ResearchPad - ocular-system https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Inferring a simple mechanism for alpha-blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13836 One of the most striking features of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) is the presence of neural oscillations in the range of 8-13 Hz. It is well known that attenuation of these alpha oscillations, a process known as alpha blocking, arises from opening of the eyes, though the cause has remained obscure. In this study we infer the mechanism underlying alpha blocking by fitting a neural population model to EEG spectra from 82 different individuals. Although such models have long held the promise of being able to relate macroscopic recordings of brain activity to microscopic neural parameters, their utility has been limited by the difficulty of inferring these parameters from fits to data. Our approach involves fitting eyes-open and eyes-closed EEG spectra in a way that minimizes unnecessary differences in model parameters between the two states. Surprisingly, we find that changes in just one parameter, the level of external input to the inhibitory neurons in cortex, is sufficient to explain the attenuation of alpha oscillations. This indicates that opening of the eyes reduces alpha activity simply by increasing external inputs to the inhibitory neurons in the cortex.

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<![CDATA[The qualitative assessment of optical coherence tomography and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7697 To analyze the relationships between qualitative and quantitative parameters of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).Materials and methodsNinety-three eyes of 93 patients were finally enrolled, with a median age (quartile) of 58 (24.5) years. We assessed the patients using SD-OCT and the 10–2 program of a Humphry Field Analyzer (HFA). As a qualitative parameter, two graders independently classified the patients’ SD-OCT images into five severity grades (grades 1–5) based on the severity of damage to the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) layer. As quantitative parameters, we measured the IS-ellipsoid zone (IS-EZ) width, IS/OS thickness, outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, central macular thickness (CMT, 1 and 3 mm) and macular cube (6 × 6 mm) volume and thickness. The central retinal sensitivity was defined by the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logMAR), average sensitivities of the central 4 (foveal sensitivity [FS]) and 12 (macular sensitivity [MS]) points of the HFA 10–2 program and the mean deviation (MD) of the 10–2 program. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the association between both qualitative and quantitative parameters and variables of the central retinal sensitivity. In addition, we performed a multiple regression analysis using these parameters to identify the parameters most strongly influencing the central retinal sensitivity.ResultsThe IS/OS severity grade was significantly correlated with the BCVA (ρ = 0.741, P < 0.001), FS (ρ = −0.844, P < 0.001), MS (ρ = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (ρ = −0.681, P < 0.001) and showed stronger correlations to them than any other quantitative parameters including the IS-EZ width, IS/OS thickness, ONL thickness, CMTs and macular cube volume/thickness. Furthermore, a step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that the IS/OS severity grade was more strongly associated with the BCVA (β = 0.659, P < 0.001), FS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001), MS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (β = −0.674, P < 0.001) than any other quantitative parameters. The intraclass correlation coefficient between two graders indicated substantial correlation (κ = 0.70).DiscussionThe qualitative grading of OCT based on the severity of the IS/OS layer was simple and strongly correlated with the central retinal sensitivity in patients with RP. It may be useful to assess the central visual function in patients with RP, although there is some variation in severity within the same severity grade. ]]> <![CDATA[Emotional facial perception development in 7, 9 and 11 year-old children: The emergence of a silent eye-tracked emotional other-race effect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7635 The present study examined emotional facial perception (happy and angry) in 7, 9 and 11-year-old children from Caucasian and multicultural environments with an offset task for two ethnic groups of faces (Asian and Caucasian). In this task, participants were required to respond to a dynamic facial expression video when they believed that the first emotion presented had disappeared. Moreover, using an eye-tracker, we evaluated the ocular behavior pattern used to process these different faces. The analyses of reaction times do not show an emotional other-race effect (i.e., a facility in discriminating own-race faces over to other-race ones) in Caucasian children for Caucasian vs. Asian faces through offset times, but an effect of emotional face appeared in the oldest children. Furthermore, an eye-tracked ocular emotion and race-effect relative to processing strategies is observed and evolves between age 7 and 11. This study strengthens the interest in advancing an eye-tracking study in developmental and emotional processing studies, showing that even a “silent” effect should be detected and shrewdly analyzed through an objective means.

