ResearchPad - olive-trees https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[<i>Xylella fastidiosa</i> subsp. <i>pauca</i> and olive produced lipids moderate the switch adhesive versus non-adhesive state and <i>viceversa</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14717 Global trade and climate change are re-shaping the distribution map of pandemic pathogens. One major emerging concern is Xylella fastidiosa, a tropical bacterium recently introduced into Europe from America. In last decades, X. fastidiosa was detected in several European countries. X. fastidiosa is an insect vector-transmitted bacterial plant pathogen associated with severe diseases in a wide range of hosts. X. fastidiosa through a tight coordination of the adherent biofilm and the planktonic states, invades the host systemically. The planktonic phase is correlated to low cell density and vessel colonization. Increase in cell density triggers a quorum sensing system based on mixture of cis 2-enoic fatty acids—diffusible signalling factors (DSF) that promote stickiness and biofilm. The lipidome profile of Olea europaea L. (cv. Ogliarola salentina) samples, collected in groves located in infected zones and uninfected zones was performed. The untargeted analysis of the lipid profiles of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) positive (+) and negative (-) plants showed a clustering of OQDS+ plants apart from OQDS-. The targeted lipids profile of plants OQDS+ and OQDS- identified a shortlist of 10 lipids that increase their amount in OQDS+ and X. fastidiosa positive olive trees. These lipid entities, provided to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca pure culture, impact on the dual phase, e.g. planktonic ↔ biofilm. This study provides novel insights on OQDS lipid hallmarks and on molecules that might modulate biofilm phase in X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca.

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<![CDATA[A biological control model to manage the vector and the infection of <i>Xylella fastidiosa</i> on olive trees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11237 Xylella fastidiosa pauca ST53 is the bacterium responsible for the Olive Quick Decline Syndrome that has killed millions of olive trees in Southern Italy. A recent work demonstrates that a rational integration of vector and transmission control measures, into a strategy based on chemical and physical control means, can manage Xylella fastidiosa invasion and impact below an acceptable economic threshold. In the present study, we propose a biological alternative to the chemical control action, which involves the predetermined use of an available natural enemy of Philaenus spumarius, i.e., Zelus renardii, for adult vector population and infection biocontrol. The paper combines two different approaches: a laboratory experiment to test the predation dynamics of Zelus renardii on Philaenus spumarius and its attitude as candidate for an inundation strategy; a simulated experiment of inundation, to preliminary test the efficacy of such strategy, before eventually proceeding to an in-field experimentation. With this double-fold approach we show that an inundation strategy with Zelus renardii has the potential to furnish an efficient and “green” solution to Xylella fastidiosa invasion, with a reduction of the pathogen incidence below 10%. The biocontrol model presented here could be promising for containing the impact and spread of Xylella fastidiosa, after an in-field validation of the inundation technique. Saving the fruit orchard, the production and the industry in susceptible areas could thus become an attainable goal, within comfortable parameters for sustainability, environmental safety, and effective plant health protection in organic orchard management.

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<![CDATA[High-resolution imagery acquired from an unmanned platform to estimate biophysical and geometrical parameters of olive trees under different irrigation regimes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c493d5eed0c4845e895b

The experiments were conducted in a fully-productive olive orchard (cv. Frantoio) at the experimental farm of University of Pisa at Venturina (Italy) in 2015 to assess the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with RGB-NIR cameras to estimate leaf area index (LAI), tree height, canopy diameter and canopy volume of olive trees that were either irrigated or rainfed. Irrigated trees received water 4–5 days a week (1348 m3 ha-1), whereas the rainfed ones received a single irrigation of 19 m3 ha-1 to relieve the extreme stress. The flight altitude was 70 m above ground level (AGL), except for one flight (50 m AGL). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated by means of the map algebra technique. Canopy volume, canopy height and diameter were obtained from the digital surface model (DSM) obtained through automatic aerial triangulation, bundle block adjustment and camera calibration methods. The NDVI estimated on the day of the year (DOY) 130 was linearly correlated with both LAI and leaf chlorophyll measured on the same date (R2 = 0.78 and 0.80, respectively). The correlation between the on ground measured canopy volumes and the ones by the UAV-RGB camera techniques yielded an R2 of 0.71–0.86. The monthly canopy volume increment estimated from UAV surveys between (DOY) 130 and 244 was highly correlated with the daily water stress integral of rainfed trees (R2 = 0.99). The effect of water stress on the seasonal pattern of canopy growth was detected by these techniques in correspondence of the maximum level of stress experienced by the rainfed trees. The highest level of accuracy (RMSE = 0.16 m) in canopy height estimation was obtained when the flight altitude was 50 m AGL, yielding an R2 value of 0.87 and an almost 1:1 ratio of measured versus estimated canopy height.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Bactrocera oleae on the fungal microbiota of ripe olive drupes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c099458d5eed0c4842aeaa5

