ResearchPad - oral-health https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Longitudinal analysis of cost and dental utilization patterns for older adults in outpatient and long-term care settings in Minnesota]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14553 Dental utilization patterns and costs of providing comprehensive oral healthcare for older adults in different settings have not been examined.MethodsRetrospective longitudinal cohort data from Apple Tree Dental (ATD) were analyzed (N = 1,159 total; 503 outpatients, 656 long-term care residents) to describe oral health status at presentation, service utilization patterns, and care costs. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) repeated measures analysis identified significant contributors to service cost over the three-year study period.ResultsCohort mean age was 74 years (range = 55–104); the outpatient (OP) group was younger compared to the long-term care (LTC) group. Half (56%) had Medicaid, 22% had other insurance, and 22% self-paid. Most (72%) had functional dentitions (20+ teeth), 15% had impaired dentitions (9–19 teeth), 6% had severe tooth loss (1–8 teeth), and 7% were edentulous (OP = 2%, LTC = 11%). More in the OP group had functional dentition (83% vs. 63% LTC). The number of appointments declined from 5.0 in Year 1 (OP = 5.7, LTC = 4.4) to 3.3 in Year 3 (OP = 3.6, LTC = 3.0). The average cost to provide dental services was $1,375/year for three years (OP = $1,427, LTC = $1,336), and costs declined each year, from an average of $1,959 (OP = $2,068, LTC = $1,876) in Year 1 to $1,016 (OP = $989, LTC = $1,037) by Year 3. Those with functional dentition at presentation were significantly less costly than those with 1–19 teeth, while edentulous patients demonstrated the lowest cost and utilization. Year in treatment, insurance type, dentition type, and problem-focused first exam were significantly associated with year-over-year cost change in both OP and LTC patients.ConclusionCosts for providing comprehensive dental care in OP and LTC settings were similar, modest, and declined over time. Dentate patients with functional dentition and edentulous patients were less costly to treat. LTC patients had lower utilization than OP patients. Care patterns shifted over time to increased preventive care and decreased restorative care visits. ]]> <![CDATA[Oral health behavior of children and guardians’ beliefs about children’s dental caries in Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6c9d5eed0c484ef3dbd

Dental caries is considered a major health problem among schoolchildren in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). According to Health Belief Model (HBM)-based research, children’s oral health behavior can be determined by their guardians’ beliefs. This study aimed to describe children’s oral health behavior and its association with childhood dental caries, as well as to assess associations between children’s tooth-brushing behavior and guardians’ beliefs in an urban area of Lao PDR, using HBM. Data were collected from ten primary schools in the Sisattanak district, the Vientiane capital, between 2013 and 2014. Ten dentists with the help of dental hygienists and schoolteachers conducted dental health check-ups at the schools that diagnosed dental caries based on visual inspection. They also conducted a questionnaire-based survey with the schoolchildren’s guardians to collect data including socio-economic and demographic information, their children’s oral health behavior, and guardians’ beliefs derived from HBM, including perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of child dental caries, perceived benefit of and perceived barrier to child’s tooth brushing, and self-efficacy in making their children brush their teeth twice daily. A mixed-effects logistic regression model assessed the association between dental caries and children’s oral health behavior and between children’s tooth-brushing behavior and guardians’ beliefs. Data from 1161 of 1304 (89.0%) children registered at the schools were used. The prevalence of dental caries was 82%. Children who brushed their teeth ≥ twice/day were significantly less likely to have dental caries than those brushing once or seldom (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.91). The number of children who brushed twice daily also significantly increased with the increased level of guardians’ self-efficacy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.91 to 2.41). In conclusion, childhood dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing. Children’s tooth-brushing behavior was associated with guardians’ self-efficacy in making their children brush twice daily.

