ResearchPad - oral-medicine https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Confocal Raman microscopy to identify bacteria in oral subgingival biofilm models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7675 The study of oral disease progression, in relation to the accumulation of subgingival biofilm in gingivitis and periodontitis is limited, due to either the ability to monitor plaque in vitro. When compared, optical spectroscopic techniques offer advantages over traditional destructive or biofilm staining approaches, making it a suitable alternative for the analysis and continued development of three-dimensional structures. In this work, we have developed a confocal Raman spectroscopy analysis approach towards in vitro subgingival plaque models. The main objective of this study was to develop a method for differentiating multiple oral subgingival bacterial species in planktonic and biofilm conditions, using confocal Raman microscopy. Five common subgingival bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, Veillonella dispar, Actinomyces naeslundii and Prevotella nigrescens) were used and differentiated using a 2-way orthogonal Partial Least Square with Discriminant Analysis (O2PLS-DA) for the collected spectral data. In addition to planktonic growth, mono-species biofilms cultured using the ‘Zürich Model’ were also analyzed. The developed method was successfully used to predict planktonic and mono-species biofilm species in a cross validation setup. The results show differences in the presence and absence of chemical bands within the Raman spectra. The O2PLS-DA model was able to successfully predict 100% of all tested planktonic samples and 90% of all mono-species biofilm samples. Using this approach we have shown that Confocal Raman microscopy can analyse and predict the identity of planktonic and mono-species biofilm species, thus enabling its potential as a technique to map oral multi-species biofilm models.

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<![CDATA[Specific clones of Trichomonas tenax are associated with periodontitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c900d3bd5eed0c48407e3b6

Trichomonas tenax, an anaerobic protist difficult to cultivate with an unreliable molecular identification, has been suspected of involvement in periodontitis, a multifactorial inflammatory dental disease affecting the soft tissue and bone of periodontium. A cohort of 106 periodontitis patients classified by stages of severity and 85 healthy adult control patients was constituted. An efficient culture protocol, a new identification tool by real-time qPCR of T. tenax and a Multi-Locus Sequence Typing system (MLST) based on T. tenax NIH4 reference strain were created. Fifty-three strains of Trichomonas sp. were obtained from periodontal samples. 37/106 (34.90%) T. tenax from patients with periodontitis and 16/85 (18.80%°) T. tenax from control patients were detected by culture (p = 0.018). Sixty of the 191 samples were tested positive for T. tenax by qPCR, 24/85 (28%) controls and 36/106 (34%) periodontitis patients (p = 0.089). By combining both results, 45/106 (42.5%) patients were positive by culture and/or PCR, as compared to 24/85 (28.2%) controls (p = 0.042). A link was established between the carriage in patients of Trichomonas tenax and the severity of the disease. Genotyping demonstrates the presence of strain diversity with three major different clusters and a relation between disease strains and the periodontitis severity (p<0.05). More frequently detected in periodontal cases, T. tenax is likely to be related to the onset or/and evolution of periodontal diseases.

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<![CDATA[Reporting quality and spin in abstracts of randomized clinical trials of periodontal therapy and cardiovascular disease outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5a52c97b-59d0-4564-8bd9-d8b1530b3570

Objective

Poor reporting in randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts reduces quality and misinforms readers. Spin, a biased presentation of findings, could frequently mislead clinicians to accept a clinical intervention despite non-significant primary outcome. Therefore, good reporting practices and absence of spin enhances research quality. We aim to assess the reporting quality and spin in abstracts of RCTs evaluating the effect of periodontal therapy on cardiovascular (CVD) outcomes.

Methods

PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and 17 trial registration platforms were searched. Cohort, non-randomized, non-English studies, and pediatric studies were excluded. RCT abstracts were reviewed by 2 authors using the CONSORT for abstracts and spin checklists for data extraction. Cohen’s Kappa statistic was used to assess inter-rater agreement. Data on the selected RCT publication metrics were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed with non-parametric methods. Correlation analysis between quality, spin and bibliometric parameters was conducted.

