR = 9.00;95%:2.46,27.11), gestational diabetic militias (AOR = 5.78; 95%CI:1. 12,20 .00 ), history of myomectomy(AOR = 5.00;95%CI:1.33,18.73), induction and augmentation of labor (AOR = 2.34;95%:1.15,4.72) obstetric procedure (AOR = 2.54;95%: 1.09,5.91), previous caesarian deliveries 4.90 (2.13,11.26) were found to be significantly associated with uterine rupture.

Conclusion

This finding showed that the prevalence of uterine rupture is higher. A more vigilant approach to prevent prolonged and obstructed labor, use of partograph, quick referral to a well-equipped center and prevention of other obstetrics complications need to be focused on.

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<![CDATA[Improving the calling of non-invasive prenatal testing on 13-/18-/21-trisomy by support vector machine discrimination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b86d5eed0c48469989c

With the advance of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been developed and employed in fetal aneuploidy screening on 13-/18-/21-trisomies through detecting cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood. Although Z-test is widely used in NIPT NGS data analysis, there is still necessity to improve its accuracy for reducing a) false negatives and false positives, and b) the ratio of unclassified data, so as to lower the potential harm to patients as well as the induced cost of retests. Combining the multiple Z-tests with indexes of clinical signs and quality control, features were collected from the known samples and scaled for model training using support vector machine (SVM). We trained SVM models from the qualified NIPT NGS data that Z-test can discriminate and tested the performance on the data that Z-test cannot discriminate. On screenings of 13-/18-/21-trisomies, the trained SVM models achieved 100% accuracies in both internal validations and unknown sample predictions. It is shown that other machine learning (ML) models can also achieve similar high accuracy, and SVM model is most robust in this study. Moreover, four false positives and four false negatives caused by Z-test were corrected by using the SVM models. To our knowledge, this is one of the earliest studies to employ SVM in NIPT NGS data analysis. It is expected to replace Z-test in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Ovarian reserve after uterine artery embolization in women with morbidly adherent placenta: A cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993cbd5eed0c4842ad977

Objective

To evaluate ovarian reserve in women after preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization due to morbidly adherent placenta.

Study design

A historical cohort study including all women admitted to a single tertiary care center, with morbidly adherent placenta that had preservative cesarean delivery with bilateral uterine artery embolization. Inclusion criteria included gestational age >24 weeks, singleton pregnancy and placenta increta / percreta. Exclusion criteria included maternal age > 43 years old and cesarean hysterectomy. Control group included women attending the infertility clinic due to male factor or single women conceiving via sperm donation, matched by age. Blood samples were collected on day 2–5 of menstruations for hormonal profile and Anti Mullarian Hormone (AMH) levels. Primary outcome was ovarian reserve evaluated by the levels of AMH.

Results

59 women underwent preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization during the study period. 21 women met inclusion criteria (33.9%) and were matched controls (n = 40). Circulating levels of E2 and FSH did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.665, p = 0.396, respectively). AMH was lower in the study group (median 0.8 IQR 0.44–1.80) compared to the controls (median 2.08 IQR 1.68–3.71) (p = 0.001). This finding was consistent in linear multivariate regression analysis where the group of cesarean delivery using bilateral artery embolization due to placenta accrete was significantly predictive for the levels of AMH (B = -1.308, p = 0.012).

Conclusion

Women post preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization due to placenta accrete have lower ovarian reserve compare to controls matched by age.

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<![CDATA[Cesarean delivery rate and staffing levels of the maternity unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c08421fd5eed0c484fcbd99

Objective

To investigate whether staffing levels of maternity units affect prelabor urgent, elective, and intrapartum cesarean delivery rates.

Methods

This population-based retrospective cohort study covers the deliveries of the 11 hospitals of a French perinatal network in 2008–2014 (N = 102 236). The independent variables were women’s demographic and medical characteristics as well as the type, organization, and staffing levels for obstetricians, anesthesiologists, and midwives of each maternity unit. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted with multilevel logistic models.

Results

Overall, 23.9% of the women had cesarean deliveries (2.4% urgent before labor, 10% elective, and 11.5% intrapartum). Independently of individual- and hospital-level factors, the level of obstetricians, measured by the number of full-time equivalent persons (i.e., 35 working hours per week) per 100 deliveries, was negatively associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 0.55, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.36–0.83, P-value = 0.005), and the level of midwives negatively associated with elective cesarean delivery (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69–0.90, P-value < 0.001). Accordingly, a 10% increase in obstetrician and midwife staff levels, respectively, would have been associated with a decrease in the likelihood of intrapartum cesarean delivery by 2.5 percentage points and that of elective cesarean delivery by 3.4 percentage points. These changes represent decreases in intrapartum and elective cesarean delivery rates of 19% (from 13.1% to 10.6%) and 33% (from 10.3% to 6.9%), respectively.

Conclusion

Staffing levels of maternity units affect the use of cesarean deliveries. High staffing levels for obstetricians and midwives are associated with lower cesarean rates.