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<![CDATA[Oral health status of the disabled compared with that of the non-disabled in Korea: A propensity score matching analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46658fd5eed0c484519c96

Background

There are many types of disabilities, and each type has a variety related to socioeconomic factors. Such factors affect to many health problems of the disabled. However, surveys of the oral health status of the disabled in Korea are rare.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to estimate oral health disparity through comparing oral health status of the disabled to the non-disabled, adjusted for the net effect of the disability on oral health status.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among the disabled in urban and suburban areas in Korea from June to September 2016. People with physical, mental, and multiple disabilities took part in this survey. The clinical examinations were carried out by trained dentists. Statistical analysis was performed to quantify the association between oral health and socioeconomic status after restricting the analysis using a propensity score matching method.

Results

The disabled had more DMFT, DT, and MT, fewer FT, and fewer teeth than the non-disabled based on entire groups (P<0.01). No difference in the ratio of periodontitis was observed. The subjects with mental disabilities (MD) scored 3.09 (95% CI, 1.07–8.97), and those with multiple disabilities scored 4.37 (95% CI, 1.16–16.37) for edentulous status. The MD had an odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74), and those with multiple disabilities had an odds ratio of 1.75 (95% CI, 1.11–2.76) for the DMFT index.

Conclusions

These results represent poor oral health status of the disabled compared to the non-disabled. Consequentially, we can verify that not only the existence of disability but also the type of disability has a decisive effect on oral health condition. This comparison is necessary to widen our approach to evaluate the actual status condition of the disabled.

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<![CDATA[Differential profiles of soluble and cellular toll like receptor (TLR)-2 and 4 in chronic periodontitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2544f9d5eed0c48442bc3a

Chronic periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease initiated by a complex microbial biofilm and mediated by the host response causing destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Host recognition of pathogens is mediated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) that bind conserved molecular patterns shared by large groups of microorganisms. The oral epithelial cells respond to most periodontopathic bacteria via TLR-2 and TLR-4. In addition to the membrane-associated receptors, soluble forms of TLR-2 (sTLR-2) and TLR-4 (sTLR-4) have been identified and are thought to play a regulatory role by binding microbial ligands. sTLR-2 has been shown to arise from ectodomain shedding of the extracellular domain of the membrane receptor and sTLR-4 is thought to be an alternate spliced form. Many studies have previously reported the presence of elevated numbers of viable exfoliated epithelial cells in the saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential value of salivary sTLR-2 and sTLR-4 together with the paired epithelial cell-associated TLR-2/4 mRNA as diagnostic markers for chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected after obtaining informed consent from 40 individuals with either periodontitis or gingivitis. The sTLR-2 and sTLR4 in saliva was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The TLR-2 and TLR-4 transcript in the epithelial cells in saliva was measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. While levels of sTLR-2 exhibited an inverse correlation, sTLR-4 positively correlated with clinical parameters in the gingivitis cohort. Interestingly, both correlations were lost in the periodontitis cohort indicating a dysregulated host response. On the other hand, while the sTLR-2 and the paired epithelial cell associated TLR-2 mRNA exhibited a direct correlation (r2 = 0.62), that of sTLR4 and TLR-4 mRNA exhibited an inverse correlation (r2 = 0.53) in the periodontitis cohort. Collectively, assessments of salivary sTLR2 and sTLR4 together with the respective transcripts in the epithelial cells could provide clinically relevant markers of disease progression from gingivitis to periodontitis.

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<![CDATA[Patient-reported outcomes associated with different restorative techniques in pediatric dentistry: A systematic review and MTC meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf17d5eed0c484913ecb

Background

Despite the increasing number of studies evaluating patient reported outcome measures (PROs), there is no clearness regarding which restorative treatment offers major benefits based on the pediatric patient perspective.

Aim

To compare different restorative techniques in pediatric dentistry regarding patient-reported outcomes.

Design

Literature searching was carried out on prospective studies indexed in PubMed, Scopus and OpenGrey. A Mixed Treatment Comparisons (MTC) meta-analysis was undertaken considering the results from reviewed studies. Anxiety, pain and quality of life were extracted as mean with standard deviation, percentage of pain, and mean difference of scores with standard deviation, respectively. For direct comparisons, data were combined using a random-effect model. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 statistic. For indirect comparisons, fixed and random effects were chosen through comparison of competing models based on the Deviance Information Criteria (DIC). The expected efficacy ranking based on the posterior probabilities of all treatment rankings was also calculated.