Results

24 RCTs were selected for CONSORT analysis and 14 fulfilled the criteria for spin analysis. Several important RCT elements per CONSORT were neglected in the abstract including description of the study population (100%), explicitly stated primary outcome (87%), methods of randomization and blinding (100%), trial registration (87%). No RCT examined true outcomes (CVD events). A significant fraction of the abstracts appeared with at least one form of spin in the results and conclusions (86%) and claimed some treatment benefit in spite of non-significant primary outcome (64%). High-quality reporting had a significant positive correlation with reporting of trial registration (p = 0.04) and funding (p = 0.009). Spinning showed marginal negative correlation with reporting quality (p = 0.059).

Conclusion

Poor adherence to the CONSORT guidelines and high levels of data spin were found in abstracts of RCTs exploring the effects of periodontal therapy on CVD outcomes. Our findings indicate that journal editors and reviewers should consider strict adherence to proper reporting guidelines to improve reporting quality and reduce waste.

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<![CDATA[Oral rehabilitation with dental implants in patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: A retrospective study with 2-15 years of follow-up]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb762adcf-4b4f-4a54-9f44-ce3ac479ad6c

Background

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) comprises a group of hereditary disorders characterized by mechanical fragility of the skin and mucous membranes, with the development of blisters and vesicles in response to minimum tissue friction. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) with generalized involvement is the most common subtype in the oral cavity. The present study was carried out to investigate dental implant survival, peri-implant tissue condition, patient satisfaction, and the impact of treatment upon the quality of life of patients with RDEB rehabilitated with implants and full-arch implant-supported prostheses.

Material and Methods

Thirteen patients with RDEB underwent dental implant treatment between September 2005 and December 2016. A retrospective study was made to analyze implant survival, peri-implant tissue health and patient satisfaction.

Results

A total of 80 implants were placed (42 in the maxilla and 38 in the mandible) in 13 patients between 20-52 years of age and diagnosed with RDEB. All the implants were rehabilitated on a deferred basis with 20 full-arch prostheses. Fifteen fixed prostheses and 5 implant-supported overdentures were placed. The implant survival rate was 97.5% after a mean follow-up of 7.5 years after prosthetic loading. Fifty percent of the implants showed mucositis at the time of evaluation. Probing depth was maintained at 1-3 mm in 96.2% of the implants, and bleeding upon probing was observed in 67.5% of the implants. There was a high prevalence of bacterial plaque (85%).

Conclusions

The treatment of edentulous patients with RDEB by means of implants and implant-supported prostheses is predictable as evidenced by the high success rate, and improves patient self-esteem and quality of life.

Key words:Epidermolysis bullosa, dental implants, implant-supported prostheses.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic value of the immunohistochemical detection of epithelial-mesenchymal transition biomarkers in oral epithelial dysplasia: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne8dd992e-012c-4d29-b08a-ec81e31d1b9a

Background

Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) comprise a range of clinical-pathological alterations that are frequently characterized as architectural and cytological derangements upon histological analysis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a critical mechanism for the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in neoplastic epithelial processes. This study aims to systematically review the current findings on the immunohistochemical expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in oral potentially malignant disorders and to evaluate their possible application as biomarkers associated with the progression of oral epithelial dysplasias.

Material and Methods

A systematic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and Cochrane Library. Articles that evaluated the relationship between the expression of EMT markers and the degree of oral epithelial dysplasia were selected for the systematic review. The quality of each eligible study was evaluated by independent reviewers that used operationalized prognostic biomarker reporting guidelines (REMARK).

Results

Seventeen articles met all inclusion criteria and were selected. The EMT markers analyzed exhibited an important association with the prognosis of the cases evaluated. The results showed a progressive increase in the expression of nuclear transcription factors and markers of mesenchymal differentiation, as well as negative regulation of epithelial and cell adhesion markers, according to the stage of oral epithelial dysplasia.

Conclusions

The dysregulation of expression of important EMT components in oral dysplastic epithelium is a potential prognostic marker in OPMDs.

Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorder, oral epithelial dysplasia, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, biomarker, prognosis.

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<![CDATA[Bibliometric analysis and evaluation of the journal Medicina Oral Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (2008-2018)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfaa2a197-b9d4-4a67-a16c-3487b2602f67

Background

In 2008 the journal Medicina Oral Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal was included in Journal Citation Reports. To appraise its evolution and current status, this study carried out a bibliometric analysis and evaluation of the journal for the period 2008-2018.

Material and Methods

From the Web of Science, Journal Citation Reports we obtained the indicators Journal Impact Factor (JIF), 5-year JIF, JIF without self-cites, Eigenfactor score and Article Influence score (2010-2017); and from the Core Collection database the following variables: number and article types, institutions and countries of origin of the authors (2008-2018), and the variable cited and citing journal data in 2017. Twelve articles/year (n=132) were randomly selected to gather: the time between submittal and acceptance of an article, number of authors/article, representation of each section, gender of first author, and funding.

Results

The journal occupied the third quartile of the JCR from 2010 to 2017, when it moved up to the second quartile. From 2008 to 2018 it published a total of 1,518 documents, 90% articles and 9.5% reviews. Sixty countries were represented, 48.68% of the documents coming from Spain, and overall 1,293 institutions were involved. Between submittal and acceptance of articles, the average time was 134.42 days, without differences between years. The mean of authors/article was 5.15, increasing over time. The sections most represented were Oral Medicine and Pathology, and Oral Surgery. There were no differences regarding the gender of the first author, and in general the authors did not provide information about funding received.

Conclusions

The bibliometric results indicate a steadily improving position of this journal, along with a tendency to reduce self-citation. The time between reception of an article and its acceptance was very stable, the number of authors per article showed an increase, and there was a nearly equal representation of males and females as the first author.

Key words:Bibliometrics, Journal Impact Factor, Web of Science, gender.

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<![CDATA[Management of the oral hemangiomas in infants and children: Scoping review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6a99d9f-a4ab-4599-b7ab-f5726d8df00f

Background

Pediatric oral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that can be seen from birth, particularly in females. Hemangiomas are most frequent located in the lips and usually regress spontaneously, thus they do not require any type of treatment in most cases. The present scoping review pretended to synthesize the most relevant and currently available information from the international dental literature published in the last 25 years, regarding the management of pediatric oral hemangiomas.

Material and Methods

An exhaustive literature search was performed in four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Cochrane). Initially, 241 related titles and abstracts were found. After the duplication removal, screening, and assessment processes, 37 records were included for full-text reading. Finally, 20 articles in the English language were included in the scoping review for data extraction and assessment.

Results

We identified and subsequently discussed three fundamental issues associated to the management of pediatric oral hemangiomas: (i) clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis, and histopathological findings; (ii) evolution and complications; and (iii) current available treatment modalities.

Conclusions

Although these like-tumor lesions are uncommon, pediatric dentistry practitioners must be familiar with the inherent clinical characteristics, diagnosis approaches, and currently available treatment options. Nowadays, surgical removal and non-invasive medical/pharmacologic therapies are the best management modalities for pediatric oral hemangiomas.

Key words:Vascular tumors, hemangioma, oral management, children, scoping review.

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<![CDATA[Salivary biomarkers for diagnosis of systemic diseases and malignant tumors. A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naffed4a2-e467-43c4-b1aa-a66f738b7c40

Background

Saliva evaluation could be a possible alternative to blood and/or tissue analyses, for researching specific molecules associated to the presence of systemic diseases and malignancies. The present systematic review has been designed in order to answer to the question “are there significant associations between specific salivary biomarkers and diagnosis of systemic diseases or malignancies?”.