The olive fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera oleae is the most devastating pest affecting olive fruit worldwide. Previous investigations have addressed the fungal microbiome associated with olive drupes or B. oleae, but the impact of the insect on fungal communities of olive fruit remains undescribed. In the present work, the fungal microbiome of olive drupes, infested and non-infested by the OFF, was investigated in four different localities and cultivars. Olive fruit fly infestations caused a general reduction of the fungal diversity, a higher quantity of the total DNA and an increase in taxa that remained unidentified or had unknown roles. The infestations led to imbalanced fungal communities with the growth of taxa that are usually outcompeted. While it was difficult to establish a cause-effect link between fly infestation and specific fungi, it is clear that the fly alters the natural microbial balance, especially the low abundant taxa. On the other hand, the most abundant ones, were not significantly influenced by the insect. In fact, despite the slight variation between the sampling locations, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria, were the dominant genera, suggesting the existence of a typical olive fungal microbiome.

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<![CDATA[Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e0ab0ee8fa60b69497

In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

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<![CDATA[The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbfef

In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes.

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<![CDATA[Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8972

The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

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<![CDATA[Remarkable Diversity and Prevalence of Dagger Nematodes of the Genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olives Revealed by Integrative Approaches]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db48ab0ee8fa60bd96ca

The genus Xiphinema includes a remarkable group of invertebrates of the phylum Nematoda comprising ectoparasitic animals of many wild and cultivated plants. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells and by vectoring nepoviruses that cause diseases on several crops. Precise identification of Xiphinema species is critical for launching appropriate control measures. We make available the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Xiphinema species infesting wild and cultivated olive in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 211 locations from which 453 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study identified thirty-two Xiphinema spp. in the rhizosphere of olive trees, ten species belonging to Xiphinema americanum-group, whereas twenty-two were attributed to Xiphinema non-americanum-group. These results increase our current knowledge on the biodiversity of Xiphinema species identified in olives and include the description of four new species (Xiphinema andalusiense sp. nov., Xiphinema celtiense sp. nov., Xiphinema iznajarense sp. nov., and Xiphinema mengibarense sp. nov.), and two new records for cultivate olives (X. cadavalense and X. conurum). We also found evidence of remarkable prevalence of Xiphinema spp. in olive trees, viz. 85.0% (385 out of 453 sampling sites), and they were widely distributed in both wild and cultivated olives, with 26 and 17 Xiphinema spp., respectively. Diversity indexes (Richness, Hill´s diversity, Hill´s reciprocal of D and Hill´s evenness) were significantly affected by olive type. We also developed a comparative morphological and morphometrical study together with molecular data from three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses allowed the delimitation and discrimination of four new species of the genus described herein and three known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Xiphinema spp. resulted in a general consensus of these species groups. This study is the most complete phylogenetic analysis for Xiphinema non-americanum-group species to date.

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<![CDATA[Biofortification (Se): Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO)?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db59ab0ee8fa60bdf1e0

Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se) onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino) on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014). Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1) and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1). This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase) activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.

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<![CDATA[The Importance of Rotational Crops for Biodiversity Conservation in Mediterranean Areas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d5ab0ee8fa60b659d1

Nowadays we are seeing the largest biodiversity loss since the extinction of the dinosaurs. To conserve biodiversity it is essential to plan protected areas using a prioritization approach, which takes into account the current biodiversity value of the sites. Considering that in the Mediterranean Basin the agro-ecosystems are one of the most important parts of the landscape, the conservation of crops is essential to biodiversity conservation. In the framework of agro-ecosystem conservation, farmland birds play an important role because of their representativeness, and because of their steady decline in the last Century in Western Europe. The main aim of this research was to define if crop dominated landscapes could be useful for biodiversity conservation in a Mediterranean area in which the landscape was modified by humans in the last thousand years and was affected by the important biogeographical phenomenon of peninsula effect. To assess this, we identify the hotspots and the coldspots of bird diversity in southern Italy both during the winter and in the breeding season. In particular we used a scoring method, defining a biodiversity value for each cell of a 1-km grid superimposed on the study area, using data collected by fieldwork following a stratified random sampling design. This value was analysed by a multiple linear regression analysis and was predicted in the whole study area. Then we defined the hotspots and the coldspots of the study area as 15% of the cells with higher and lower value of biodiversity, respectively. Finally, we used GAP analysis to compare hotspot distribution with the current network of protected areas. This study showed that the winter hotspots of bird diversity were associated with marshes and water bodies, shrublands, and irrigated crops, whilst the breeding hotspots were associated with more natural areas (e.g. transitional wood/shrubs), such as open areas (natural grasslands, pastures and not irrigated crops). Moreover, the results underlined the negative effects of permanent crops, such as vineyards, olive groves, and orchards, in particular during the winter season. This research highlights the importance of farmland areas mainly for wintering species and the importance of open areas for breeding species in the Mediterranean Basin. This may be true even when the species’ spatial distribution could be affected by biogeography. An important result showed that the hotspots for breeding species cannot be used as a surrogate for the wintering species, which were often not considered in the planning of protected areas.

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