Results

An initial search resulted in 4,322 articles, of which 17 were finally selected. Due to unavailability of data, only pain, anxiety and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) were statistically analyzed. The difference in means (95% CI) of anxiety between treatments using only hand instruments with or without chemomechanical agents were -5.35 (-6.42 to -4.20) and -5.79 (-7.77 to -3.79) respectively when compared to conventional treatment using rotary instruments and/or local anesthesia. Regarding pain, there was a trend for treatments without rotary instruments and local anesthesia to be less frequently reported as painful. No statistical difference was found intragroup nor among treatments for OHRQoL.

Conclusions

Anxiety and pain are directly related with more invasive restorative treatments. On the other hand, quality of life is not improved regardless of the restorative technique used. Further well-designed prospective studies regarding PROs in children are still necessary.

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<![CDATA[Universal health insurance, health inequality and oral cancer in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd2323f40307c60de5e996e

Introduction

The introduction of universal health insurance coverage aims to provide equal accessibility and affordability of health care, but whether such a policy eliminates health inequalities has not been conclusively determined. This research aims to examine the healthcare outcomes of oral cancer and determine whether the universal coverage system in Taiwan has reduced health inequality.

Methods

Linking the databases of the National Cancer Registry with the National Mortality Registry in Taiwan, we stratified patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma by gender and income to estimate the incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate aged from 20 to 79 (CIR20-79), life expectancy, and expected years of life lost (EYLL). The difficulties with asymmetries and short follow-up periods were resolved through applying survival analysis extrapolation methods.

Results

While all people showed a general improvement in life expectancy after the introduction of the NHI, the estimated change in EYLL’s of the high-, middle-, and low-income female patients were found to have +0.3, -0.5 and -7 years of EYLL, respectively, indicating a reduction in health inequality. Improvements for the male patients were unremarkable. There was no drop in the CIR20-79 of oral cancer in disadvantaged groups as in those with higher incomes.

Conclusions

Universal coverage alone may not reduce health inequality across different income groups for oral cancer unless effective preventive measures are implemented for economically disadvantaged regions.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Prophylactic Low Level Laser Therapy on Oral Mucositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da36ab0ee8fa60b8640c

Background

Objective was to determine whether prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces the risk of severe mucositis as compared to placebo or no therapy.

Methods

MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylactic LLLT with placebo or no therapy in patients with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All analyses used random effects models.

Results

Eighteen RCTs (1144 patients) were included. Prophylactic LLLT reduced the overall risk of severe mucositis (risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.67; P = 0.001). LLLT also reduced the following outcomes when compared to placebo/no therapy: severe mucositis at the time of anticipated maximal mucositis (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.59), overall mean grade of mucositis (standardized mean difference −1.49, 95% CI −2.02 to −0.95), duration of severe mucositis (weighted mean difference −5.32, 95% CI −9.45 to −1.19) and incidence of severe pain (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37).

Conclusion

Prophylactic LLLT reduced severe mucositis and pain in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Future research should identify the optimal characteristics of LLLT and determine feasibility in the clinical setting.

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<![CDATA[Provision of Oral Health Care to Children under Seven Covered by Bolsa Família Program. Is This a Reality?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daccab0ee8fa60bb4ad7