Material and Methods

The Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement was used to guide the review. The combinations of “saliva” and “systemic diseases” or “diagnosis” or “biomarkers” or “cancers” or “carcinoma” or “tumors”, were used to search Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Endpoint of research has been set at May 2019. Studies were classified into 3 groups according to the type of disease investigated for diagnosis: 1) malignant tumors; 2) neurologic diseases and 3) inflammatory/metabolic/cardiovascular diseases. Assessment of quality has been assigned according to a series of questions proposed by the National Institute of Health. Level of evidence was assessed using the categories proposed in the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based medicine (CEMB) levels for diagnosis (2011).

Results

Seventy-nine studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fifty-one (64%) investigated malignant tumors, 14 (17.5%) neurologic and 14 (18.5%) inflammatory/cardiovascular/metabolic diseases. Among studies investigating malignant tumors, 12 (23.5%) were scored as “good” and 11 of these reported statistically significant associations between salivary molecules and pathology. Two and 5 studies were found to have a good quality, among those evaluating the association between salivary biomarkers and neurologic and inflammatory/metabolic/cardiovascular diseases, respectively.

Conclusions

The present systematic review confirms the existence of some “good” quality evidence to support the role of peculiar salivary biomarkers for diagnosis of systemic diseases (e.g. lung cancer and EGFR).

Key words:Salivary diagnostics, biomarkers, systemic diseases, malignant tumors, early diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of human papillomavirus in the saliva of sexually active women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasias]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9da39f8a-e798-4d6f-8cf3-0bc1b3c1266d

Background

The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of human papillomavirus-DNA (HPV-DNA) in the saliva of sexually active women with HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and compare the findings with a healthy control group. The secondary objectives were: 1) to determine the concordance between genital and oral HPV types in sexually active women with HPV-related CIN; 2) to analyze whether sexual habits influence the presence of HPV-related CIN; 3) to determine whether sexual habits influence the presence of oral HPV.

Material and Methods

Saliva samples were collected from 100 sexually active women, 50 with HPV-related CIN and 50 healthy subjects presenting normal cytology. PCR assay was used to detect HPV-DNA.

Results

The prevalence of oral HPV infection in saliva samples was 14% in women with HPV-related CIN, while in the healthy group it was 12%, without statistically significant difference (p =0.766). As for the concordance between genital and oral HPV types in women with HPV-related CIN, concordance was only observed for HPV-16, whereby among 22 women with genital HPV-16, only one (4.54%) also presented oral HPV-16. Regarding the possible influence of sexual habits on the presence of cervical pathology and presence of oral HPV, it was found that marital status, age at first intercourse, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use are related with the presence of cervical pathology (p<0.001; p=0.017; p=0.002; and p <0.001, respectively); condom use was also found to be related to the presence of oral HPV (p<0.001).

Conclusions

The prevalence of HPV-DNA in the saliva of sexually active women with HPV-related CIN is similar to healthy women. The concordance between genital and oral HPV types is low. Both the presence of cervical pathology and the presence of oral HPV are related to sexual habits. Wider sample size is required to confirm this results.

Key words:Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, HPV, saliva, cervix, cancer.

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<![CDATA[SOX2 and BCL-2 Expressions in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nda644c83-ad83-429e-b2e4-a495bca1c33a

Background

The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the immunohistochemical expression of SOX2 and BCL-2 in Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) and Ameloblastoma (AB) specimens, and to identify a possible correlation in their expression.

Material and Methods

Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate SOX2 and BCL-2 expression in OKC (n = 20) and AB (n = 20). The immunoexpression was analyzed by a quantitative and qualitative scoring system. The comparison between the immunoexpression of SOX 2 and BCL-2 was assessed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated the correlation between SOX2 and BCL-2 expressions.

Results

SOX2 and BCL-2 expression was observed in all specimens of OKC in the full thickness of the epithelium lining. SOX2 immunostaining was higher in OKC, in comparison with AB samples (P<0.05). BCL-2 immunostaining between OKC and AB was not statistically significant. There was no significant correlation between SOX2 and BCL-2 in OKC and AB specimens.

Conclusions

SOX2 and BCL-2 expressions in OKC may suggest their relationship with the biological behavior of this lesion, and the higher expression of SOX2 might be an upstream influence on the Hh signaling pathway.