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<![CDATA[Changes in human health parameters associated with an immersive exhibit experience at a zoological institution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69289aa2-a5fc-4464-abf6-42bfa80ae1ee

Zoological institutions often use immersive, naturalistic exhibits to create an inclusive atmosphere that is inviting for visitors while providing for the welfare of animals in their collections. In this study, we investigated physiological changes in salivary cortisol and blood pressure, as well as psychological changes among visitors before and after a walk through the River’s Edge, an immersive, naturalistic exhibit at the Saint Louis Zoo. Study participants had a significant reduction in salivary cortisol and blood pressure after walking through the exhibit. Psychological assessments of mood found that most visitors felt happier, more energized, and less tense after the visit. Additionally, participants who spent more time in River’s Edge, had visited River’s Edge prior to the study, and had seen more exhibits at the Zoo prior to entering River’s Edge experienced greater psychological and/or physiological benefits. We conclude that immersive, naturalistic exhibits in zoos can elicit positive changes in physiological and psychological measures of health and well-being and argue for a greater scientific focus on the role of zoos and other green spaces in human health.

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<![CDATA[Neuroprotective effects of exogenous erythropoietin in Wistar rats by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated retinal ganglion cells death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N85685bba-c047-422b-abfc-358a98ed1fe7

The aim of this study was to investigate whether exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) administration attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage in Wistar rats. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were investigated by flat mount analysis and flow cytometry. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: negative control, NMDA80 (i.e., 80 nmoles NMDA intravitreally injected), NMDA80 + 10ng EPO, NMDA80 + 50ng EPO, and NMDA80 + 250ng EPO. The NMDA80 + 50ng EPO treatment group was used to evaluate various administrated points (pre-/co-/post- administration of NMDA80). Meanwhile, the transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay of RGCs, the inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and the apoptotic signal transduction pathways of μ-calpain, Bax, and caspase 9 were assessed simultaneously using an immunohistochemical method (IHC). When EPO was co-administered with NMDA80, attenuated cell death occurred through the downregulation of the apoptotic indicators: μ-calpain was activated first (peak at ~18hrs), followed by Bax and caspase 9 (peak at ~40hrs). Furthermore, the images of retinal cross sections have clearly demonstrated that thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) was significantly recovered at 40 hours after receiving intravitreal injection with NMDA80 and 50ng EPO. Exogenous EPO may protect RGCs and bipolar cell axon terminals in IPL by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate NMDA-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of availability, awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding preschool vision screening in Kumasi, Ghana: An exploratory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N637f6c02-dcec-48f9-ae4a-5e42bca666db

Background

Regardless of the importance of preschool vision screening (PSVS), there is limited data on the current state of these programs in Africa (particularly Ghana). This study sought to investigate the level of awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding PSVS, its availability and related policies/programmes in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study included 100 systematically sampled preschools in the metropolis (using probability proportional-to-size method); 72 private schools and 28 public schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit stakeholders of preschools (teachers, head teachers, proprietors, administrators, directors, and educationists), and were interviewed using a well-structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to all eligible respondents who were present at the time of data collection.

Results

A total of 344 respondents participated in the study; 123 (35.8%) males and 221 (64.2%) females. The overall mean age of respondents was 37.63 ±12.20 years (18–71 years). Of the respondents, 215 (62.5%), 94 (27.3%), and 35 (10.2%) were enrolled from private schools, public schools, and Metropolitan Education Directorate, respectively. 73.8% of respondents reported the absence of routine PSVS in schools whereas 90.1% reported no written policies for PSVS in schools. Only 63.6% of respondents were aware of PSVS whereas more than half (59.6%) of all respondents perceived PSVS to be very important for preschoolers. Private school ownership was significantly associated with availability of PSVS whereas age, teachers, private school ownership, and preschool experience > 10 years were significantly associated with awareness of PSVS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between sociodemographic factors and perception of PSVS.

Conclusion

PSVS is largely unavailable in most Ghanaian schools. Majority of stakeholders were aware of PSVS and agreed to its implementation and incorporation into schools’ health programmes. There is the need to implement a national programme/policy on preschool vision screening in Ghana.