Over the last decade, there has been a great improvement in the oral health of Brazilians. However, such a trend was not observed among five-year-old children. Dental caries are determined by the interplay between biological and behavioral factors that are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. It is well established that dental disease is concentrated in socially disadvantaged populations. To reduce social and health inequalities, the Brazilian government created Family Health Program (ESF), and the Bolsa Família Program, the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program (Bolsa Família Program). The aim of this study was to examine the oral health care and promotion provided by the Family Health Teams to children and caregivers covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Data was collected through interviews with three groups of participants: 1) dentists working for the Family Health Program; 2) Family Health Program professionals supervising the Bolsa Família Program health conditionalities (Bolsa Família Program supervisors); and 3) parents/caregivers of children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. A pretested questionnaire included sociodemographic, Bolsa Família Program, oral health promotion, dental prevention and dental treatment questions. The results showed that most dentists performed no systematic efforts to promote oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program (93.3%; n = 69) or to their parents/caregivers (74.3%; n = 55). Many dentists (33.8%) did not provide oral health care to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program because they felt it was beyond their responsibilities. Nearly all Bolsa Família Program supervisors (97.3%; n = 72) supported the inclusion of oral health care in the health conditionality of the Bolsa Família Program, but 82.4% (n = 61) stated they did not promote oral health activities to children covered by the Bolsa Família Program. Children in the routine care setting were more often referred to dentists than children covered by the Bolsa Familia Program (p≤0.001). Parents/caregivers (99.2%; n = 381) agreed that oral health care is important and 99.5% (n = 382) would like their children to be seen regularly. Conclusions: No collaboration was observed between the Bolsa Família Program and the Family Health Program with regard to the provision of oral health care. Making oral health care a Bolsa Família Program conditionality may reduce oral health care inequalities for extreme poor children under seven in Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc385

There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions) as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions.

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<![CDATA[Design Aspects of a Case-Control Clinical Investigation of the Effect of HIV on Oral and Gastrointestinal Soluble Innate Factors and Microbes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da11ab0ee8fa60b799ca

Introduction

The impaired host defense system in HIV infection impacts the oral and gastrointestinal microbiota and associated opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment is predicted to partially restore host defenses and decrease the oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the interactions of soluble host defense proteins with bacteria and virus in HIV/AIDS. “Crosstalk” was designed as a longitudinal study of host responses along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and interactions between defense molecules and bacteria in HIV infection and subsequent therapy.

Purpose

The clinical core formed the infrastructure for the study of the interactions between the proteome, microbiome and innate immune system. The core recruited and retained study subjects, scheduled visits, obtained demographic and medical data, assessed oral health status, collected samples, and guided analysis of the hypotheses. This manuscript presents a well-designed clinical core that may serve as a model for studies that combine clinical and laboratory data.

Methods

Crosstalk was a case-control longitudinal clinical study an initial planned enrollment of 170 subjects. HIV+ antiretroviral naïve subjects were followed for 9 visits over 96 weeks and HIV uninfected subjects for 3 visits over 24 weeks. Clinical prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease were assessed.

Results

During the study, 116 subjects (47 HIV+, 69 HIV-) were enrolled. Cohorts of HIV+ and HIV- were demographically similar except for a larger proportion of women in the HIV- group. The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions were oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia in the HIV+ group.

Discussion

The clinical core was essential to enable the links between clinical and laboratory data. The study aims to determine specific differences between oral and GI tissues that account for unique patterns of opportunistic infections and to delineate the differences in their susceptibility to infection by HIV and their responses post-HAART.

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<![CDATA[Akt Activation is Required for TGF-β1-Induced Osteoblast Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9eab0ee8fa60ba4c4d

Background

We have previously reported that repeated treatment of human periodontal ligament cells and murine pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) inhibited their osteoblastic differentiation because of decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion. We also found that IGF-1/PI3K signaling plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation induced by TGF-β1 treatment; however, the downstream signaling controlling this remains unknown. The aim of this current study is to investigate whether Akt activation is required for osteoblast differentiation.