Key words:Odontogenic keratocyst; Ameloblastoma; Odontogenic tumor; SOX2; BCL-2.

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<![CDATA[Metagenomic investigation of bacteria associated with dental lesions: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N53326a0a-c85c-4691-9b51-ce4556a951a9

Background

Dental caries is considered as one of the most significant global health problem over the world. Dental caries initiates from bacterial shifts within the supragingival biofilm, then a polymicrobial biofilm is formed on the surface of tooth, and finally various bacterial species aggregate in a complex-organized manner. The exploiting variability in 16S rRNA gene sequence has been considered as a cost-efficient high-throughput characterization approach in human oral microbiome investigations. The aim of this study is to characterize bacterial species associated with superficial dental biofilm, underlying carious dentine and root caries lesion by16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis.

Material and Methods

Herein, the bacterial communities in carious dentin lesion, biofilm and root canal samples of 30 subjects (aged 4–76 years) admitted to a clinic in Tehran during 2017 were investigated using a culture independent approach. Total genomic DNA of each tissue was subjected to metagenomic identification of bacteria using a nested PCR assay and 16S rRNA library construction method.

Results

31 samples collected from 30 consenting patients (29 samples from 29 patients ant two biofilm samples from one patient). Bioinformatics analyses of a-800bp sequences of the second step of Nested-PCR revealed presence of 156 bacterial isolates in carious (n=45), biofilm (n=81) and root canal (n=30) specimens. Prevotella spp., Lactobacillus vaginalis, and streptococcus spp. showed higher prevalence in carious dentin, root and biofilm samples, respectively.

Conclusions

Exploring the dental microbiota and comparing them in health or diseased conditions is critical step in the determination of human general health. The method applied in this study could identify bacteria related to the three dental lesions. However, due to lack of data for comparison in Genbank or because of the sequence similarity lower than 98% for most identified bacteria, the use of more powerful approaches like NGS platforms or typing of multiple loci (MLST) in future studies is recommended.

Key words:Bacterial composition, dental caries, dental biofilm, oral microbiome.

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<![CDATA[Functional, physical and psychosocial impact of Temporomandibular Disorders in adolescents and young adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N99d08da4-20b7-4c82-82e0-3ea70578a8e9

Background

This community-based study investigated the functional, physical and psychosocial impact of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs) in adolescents and young adults. It also determined the discriminative capacity of a TMDs-specific oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument and compared three formats of appraising OHRQoL data.

Material and Methods

Subjects were recruited from a local Polytechnic. The presence of TMDs was established with the Fonseca Anamnestic Index (FAI), whilst TMDs-specific OHRQoL was evaluated with the Oral Health Impact Profile–TMDs (OHIP-TMDs). Demographic information, FAI and OHIP-TMDs responses were gathered with an on-line questionnaire. Data was analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-square test and Spearman’s rho correlation with significance level set at 0.05.

Results

Data from a total of 244 participants were compiled and examined. The “no TMDs” (NT) group consisted of 140 subjects (119 females; 21 males) with a mean age of 20.41±3.29 years, while the “with TMDs” (WT) group composed of 104 subjects (88 females; 16 males) aged 19.82±3.04 years. Significant differences in median severity scores were observed between subjects with and without TMDs for all OHIP-TMDs domains and total OHIP (p values < 0.001). For appraisal of extent and prevalence, significant differences were again observed (p values < 0.05) with the exception of the functional limitation and handicap domains.

Conclusions

TMDs impacted physical and psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. OHIP-TMDs, preferably appraised by severity, extent and prevalence, was able to discriminate between subjects with and without TMDs. It holds promise as a TMDs-specific OHRQoL instrument for epidemiological studies.

Key words:Temporomandibular Disorders, Oral health, Quality of life, Biopsychosocial.

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<![CDATA[Immunohistochemical analysis of cancer-associated fibroblasts and podoplanin in head and neck cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N912ab6ab-a48e-4eb5-a045-9e2f44b1a5c2

Background

To immunohistochemically evaluate the association between the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and the tumour expression of podoplanin (PDPN) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and their association with clinicopathological variables.