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<![CDATA[Gaze direction reveals implicit item and source memory in older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6bd49f6-c3a2-422e-9a90-0c981119f651

This study looked at eye movements in relation to source memory in older adults. Participants first studied images of common objects appearing in different quadrants of a screen. After a delay, they were shown cues one at a time presented in all four quadrants. Participants stated whether or not the cue had been seen before and in which location. Participants also rated level of confidence in their responses. In trials where participants either claimed they have not seen a previously presented cue or placed it in an incorrect location, they looked significantly more at the correct quadrant. The proportion of time looking at the correct quadrants during incorrect responses was not related to confidence ratings. These results suggest that eye gaze during the memory task does not reflect memory retrieval below the threshold of verbal report. They instead point to an implicit form of source memory in humans that is accessible to eye movements but not to verbal responses.

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<![CDATA[Autosomal recessive congenital cataracts linked to HSF4 in a consanguineous Pakistani family]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na302ecef-6336-4a97-9663-2461453833de

Purpose

To investigate the genetic basis of autosomal recessive congenital cataracts (arCC) in a large consanguineous Pakistani family.

Methods

All participating members of family, PKCC074 underwent an ophthalmic examination. Slit-lamp photographs were ascertained for affected individuals that have not been operated for the removal of the cataractous lens. A small aliquot of the blood sample was collected from all participating individuals and genomic DNAs were extracted. A genome-wide scan was performed with polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers and the logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated. All coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of HSF4 were sequenced and expression of Hsf4 in mouse ocular lens was investigated. The C-terminal FLAG-tagged wild-type and mutant HSF4b constructs were prepared to examine the nuclear localization pattern of the mutant protein.

Results

The ophthalmological examinations suggested that nuclear cataracts are present in affected individuals. Genome-wide linkage analyses localized the critical interval to a 10.95 cM (14.17 Mb) interval on chromosome 16q with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.51 at θ = 0. Sanger sequencing identified a novel missense mutation: c.433G>C (p.Ala145Pro) that segregated with the disease phenotype in the family and was not present in ethnically matched controls. Real-time PCR analysis identified the expression of HSF4 in mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 with a steady level of expression thereafter. The immunofluorescence tracking confirmed that both wild-type and mutant HSF4 (p.Ala145Pro) proteins localized to the nucleus.

Conclusion

Here, we report a novel missense mutation in HSF4 associated with arCC in a familial case of Pakistani descent.

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<![CDATA[Ocular surface and tear film changes in workers exposed to organic solvents used in the dry-cleaning industry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6840e79e-1c57-49df-9829-1ba3fd26bb8e

Workers in the dry-cleaning industry are exposed to organic solvents that may cause eye irritation and tear film changes. Objective To quantify changes in the ocular surface and tear film in dry cleaners exposed to organic solvents and associate these changes with ocular irritation as reported in a symptom questionnaire for dry eye diagnosis. Methods This was a case and control study in which the characteristics and eye-irritation symptoms were compared between two groups of 62 participants that were either exposed or not exposed to organic solvents. A general optometric examination and the following test were performed: lipid interferometry, Lissamine Green Stain, tear breakup time, Schirmer I, conjunctival impression cytology and the Donate dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Results Sixty-five percent of exposed workers obtained a higher score than 13 on the Donate dry eye symptoms questionnaire which indicated the presence of more irritation symptoms than those in the non- exposed group. A Chi-square analysis indicated the exposed group reported significantly higher incidences (P <0.005) for eye irritation symptoms of sandy sensation; tearing eyes sensation; foreign body sensation; tearing; dry eye; dryness; eyestrain and heavy eyelids. A Mann Whitney-U indicated greater severity only for symptoms relating to dry eye; sandy sensation; foreign body sensation, tearing; tearing eyes and dryness. There was a statistically significant difference (P <0.05) for Schirmer I; tear break up time; and the ocular surface assessed with Lissamine green staining and conjunctival impression cytology between groups. A reduction in the thickness of the lipid layer in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group was observed. Surprisingly, clinical test outcomes were not significantly correlated with dry eye symptoms nor years of exposure. Conclusion Workers in the dry-cleaning industry exposed to organic solvents are associated with changes in ocular surface and tear film generating irritation symptoms commonly present in evaporative dry eye.