Methodology/Principal Findings

MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in osteoblast differentiation medium (OBM) with or without 0.1 ng/mL TGF-β1. OBM containing TGF-β1 was changed every 12 h to provide repeated TGF-β1 administration. MC3T3-E1 cells were infected with retroviral vectors expressing constitutively active (CA) or dominant-negative (DN)-Akt. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteoblastic marker mRNA levels were substantially decreased by repeated TGF-β1 treatment compared with a single TGF-β1 treatment. However, expression of CA-Akt restored ALP activity following TGF-β1 treatment. Surprisingly, ALP activity increased following multiple TGF-β1 treatments as the number of administrations of TGF-β1 increased. Activation of Akt significantly enhanced expression of osteocalcin, but TGF-β1 treatment inhibited this. Mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was markedly enhanced by CA-Akt expression under all medium conditions. Exogenous IGF-1 restored the down-regulation of osteoblast-related gene expression by repeated TGF-β1 administration. However, in cells expressing DN-Akt, these levels remained inhibited regardless of IGF-1 treatment. These findings indicate that Akt activation is required for the early phase of osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells induced by TGF-β1. However, Akt activation is insufficient to reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-β1 in the late stages of osteoblast differentiation.

Conclusions

TGF-β1 could be an inducer or an inhibitor of osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells depending on the state of Akt phosphorylation. Our results indicate that Akt is the molecular switch for TGF-β1-induced osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

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<![CDATA[Friendship Network and Dental Brushing Behavior among Middle School Students: An Agent Based Modeling Approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b76508

By using a standard questionnaire, the level of dental brushing frequency was assessed among 201 adolescent female middle school students in Tehran. The initial assessment was repeated after 5 months, in order to observe the dynamics in dental health behavior level. Logistic Regression model was used to evaluate the correlation among individuals’ dental health behavior in their social network. A significant correlation on dental brushing habits was detected among groups of friends. This correlation was further spread over the network within the 5 months period. Moreover, it was identified that the average brushing level was improved within the 5 months period. Given that there was a significant correlation between social network’s nodes’ in-degree value, and brushing level, it was suggested that the observed improvement was partially due to more popularity of individuals with better tooth brushing habit. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) was used to demonstrate the dynamics of dental brushing frequency within a sample of friendship network. Two models with static and dynamic assumptions for the network structure were proposed. The model with dynamic network structure successfully described the dynamics of dental health behavior. Based on this model, on average, every 43 weeks a student changes her brushing habit due to learning from her friends. Finally, three training scenarios were tested by these models in order to evaluate their effectiveness. When training more popular students, considerable improvement in total students’ brushing frequency was demonstrated by simulation results.

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<![CDATA[Dental Treatment in a State-Funded Primary Dental Care Facility: Contextual and Individual Predictors of Treatment Need?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc88

Objective

This study examined individual and contextual factors which predict the dental care received by patients in a state-funded primary dental care training facility in England.

Methods

Routine clinical and demographic data were extracted from a live dental patient management system in a state-funded facility using novel methods. The data, spanning a four-year period [2008–2012] were cleaned, validated, linked by means of postcode to deprivation status, and analysed to identify factors which predict dental treatment need. The predictive relationship between patients’ individual characteristics (demography, smoking, payment status) and contextual experience (deprivation based on area of residence), with common dental treatments received was examined using unadjusted analysis and adjusted logistic regression. Additionally, multilevel modelling was used to establish the isolated influence of area of residence on treatments.

Results

Data on 6,351 dental patients extracted comprised of 147,417 treatment procedures delivered across 10,371 courses of care. Individual level factors associated with the treatments were age, sex, payment exemption and smoking status and deprivation associated with area of residence was a contextual predictor of treatment. More than 50% of children (<18 years) and older adults (≥65 years) received preventive care in the form of ‘instruction and advice’, compared with 46% of working age adults (18–64 years); p = 0.001. The odds of receiving treatment increased with each increasing year of age amongst adults (p = 0.001): ‘partial dentures’ (7%); ‘scale and polish’ (3.7%); ‘tooth extraction’ (3%; p = 0.001), and ‘instruction and advice’ (3%; p = 0.001). Smokers had a higher likelihood of receiving all treatments; and were notably over four times more likely to receive ‘instruction and advice’ than non-smokers (OR 4.124; 95% CI: 3.088–5.508; p = 0.01). A further new finding from the multilevel models was a significant difference in treatment related to area of residence; adults from the most deprived quintile were more likely to receive ‘tooth extraction’ when compared with least deprived, and less likely to receive preventive ‘instruction and advice’ (p = 0.01).