Material and Methods

A tissue microarray (TMA) with biopsy sections from patients diagnosed with HNSCC was stained with antibodies against the CAFs marker, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and PDPN. We subsequently evaluated their expression to determine the association between them and with clinicopathological variables including age, primary tumour site, TNM stage, and tumour differentiation grade.

Results

Positive reaction to α-SMA was observed in the tumour stroma, revealing spindle-shaped cells compatible with CAFs, which showed a high expression in 62% of cases and a significant association with laryngeal carcinomas, advanced clinical stages, and lower tumour differentiation (P ≤ 0.05). PDPN staining on tumour cells showed low expression in 72% of cases, and it was not associated with any clinicopathological variable or with the presence of CAFs.

Conclusions

The presence of CAFs in the tumour stroma is related to an aggressive phenotype and could increase as the disease progresses, although based on our findings, it would have no relationship, at least directly, with the expression of PDPN.

Key words:Cancer-associated fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, head and neck neoplasms, podoplanin, immunohistochemistry.

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<![CDATA[Mixed evidence for the relationship between periodontitis and Alzheimer’s disease: A bidirectional Mendelian randomization study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89b89fe7-2f39-423b-9f5f-6e2e7b2736b5

Recent experimental studies indicated that a periodontitis-causing bacterium might be a causal factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We applied a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to examine the potential causal relationship between chronic periodontitis and AD bidirectionally in the population of European ancestry. We used publicly available data of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on periodontitis and AD. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used as instrumental variables for periodontitis. For the MR analysis of periodontitis on risk of AD, the causal odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from the GWAS of periodontitis (4,924 cases vs. 7,301 controls) and from the GWAS of AD (21,982 cases vs. 41,944 controls). Seven non-overlapping SNPs from another latest GWAS of periodontitis was used to validate the above association. Twenty SNPs were used as instrumental variables for AD. For the MR analysis of liability to AD on risk of periodontitis, the causal OR was derived from the GWAS of AD including 30,344 cases and 52,427 controls and from the GWAS of periodontitis consisted of 12,289 cases and 22,326 controls. We employed multiple methods of MR. Using the five SNPs as instruments of periodontitis, there was suggestive evidence of genetically predicted periodontitis being associated with a higher risk of AD (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.19, P = 0.02). However, this association was not verified using the seven independent SNPs (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.08, P = 0.59). There was no association of genetically predicted AD with the risk of periodontitis (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.04, P = 0.85). In summary, we did not find convincing evidence to support periodontitis being a causal factor for the development of AD. There was also limited evidence to suggest genetic liability to AD being associated with the risk of periodontitis.

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<![CDATA[Can immunohistochemical biomarkers distinguish epithelial dysplasia degrees in actinic cheilitis? A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndb8fae34-2187-4819-bedd-667b9bb62b90

Background

Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a poten-tially malignant disorder of the lip, characterized by epithelial and connective tissue alterations caused by chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In the past decades, diverse studies have been conducted in lip carcinogenesis and many biomarkers have been identified in lip lesions, yet there is no scientific evidence that determines its usefulness in the clinical setting or in histopatho-logical routine. Therefore, we conducted the first systematic review in this field to summarize the results of published studies on immunohistochemical bi-omarkers in lip carcinogenesis, to evaluate if there is a marker than can distin-guish the different histological grades of AC.

Material and Methods

Retrospective stud-ies that investigated immunohistochemical biomarkers in AC defined on standardised histological assessment were gathered from five databases and evaluated. Each study was qualitatively evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Tools from SUMARI.

Results

The proliferation marker Ki-67 was the most studied biomarker and we observed, through meta-analysis, that it was differently expressed between AC and lip cancer, but not in AC sub-groups. Most articles had a high risk of bias.