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<![CDATA[Altruistic decisions are influenced by the allocation of monetary incentives in a pain-sharing game]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897771d5eed0c4847d2ce9

Background

Altruistic behavior is essential to the sustainability of society, but our current understanding of its underlying motivation is limited. In addition to the intrinsic motives to help others, based on empathy, extrinsic motives such as monetary incentives and social reputation influence prosociality. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying motivations of prosocial behavior under constant or increasing extrinsic motivation settings.

Methods

An experimental task, Altruistic Pain Sharing, was developed in which the participants were asked to share the other participants’ pain. In the session with monetary incentives, the incentives were given either constantly (CONSTANT condition) or proportionally (INCREASING condition), to the amount of shared pain. In addition, monetary incentives were not provided in the NO session. The participants experienced different amounts of mechanical pain at the beginning of the task and chose the number of pain stimulations to share, based on their experiences.

Results

Compared to the NO session, the INCREASING session exhibited a rise in the mean of shared pain, but not the CONSTANT session. Furthermore, there was a distinct tendency to receive less pain than the other participant in the CONSTANT session, and a tendency to receive more pain than the other participant in the INCREASING session.

Conclusion

Prosocial behavior was influenced by the presence, as well as the form, of the extrinsic monetary incentives. Our study shows that rewards incentivize individuals to demonstrate a higher level of prosocial behavior, implying that prosocial behavior is itself a mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and that an effectively designed rewards system may function to enhance prosocial behavior.

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<![CDATA[Transient expression of Wnt5a elicits ocular features of pseudoexfoliation syndrome in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897767d5eed0c4847d2c07

Purpose

Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome is an age-related systemic disease with ocular manifestations. The development of animal models is critical in order to elucidate the cause of the disease and to test potential treatment regimens. The purpose of this study is to report phenotypes found in mouse eyes injected with Adenovirus coding Wnt5a. Some of the phenotypes resemble those found in PEX patients while others are different.

Methods

Recombinant Adenovirus coding Wnt5a or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected into mouse eyes. Two months after the injection, eyes were examined for PEX phenotypes using slit lamp, fluorescence stereomicroscope, histological staining, immunostaining and transmission electron microscope.

Result

Certain ocular features of PEX syndrome were found in mouse eyes injected with recombinant Adenovirus coding Wnt5a. These features include accumulation of exfoliation-like extracellular material on surfaces of anterior segment structures and its dispersion in the anterior chamber, saw-tooth appearance and disrupted basement membrane of the posterior iris pigment epithelium, iris stromal atrophy and disorganized ciliary zonules. Ultrastructure analysis of the exfoliation material revealed that the microfibril structure found in this model was different from those of PEX patients.

Conclusion

These features, resembling signs of ocular PEX syndrome in patients, suggest that new information obtained from this study will be helpful for developing better mouse models for PEX syndrome.

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<![CDATA[Infectious human adenoviruses are shed in urine even after disappearance of urethral symptoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977a3d5eed0c4847d322b

Background

Urethritis is a common sexually transmitted disease, and human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been found to be associated with nonchlamydial nongonococcal urethritis. However, the level and viability of HAdV in the urine of patients with urethritis remain unclear.

Methods

Male patients with urethritis and an asymptomatic group were screened using their First-void urine (FVU) for urethritis-related pathogens to identify those with HAdV DNA. FVU and gargle fluid were collected from all patients including from those in the asymptomatic group. A swab of eye discharge was also collected from patients with eye symptoms. The pharyngeal and/ or ocular fluid was also screened only in cases in which FVU was positive for HAdV DNA. HAdVs were isolated using A549 cell lines and typed by sequencing, and viral shedding during 2 years was quantified using real-time PCR. The prevalence of HAdV was assessed in the urethritis and asymptomatic groups, and viral load, isolated HAdV types, and urethral symptoms were compared between the groups.

Results

The positive detection rate of HAdV DNA was significantly higher in the urethritis group than in the asymptomatic group. Of 398 patients with urethritis, HAdV was isolated in all 32 cases (23 cases in which only HAdV DNA was detected with a mean of 2 × 109 copies/mL in urine samples). Of 124 control cases, one had HAdV monoinfection. The most frequently detected HAdV type was 56, followed by types 37 and 64. Regarding the relationship between symptoms and isolated HAdVs, the virus was isolated for up to 12 days after urethritis symptoms disappeared.