Conclusion

This is the first study to model patient management data from a state-funded dental service and show that individual and contextual factors predict common treatments received. Implications of this research include the importance of making provision for our aging population and ensuring that preventative care is available to all. Further research is required to explain the interaction of organisational and system policies, practitioner and patient perspectives on care and, thus, inform effective commissioning and provision of dental services.

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<![CDATA[Integrating Maternal and Children's Oral Health Promotion into Nursing and Midwifery Practice- A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8bab0ee8fa60b9dd48

Background

Globally, oral diseases contribute to major disease problems and oral health disparities persistently exist amongst vulnerable population groups. Two contributory factors to these challenges are the shortage of dental practitioners and the characteristic separation between the medical and dental professions. Nurses and midwives, in particular, are in a potentially excellent position to assist in basic oral health services such as dental health education and intraoral screening. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of integrating promotion of oral health of young children and their mothers into nursing and midwifery practice.

Methods and Findings

Seven electronic databases including CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, GLOBAL HEALTH, CINHAL, Scopus, and Web of Science were systematically searched whereas conference proceedings and theses were retrieved via PROQUEST. Only randomized, non-randomized trials and observational studies on preventive oral health programs delivered by nurses or midwives in healthcare settings or through home visits were included. Two investigators reviewed full-text articles independently to decide on eligibility for inclusion. Quality assessment was done using Cochrane tool for risk of bias for randomized trials and Downs and Black assessment tool for all other studies. Out of 3162 retrieved records, twenty one trials on oral health interventions incorporated into standard nursing practice were reviewed. Eighteen programs reported significant positive outcomes including reduction in caries experience, better oral hygiene and dietary habits and increased rates of dental visits amongst young children as reported by their caregivers.

Conclusions

Incorporating oral health promotion into nursing practice is a promising initiative for reducing oral health disparities by contributing to a downward trend in caries experience and increased access to dental care especially amongst the poor disadvantaged communities.

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<![CDATA[Paracrine Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue in Bone Regeneration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9bab0ee8fa60ba39aa

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has proved to be a promising strategy in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Although their mechanism of action is not completely clear, it has been suggested that their therapeutic activity may be mediated by a paracrine effect. The main goal of this study was to evaluate by radiographic, morphometric and histological analysis the ability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue (Ad-MSC) and their conditioned medium (CM), to repair surgical bone lesions using an in vivo model (rabbit mandibles). The results demonstrated that both, Ad-MSC and CM, induce bone regeneration in surgically created lesions in rabbit's jaws, suggesting that Ad-MSC improve the process of bone regeneration mainly by releasing paracrine factors. The evidence of the paracrine effect of MSC on bone regeneration has a major impact on regenerative medicine, and the use of their CM can address some issues and difficulties related to cell transplants. In particular, CM can be easily stored and transported, and is easier to handle by medical personnel during clinical procedures.

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<![CDATA[Dental Status of New Caledonian Children: Is There a Need for a New Oral Health Promotion Programme?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3dab0ee8fa60b88c3c

Background

Before implementing a new oral health promotion program in the French overseas territory of Nouvelle Calédonie, the health authorities needed recent data about dental status of the New Caledonian child population.

Objectives

This study aimed to describe the dental status of 6, 9 and 12-yr-old New Caledonian children and to investigate the environmental and behavioural risk factors related to oral health.

Methods

A randomly selected sample of 2734 children (744 6-yr-olds, 789 9-yr-olds, and 1201 12-yr-olds) was examined clinically by seven calibrated investigators and participants responded to a questionnaire. The main variables were objective criteria about dental status and subjective criteria about experience of dental care, dental fear, self-perception of oral health, cultural or ethnic identity and environmental and behavioural risk factors.