Conclusions

In summary, the literature lacks quality follow up studies in actinic cheilitis. Multi-centre cohort studies, with patients stratified by treatment type and the use of image analysis soft-ware, could be the solution to further address the issues of investigating poten-tially malignant lesions and help change clinical practice, in terms of individu-alizing patients’ treatment and prognosis prediction.

Key words:Lip carcinogenesis, actinic cheilitis, lip cancer, bi-omarkers.

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<![CDATA[Clinicopathological and ultrastructural characterization of periapical actinomycosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N76742010-e205-4cce-81f7-c581103c9b24

Background

The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinicopathological and the ultrastructural features of periapical actinomycosis (PA) cases.

Material and Methods

Data from the files of an oral pathology laboratory were retrieved and the findings of histopathological analysis were evaluated. Hematoxylin–eosin (HE), a modified Brown & Brenn, and Grocott stains as well as ultrastructural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were utilized.

Results

Six cases were obtained, 4 females and 2 males, with a mean age of 34 year-old. Two cases were symptomatic, lower teeth and the anterior region were more commonly affected, and all cases were characterized by periapical radiolucencies. All cases presented sulfur granules with a ray-fungus or club-shaped pattern of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon in HE-stained sections, with filamentous gram-positive bacteria aggregates highlighted by the modified Brown & Brenn stain. SEM analysis revealed abundant packed rod-like and filamentous bacteria associated with an extracellular amorphous material. EDX analysis showed predominant picks of calcium and sulfur in actinomycotic colonies.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that PA manifests either clinically and radiologically as a non-specific and heterogeneous condition and that the actinomycotic colonies consist in a calcium- and sulfur-rich matrix. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of submitting periapical specimens after surgical removal to histopathological analysis.

Key words:Actinomyces, actinomycosis, periapical diseases.

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<![CDATA[Oral potentially malignant disorders: clinical-pathological study of 684 cases diagnosed in a Brazilian population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5112b1d2-1b9c-471d-bf8b-0982768be98b

Background

The frequency and distribution of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) may vary among different populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical-pathological characteristics of OPMD diagnosed in a Brazilian oral pathology laboratory over a period of 11 years.

Material and Methods

All cases diagnosed as leukoplakia, speckled leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and actinic cheilitis from 2005 to 2015 were analyzed. Clinical information was obtained from laboratory forms and histological information was obtained from histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

Results

the final sample was comprised of 684 cases, of which 292 were males and 392 were females. The mean age was 58 years. The anatomical site most often involved was the lateral border of the tongue (23%), followed by the lower lip (20%), and by the buccal mucosa/vestibule (18%). Leukoplakia accounted for 82% of the sample (564 cases). The mean size of the leukoplakia and speckled leukoplakia lesions was 13 mm (ranging from 1 to 100 mm) and 15 mm (ranging from 5 to 30 mm), respectively (p=0.460). Males reported smoking and drinking alcohol more frequently than females (p=0.001 and p <0.0001, respectively). In half of the cases, dysplasia was not histologically detected, while slight dysplasia was detected in 28% of the cases. The lesions from patients aged from 41 to 80 years presented moderate and severe dysplasia more often than lesions from patients in other age groups.

Conclusions

OPMD were more common in females in their sixties. Females were more frequently affected in all anatomical sites, except for the lips. Leukoplakia lesions were the most common OPMD, followed by actinic cheilitis. The lateral border of the tongue was the most affected anatomical site. OPMD located in the floor of the mouth/sublingual mucosa and lesions from older patients presented severe epithelial dysplasia with greater frequency.

Key words:Potentially malignant disorders, oral, leukoplakia, speckled leukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, squamous cell carcinoma.

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<![CDATA[The recurrence of odontogenic keratocysts in pediatric patients is associated with clinical findings of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8fe7447-e1d5-4060-9822-82d66c77ff11

Background

Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an odontogenic developmental cyst that presents distinct clinical behavior. This lesion has been described as dental cysts with keratinization since the 1930s, however the term "OKC" was established in 1956. This study aims to determine the frequency and features of OKC in children aged 0 to 14 years in an oral pathology service in Brazil.