Conclusions

HAdVs were significantly detected and isolated from the FVU of patients with urethritis. Furthermore, high levels of infectious HAdVs are excreted in urine for a long period even after urethritis symptoms disappear.

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<![CDATA[Generation of TGFBI knockout ABCG2+/ABCB5+ double-positive limbal epithelial stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7575d5eed0c4843cfdce

Corneal dystrophy is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI) gene on chromosome 5q31.8. This disease is therefore ideally suited for gene therapy using genome-editing technology. Here, we isolated human limbal epithelial stem cells (ABCG2+/ABCB5+ double-positive LESCs) and established a TGFBI knockout using RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing. An LESC clone generated with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exon 4 of the TGFBI gene was sequenced in order to identify potential genomic insertions and deletions near the Cas9/sgRNA-target sites. A detailed analysis of the differences between wild type LESCs and the single LESC clone modified by the TGFBI-targeting sgRNA revealed two distinct mutations, an 8 bp deletion and a 14 bp deletion flanked by a single point mutation. These mutations each lead to a frameshift missense mutation and generate premature stop codons downstream in exon 4. To validate the TGFBI knockout LESC clone, we used single cell culture to isolate four individual sub-clones, each of which was found to possess both mutations present in the parent clone, indicating that the population is homogenous. Furthermore, we confirmed that TGFBI protein expression is abolished in the TGFBI knockout LESC clone using western blot analysis. Collectively, our results suggest that genome editing of TGFBI in LESCs by CRISPR/Cas9 may be useful strategy to treat corneal dystrophy.

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<![CDATA[Surgical management of intraocular lens dislocation: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe14d5eed0c484e5b438

Purpose

To compare the efficacy and safety of intraocular lens (IOL) repositioning and IOL exchange for the treatment of patients with IOL dislocation.

Methods

We systematically searched for relevant publications in English or Chinese in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trial Registration Platform, Clinical Trial.gov, China Biology Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database and grey literature sources. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE template for observational studies and the Cochrane template for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3.

Results

The review included 14 English-language studies reporting 1 RCT and 13 retrospective case series involving 1,082 eyes. Average follow-up time was 13.7 months. Pooled analysis of 10 studies showed that the two procedures had a similarly effect on best corrected visual acuity (MD -0.00, 95%CI: -0.08 to 0.08, P = 0.99). Pooled analysis of nine studies showed no significant difference in incidence of IOL redislocation (RR 2.12, 95%CI 0.85 to 5.30, P = 0.11); pooled analysis of seven studies showed greater extent of incidence of cystoid macular edema in IOL exchange (RR 0.47, 95%CI 0.21 to 1.30, P = 0.06). Pooled analysis of three studies showed greater extent of incidence of anterior vitrectomy in IOL exchange (RR 0.11, 95%CI 0.04 to 0.33, P<0.0001). Pooled analysis of two studies showed greater postoperative spherical equivalents in IOL repositioning (MD 1.02, 95%CI 0.51 to 1.52, P<0.0001). pooled analysis suggested no significant differences between the two procedures in terms of intraocular pressure, endothelial cell density, surgically induced astigmatism, or incidence of retinal detachment, intraocular hemorrhage or pupillary block.

Conclusion

IOL repositioning and exchange are safe and effective procedures for treating IOL dislocation. Neither procedure significantly affects best corrected visual acuity and IOL redislocation. IOL exchange was superior to repositioning in terms of postoperative SE, but IOL repositioning was associated with lower incidence of anterior vitrectomy, potentially lower incidence of cystoid macular edema.

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<![CDATA[Facial cues to age perception using three-dimensional analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9add5eed0c484529fdc

To clarify cues for age perception, the three-dimensional head and face forms of Japanese women were analyzed. It is known that age-related transformations are mainly caused by changes in soft tissue during adulthood. A homologous polygon model was created by fitting template meshes to each study participant to obtain three-dimensional data for analyzing whole head and face forms. Using principal component analysis of the vertices coordinates of these models, 26 principal components were extracted (contribution ratios >0.5%), which accounted for more than 90% of the total variance. Among the principal components, five had a significant correlation with the perceived ages of the participants (p < 0.05). Transformations with these principal components in the age-related direction produced aged faces. Moreover, the older the perceived age, the larger the ratio of age-manifesting participants, namely participants who had one or more age-related principal component score greater than +1.0 σ in the age-related direction. Therefore, these five principal components were regarded as aging factors. A cluster analysis of the five aging factors revealed that all of the participants fell into one of four groups, meaning that specific combinations of factors could be used as cues for age perception in each group. These results suggest that Japanese women can be classified into four groups according to age-related transformations of soft tissue in the face.