Results

Overall, most of the children had infectious oral diseases: more than 50% had gingivitis, and 60% of 6- and 9 yr-olds had at least one deciduous or permanent tooth with untreated caries. The mean 12-yr-old number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 2.09±2.82. The number of carious lesions was related to the unfavourable lifestyle, deprived social status and no preventive dental care. Kanak, Polynesians and Caledonians (respectively 27%, 18% and 45% of the study sample) were more affected by caries than metropolitan French and Asian children. Children with many untreated carious lesions had negative perceptions of their oral health; they complained of chewing difficulty and had higher scores for dental anxiety.

Conclusion

This study highlights the need for new strategies aimed at improving oral health and at reducing inequalities in New Caledonia. An oral health promotion program would need to be developed in connection with other health programmes using the common risk factor approach within the context of the local environment.

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<![CDATA[Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Oral Microbiota and Systemic Antibody Responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da71ab0ee8fa60b94f80

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder of women that not only is the leading cause of infertility but also shows a reciprocal link with oral health. This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that the levels of putative periodontal pathogens in saliva and their antibody response in serum are elevated in PCOS, compared to systemic health. A total of 125 women were included in four groups; 45 women with PCOS and healthy periodontium, 35 women with PCOS and gingivitis, 25 systemically and periodontally healthy women, 20 systemically healthy women with gingivitis. Salivary levels of seven putative periodontal pathogens were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and serum antibody levels were analyzed by ELISA. In women with PCOS, salivary Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis and Tannerella forsythia levels were higher than matched systemically healthy women, particularly in the case of gingivitis. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Treponema denticola levels were similar among study groups. The presence of PCOS also enhanced P. gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and S. oralis serum antibody levels, when gingivitis was also present. Gingival inflammation correlated positively with levels of the studied taxa in saliva, particularly in PCOS. The presence of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum in saliva also exhibited a strong positive correlation with the corresponding serum antibody levels. In conclusion, as an underlying systemic endocrine condition, PCOS may quantitatively affect the composition of oral microbiota and the raised systemic response to selective members of this microbial community, exerting a confounding role in resultant gingival inflammation and periodontal health. The most consistent effect appeared to be exerted on P. gingivalis.

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<![CDATA[The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa0ab0ee8fa60ba5936

Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report ‘good oral health’ (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05). Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02–2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57–2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42–2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates.

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<![CDATA[Factors Predisposing to Maxillary Anchorage Loss: A Retrospective Study of 1403 Cases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e6ab0ee8fa60b6b553

Anchorage loss is very disturbing for orthodontists and patients during orthodontic treatment, which usually results in bad treatment effects. Despite the same treatment strategy, different patients show different tendencies toward anchorage loss, which influences the treatment results and should preferably be predicted before the treatment is begun. However, relatively little research has been conducted on which patients are more likely to lose anchorage. The mesial tipping of the first molar marks the onset of anchorage loss, and changes in the angulation of the first molar are closely related to anchorage loss. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine how the mesiodistal angulation of the upper first molars changes during general orthodontic treatment and to identify the individual physiologic factors leading to these changes in a large sample of 1403 patients with malocclusion. The data indicate that the upper first molars tend to be tipped mesially during orthodontic treatment, and this constitutes a type of anchorage loss that orthodontists should consider carefully. Compared to treatment-related factors, patients' physiologic characteristics have a greater influence on changes in the angulation of the upper first molars during orthodontic treatment. The more distally tipped the upper first molars are before treatment, the more they will tip mesially during treatment. Mesial tipping of the upper first molars, and therefore, anchorage loss, is more likely to occur in adolescents, males, patients with class II malocclusion and patients who have undergone maxillary premolar extraction. This finding is of clinical significance to orthodontists who wish to prevent iatrogenic anchorage loss by tipping originally distally tipped upper molars forward, and provides a new perspective on anchorage during orthodontic treatment planning.

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<![CDATA[Tooth Erosion and Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da68ab0ee8fa60b925ad

Background

Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders.

Objectives

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion?

Methods

An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained.

Results

Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1–37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6–68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2–41.7).

Conclusion

The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.

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