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<![CDATA[Maternal Clinical Diagnoses and Hospital Variation in the Risk of Cesarean Delivery: Analyses of a National US Hospital Discharge Database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d1ab0ee8fa60b644b3

Katy Kozhimannil and colleagues use a national database to examine the extent to which variability in cesarean section rates across the US from 2009–2010 was attributable to individual women's clinical diagnoses.

Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

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<![CDATA[Adverse Perinatal Outcome in Subsequent Pregnancy after Stillbirth by Placental Vascular Disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da85ab0ee8fa60b9c12a

Objective

To evaluate outcome in the pregnancy following a stillbirth (SB) by a placental vascular disorders.

Study Design

A prospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted in woman with a history of stillbirth (> 22 weeks) between 2005 and June 2013, in 3 Italian University Hospitals. Causes of SB were previously identified after extensive investigations. Pregnant women were enrolled within the first trimester. The main outcome was “adverse neonatal outcome”, including perinatal death, fetal growth restriction, early preterm birth <33+6 weeks, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, intracranial hemorrhage or respiratory distress.

Results

Out of 364 index pregnancies, 320 women (87.9%) had a subsequent pregnancy during the study period. Forty-seven had an early pregnancy loss. Out of 273 babies, 67 (24.5%) had an adverse perinatal outcome, including 1 SB and 1 early neonatal death (3.7/1000).

Women who had a SB related to placental vascular disorders (39.6%), were at higher risk of an adverse neonatal outcome compared with women whose SB was unexplained or resulted from other causes (Adj. OR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2–3.8). Moreover, also obesity independently predicts an adverse perinatal outcome (Adj OR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.1–4.3).

Conclusion

When previous SB is related to placental vascular disorders there is a high risk for adverse neonatal outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy. Maternal obesity is an additional risk factor.

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<![CDATA[Semaphorin 3F expression is reduced in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. An observational clinical study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc177

Background and objective

Preeclampsia is a systemic disorder, affecting 2–10% of pregnancies, characterized by a deregulated pro- and anti-angiogenic balance. Semaphorin 3F is an angiogenesis inhibitor. We aimed to investigate whether semaphorin 3F expression is modulated in preeclampsia.

Design, setting, participants, and measurements

We performed two observational single center cohort studies between March 2013 and August 2014. In the first we enrolled 110 consecutive women, undergoing an elective cesarean section; in the second we included 150 consecutive women undergoing amniocentesis for routine clinical indications at 16–18 week of gestation. Semaphorin 3F concentration was evaluated in maternal peripheral blood, venous umbilical blood and amniotic fluid, along with its placenta protein expression at the time of delivery in the first study group and in the amniotic fluid at 16–18 weeks of gestation in the second study group.

Results

In the first study 19 patients presented at delivery with preeclampsia. Semaphorin 3F placenta tissue expression was significantly reduced in preeclampsia. In addition, semaphorin 3F level at delivery was significantly lower in serum, amniotic fluid and venous umbilical blood of preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. In the prospective cohort study 14 women developed preeclampsia. In this setting, semaphorin 3F amniotic level at 16–18 weeks of gestation was reduced in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared to women with a normal pregnancy. ROC curve analysis showed that semaphorin 3F amniotic levels could identify women at higher risk of preeclampsia.

Conclusions

Semaphorin 3F might represent a predictive biomarker of preeclampsia.

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<![CDATA[Gender Associated with the Intention to Choose a Medical Specialty in Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in 11 Countries in Latin America]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4cab0ee8fa60bda81c

Introduction

The selection of a medical specialty has been associated with multiple factors, such as personal preferences, academic exposure, motivational factors and sociodemographic factors, such as gender. The number of women in the medical field has increased in recent years. In Latin America, we have not found any studies that explore this relationship.

Objective

To determine whether there is an association between gender and the intention to choose a medical specialty in medical students from 11 countries in Latin America.

Methods

Secondary analysis of the Collaborative Working Group for the Research of Human Resources for Health (Red-LIRHUS) data; a multi-country project of students in their first year and fifth year of study, from 63 medical schools in 11 Latin American countries. All students who referred intention to choose a certain medical specialty were considered as participants.

Results

Of the 11073 surveyed students, 9235 indicated the name of a specific specialty. The specialties chosen most often in the fifth year were General Surgery (13.0%), Pediatrics (11.0%), Internal Medicine (10.3%) and Obstetrics/Gynecology (9.0%). For women, the top choices were Pediatrics (15.8%), Obstetrics/Gynecology (11.0%), Cardiology (8.7%), General Surgery (8.6%), and Oncology (6.4%). In the adjusted analysis, the female gender was associated with the choice of Obstetrics/Gynecology (RP: 2.75; IC95%: 2.24–3.39); Pediatric Surgery (RP: 2.19; IC95%: 1.19–4.00), Dermatology (RP: 1.91; IC95%:1.24–2.93), Pediatrics (RP: 1.83; IC95%: 1.56–2.17), and Oncology (RP: 1.37; IC95%: 1.10–1.71).

Conclusions

There is an association between the female gender and the intention to choose Obstetrics/Gynecology, Pediatrics, Pediatric Surgery, Dermatology, and Oncology. We recommend conducting studies that consider other factors that can influence the choice of a medical specialty.

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