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<![CDATA[The association of choroidal structure and its response to anti-VEGF treatment with the short-time outcome in pachychoroid neovasculopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f14b7d5eed0c48467a726

Pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) shares some anatomical features with other pachychoroid spectrum diseases, but little is known about the characteristics on the treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the effect of choroidal structure and responses to anti-VEGF on the prognosis of pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) and other types of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (non-PNV). Twenty-one eyes with PNV and 34 eyes with non-PNV who had anti-VEGF treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) area at baseline was measured with fluorescein angiography (FAG). The luminal and stromal area in the choroid was measured by enhanced-depth-imaging (EDI) OCT at baseline and 1 month. The association between dry macula or LogMAR VA (visual acuity, VA) at 1 month and baseline values or changes in the luminal or stromal area at 1 month, baseline CNV area, or anti-VEGF drugs were analyzed in patients with or without PNV. In non-PNV, change of luminal area (coefficient = 7.0×10−5, p = 0.0001), baseline CNV area (coefficient = 0.18, p = 0.033), and aflibercept vs. ranibizumab (coefficient = 0.29, p = 0.0048) were chosen as predictors for dry macula by the model selection. Similarly, in non-PNV, change of luminal area (coefficient = 6.1×10−6, p = 0.033), baseline CNV area (coefficient = 0.034, p = 0.022), and aflibercept vs. ranibizumab (coefficient = 0.056, p = 0.0020) were chosen as predictors for greater VA improvement. In PNV, however, none of these factors was chosen as predictors for dry macula or VA improvement by the model selection. The result of the present study implied that structural response after anti-VEGF might be different between non-PNV and PNV in the treatment with anti-VEGF agents.

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<![CDATA[Preoperative estimation of distance between retinal break and limbus with wide-field fundus imaging: Potential clinical utility for conventional scleral buckling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75add5eed0c4843cffdf

Objective

Accurate scleral marking of retinal breaks is essential for successful scleral buckling. This study aimed to investigate the use of wide-field fundus images obtained with an Optos for preoperative estimation of the distance from the limbus to the retinal breaks.

Methods and analysis

This is a retrospective review of 29 eyes from 26 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who received scleral buckling with anatomically successful repair. They underwent wide-field fundus photography with Optos California. In the pre- and postoperative fundus images, we measured distances from the macula to the retinal tears (TM), to the center of the vortex veins (VM), to the optic disc (DM), and to the posterior edge of the scleral buckle (BM).

Results

(BM—VM) / DM was significantly correlated with the distance from the limbus to the posterior edge of the scleral buckle that had been determined intraoperatively. (r = 0.705; p<0.001) We applied a regression line derived from this correlation with the value of (TM -VM) / DM in order to calculate estimated distances between retinal breaks and the limbus. The calculated distances were all within the range of distances from the limbus to the anterior and posterior edges of the scleral buckles.

Conclusion

Preoperative analysis of Optos images may be useful for estimating the distance from the limbus to retinal breaks, which might aid scleral marking during scleral buckling surgery.

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<![CDATA[Blue light-dependent human magnetoreception in geomagnetic food orientation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f149bd5eed0c48467a3d1

The Earth’s geomagnetic field (GMF) is known to influence magnetoreceptive creatures, from bacteria to mammals as a sensory cue or a physiological modulator, despite it is largely thought that humans cannot sense the GMF. Here, we show that humans sense the GMF to orient their direction toward food in a self-rotatory chair experiment. Starved men, but not women, significantly oriented toward the ambient/modulated magnetic north or east, directions which had been previously food-associated, without any other helpful cues, including sight and sound. The orientation was reproduced under blue light but was abolished under a blindfold or a longer wavelength light (> 500 nm), indicating that blue light is necessary for magnetic orientation. Importantly, inversion of the vertical component of the GMF resulted in orientation toward the magnetic south and blood glucose levels resulting from food appeared to act as a motivator for sensing a magnetic field direction. The results demonstrate that male humans sense GMF in a blue light-dependent manner and suggest that the geomagnetic orientations are mediated by an inclination compass.