Material and Methods

A retrospective study was performed to review cases of OKC in children diagnosed between 1986 and 2017. Clinical data were evaluated from medical records (gender, race, age, anatomical location, treatment, radiographic findings and follow-up).

Results

Ninety-seven cases of OKC were diagnosed in a 31-year-period in all age groups and 10 were found in children (10.3%). Age ranged from 2 to 14 years (mean age=10.5±3.5), with 8 males and 2 females. The most frequent location was the anterior region of the mandible (n=4). Patients were predominantly asymptomatic. Moreover, in two children, clinical findings of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome were observed. The most commonly used treatment was enucleation followed by curettage. In all cases of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome were observed recurrences and occurrence of new keratocysts.

Conclusions

Although uncommon in pediatric patients, OKC should be considered a differential diagnosis in cases of osteolytic lesions in gnathic bones. Thus, the periodic assessment of children by dentists and pediatricians is essential to get a correct diagnosis and early treatment to avoid greater mutilation of these patients.

Key words:Odontogenic cysts, children, odontogenic keratocyst, Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome.

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<![CDATA[CD1a+ and CD207+ cells are reduced in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncf2b1da7-1b47-4fb5-9eb0-c99decd9468e

Background

The objective of this study investigated the distribution of immature dendritic cells (DCs), Langerhans cells and plasmacytoid DCs in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), OSMF associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSMF-OSCC), oral leukoplakia (OL), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Material and Methods

Fourteen cases of OSMF, 9 of OSMF-OSCC, 8 of OL¸ 45 of OSCC and 8 of normal epithelium were retrospectively retrieved and their diagnoses confirmed. Immunoreactions against CD1a, CD207 e CD303 were performed and the number of positive cells quantified.

Results

A significant decrease of CD1a+ was found in OSMF (p≤0.05), OSMF-OSCC (p ≤ 0.01), and OSCC (p ≤ 0.001) when compared to normal epithelium. For CD207+ the significance decrease was observed in OSMF-OSCC (p ≤ 0.05), and OSCC (p ≤ 0.01) when compared with normal epithelium, and in OSMF when compared with OL (p ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference for CD303, but increased in CD303+ was observed in OSCC when compared with normal epithelium.

Conclusions

The decrease in the number of CD1a+ and CD207+ cells may be associate to the development of oral OSCC, and in OPMDs they might be indicators of malignant transformation.

Key words:Premalignant lesions, oral submucous fibrosis, oral squamous cell carcinoma, immune response.

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<![CDATA[Review and update on drugs related to the development of osteonecrosis of the jaw]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N760c9aac-823a-4e39-a822-86df48114c15

Background

Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a rare, but serious adverse effect of certain drugs, of which bisphosphonates are the most widely known. This pathology is also associated with other medications such as the biologic antiresorptive agent, denosumab and some antiangiogenics such as sunitinib, bevacizumab or aflibercept. Very recently, new medications have also been associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). The objectives were to update the list of medications associated with ONJ, to analyze the fundamental aspects of this list and to describe the level of evidence available.

Material and Methods

A narrative bibliographic review was made, using the PubMed-MedLine, DOAJ and SCIELO databases. Additional information was obtained through the online Medication Information Centre of the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS – CIMA), the websites of the US Food & Drugs Administration (Drugs@FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

Results

The latest drugs identified as potential facilitators of this pathology include a number of anti-VEGF based antiangiogenic drugs and anti-TKI and different types of immunomodulators. Neither the level of evidence in this association nor the risk are equal for all these drugs. On the other hand, over the coming years, new drugs will be marketed with similar action mechanisms to those that are recognized as having this adverse effect.

Conclusions

No effective therapy is currently known for the treatment of ONJ. Therefore, in order to prevent new cases of MRONJ, it is essential for all oral healthcare professionals to be fully up-to-date with the etiopathogenic aspects of this pathology and to be aware of those drugs considered to be a risk.

Key words:Osteonecrosis of the jaw, MRONJ, bisphosphonates, antiresorptives, antiangiogenics.

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