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<![CDATA[Description of a new species of the Neotropical cichlid genus Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 (Teleostei: Cichliformes) from the Middle Paraná basin, Misiones, Argentina]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca38d5eed0c48452a8e8

Gymnogeophagus jaryi, new species, is described from Southern tributaries of the Middle Paraná basin in Misiones. It can be distinguished from all other members of the genus, except from G. australis and G. caaguazuensis, by the presence of a hyaline to grey anterior portion of the dorsal fin. Gymnogeophagus jaryi differs from G. caaguazuensis by a longer caudal peduncle, caudal fin not lyrate, central portion of scales on dorsal portion of trunk light iridescent blue and by white spots in soft portion of dorsal fin in adult males, and from G. australis by the light iridescent blue coloration of central portion of scales on the dorsal portion of trunk and tail, and by the lack of scales on the soft portion of the dorsal fin. Additionally, it can be diagnosed by the following unique combination of characters: 10–11 dorsal-fin branched rays, 27–30 E1 scales, absence of lips thickening, and, in males, by the possession of a hump in adults, caudal fin not lyrate, presence of large white spots forming transversal stripes distally and in anterior area of the dorsal fin’s soft portion, central area of scales on the dorsal portion of the trunk light iridescent blue, lack of scales on the base of the dorsal fin’s soft portion, absence of a conspicuous and oblique dark band from the eye to the anterior border of the head, anterior portion of dorsal fin hyaline to grey, scales of the midlateral spot each bearing a semicircular light blue blotch, head hump starting at the horizontal through the eyes, concave anterior profile in lateral view, base of unpaired fins yellow, and whitish hyaline spots on caudal fin. The new species, based on mtDNA phylogeny, is the sister species of G. caaguazuensis from the Paraguay basin and is closely related to G. australis.

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<![CDATA[Interleukin-13 maintains the stemness of conjunctival epithelial cell cultures prepared from human limbal explants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2698d5eed0c484289d28

To use human limbal explants as an alternative source for generating conjunctival epithelium and to determine the effect of interleukin-13 (IL-13) on goblet cell number, mucin expression, and stemness. Human limbal explants prepared from 17 corneoscleral rims were cultured with or without IL-13 (IL-13+ and IL-13-, respectively) and followed up to passage 2 (primary culture [P0]–P2). Cells were characterized by alcian blue/periodic acid–Schiff (AB/PAS) staining (goblet cells); immunofluorescent staining for p63α (progenitor cells), Ki-67 (proliferation), MUC5AC (mucin, goblet cells), and keratin 7 (K7, conjunctival epithelial and goblet cells); and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of the p63α (TP63), MUC5AC, MUC4 (conjunctival mucins), K3, K12 (corneal epithelial cells), and K7 genes. Clonogenic ability was determined by colony-forming efficiency (CFE) assay. Using limbal explants, we generated epithelium with conjunctival phenotype and high viability in P0, P1, and P2 cultures under IL-13+ and IL-13- conditions, i.e., epithelium with strong K7 positivity, high K7 and MUC4 expression and the presence of goblet cells (AB/PAS and MUC5AC positivity; MUC5AC expression). p63α positivity was similar in IL-13+ and IL-13- cultures and was decreased in P2 cultures; however, there was increased TP63 expression in the presence of IL-13 (especially in the P1 cultures). Similarly, IL-13 increased proliferative activity in P1 cultures and significantly promoted P0 and P1 culture CFE. IL-13 did not increase goblet cell number in the P0–P2 cultures, nor did it influence MUC5AC and MUC4 expression. By harvesting unattached cells on day 1 of P1 we obtained goblet cell rich subpopulation showing AB/PAS, MUC5AC, and K7 positivity, but with no growth potential. In conclusion, limbal explants were successfully used to develop conjunctival epithelium with the presence of putative stem and goblet cells and with the ability to preserve the stemness of P0 and P1 cultures under IL-13 influence.

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