ResearchPad - organoids https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Patient-derived oral mucosa organoids as an <i>in vitro</i> model for methotrexate induced toxicity in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15720 We have recently established a protocol to grow wildtype human oral mucosa organoids. These three-dimensional structures can be maintained in culture long-term, do not require immortalization, and recapitulate the multilayered composition of the epithelial lining of the oral mucosa. Here, we validate the use of this model to study the effect of Leucovorin (LV) on Methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicity. MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although effective, the use of MTX often results in severe side-effects, including oral mucositis, which is characterized by epithelial cell death. Here, we show that organoids are sensitive to MTX, and that the addition of LV reduces MTX toxicity, in both a concentration- and timing-dependent manner. Additionally, we show that a 24 hour ‘pretreatment’ with LV reduces MTX-induced cell death, suggesting that such a pretreatment could decrease mucositis in patients. Taken together, we provide the first in vitro model to study the effect of MTX on wildtype oral mucosa cells. Our findings underscore the relevance of the clinically applied LV regimen and highlight the potential of this model to further optimize modifications in dosing and timing of Leucovorin on oral mucosa cells.

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<![CDATA[Recapitulation of the accessible interface of biopsy-derived canine intestinal organoids to study epithelial-luminal interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N24a1d01a-2f11-47b7-a628-8330af6f7455

Recent advances in canine intestinal organoids have expanded the option for building a better in vitro model to investigate translational science of intestinal physiology and pathology between humans and animals. However, the three-dimensional geometry and the enclosed lumen of canine intestinal organoids considerably hinder the access to the apical side of epithelium for investigating the nutrient and drug absorption, host-microbiome crosstalk, and pharmaceutical toxicity testing. Thus, the creation of a polarized epithelial interface accessible from apical or basolateral side is critical. Here, we demonstrated the generation of an intestinal epithelial monolayer using canine biopsy-derived colonic organoids (colonoids). We optimized the culture condition to form an intact monolayer of the canine colonic epithelium on a nanoporous membrane insert using the canine colonoids over 14 days. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed a physiological brush border interface covered by the microvilli with glycocalyx, as well as the presence of mucin granules, tight junctions, and desmosomes. The population of stem cells as well as differentiated lineage-dependent epithelial cells were verified by immunofluorescence staining and RNA in situ hybridization. The polarized expression of P-glycoprotein efflux pump was confirmed at the apical membrane. Also, the epithelial monolayer formed tight- and adherence-junctional barrier within 4 days, where the transepithelial electrical resistance and apparent permeability were inversely correlated. Hence, we verified the stable creation, maintenance, differentiation, and physiological function of a canine intestinal epithelial barrier, which can be useful for pharmaceutical and biomedical researches.

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<![CDATA[Increased Programmed Death-Ligand 1 is an Early Epithelial Cell Response to Helicobacter pylori Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2f8d5eed0c48441eea8

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Our laboratory has reported that the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is an early response to infection that is fundamental to the initiation of H. pylori-induced gastritis. H. pylori also induces programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on gastric epithelial cells, yet the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesize that H. pylori-induced PD-L1 expression within the gastric epithelium is mediated by the Shh signaling pathway during infection. To identify the role of Shh signaling as a mediator of H. pylori-induced PD-L1 expression, human gastric organoids generated from either induced pluripotent stem cells (HGOs) or tissue (huFGOs) were microinjected with bacteria and treated with Hedgehog/Gli inhibitor GANT61. Gastric epithelial monolayers generated from the huFGOs were also infected with H. pylori and treated with GANT61 to study the role of Hedgehog signaling as a mediator of induced PD-1 expression. A patient-derived organoid/autologous immune cell co-culture system infected with H. pylori and treated with PD-1 inhibitor (PD-1Inh) was developed to study the protective mechanism of PD-L1 in response to bacterial infection. H. pylori significantly increased PD-L1 expression in organoid cultures 48 hours post-infection when compared to uninfected controls. The mechanism was cytotoxic associated gene A (CagA) dependent. This response was blocked by pretreatment with GANT61. Anti-PD-L1 treatment of H. pylori infected huFGOs, co-cultured with autologous patient cytotoxic T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, induced organoid death. H. pylori-induced PD-L1 expression is mediated by the Shh signaling pathway within the gastric epithelium. Cells infected with H. pylori that express PD-L1 may be protected from the immune response, creating premalignant lesions progressing to gastric cancer.

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<![CDATA[Small-molecule induction of Aβ-42 peptide production in human cerebral organoids to model Alzheimer's disease associated phenotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21517bd5eed0c4843fa61e

Human mini-brains (MB) are cerebral organoids that recapitulate in part the complexity of the human brain in a unique three-dimensional in vitro model, yielding discrete brain regions reminiscent of the cerebral cortex. Specific proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders are physiologically expressed in MBs, such as APP-derived amyloids (Aβ), whose physiological and pathological roles and interactions with other proteins are not well established in humans. Here, we demonstrate that neuroectodermal organoids can be used to study the Aβ accumulation implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To enhance the process of protein secretion and accumulation, we adopted a chemical strategy of induction to modulate post-translational pathways of APP using an Amyloid-β Forty-Two Inducer named Aftin-5. Secreted, soluble Aβ fragment concentrations were analyzed in MB-conditioned media. An increase in the Aβ42 fragment secretion was observed as was an increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio after drug treatment, which is consistent with the pathological-like phenotypes described in vivo in transgenic animal models and in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cultures obtained from AD patients. Notably in this context we observe time-dependent Aβ accumulation, which differs from protein accumulation occurring after treatment. We show that mini-brains obtained from a non-AD control cell line are responsive to chemical compound induction, producing a shift of physiological Aβ concentrations, suggesting that this model can be used to identify environmental agents that may initiate the cascade of events ultimately leading to sporadic AD. Increases in both Aβ oligomers and their target, the cellular prion protein (PrPC), support the possibility of using MBs to further understand the pathophysiological role that underlies their interaction in a human model. Finally, the potential application of MBs for modeling age-associated phenotypes and the study of neurological disorders is confirmed.

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<![CDATA[Synthetic scaffolds help airway cells reach maturity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da57ab0ee8fa60b8f238

Transplanting bioengineered human lung organoids into mice could lead to a humanized model for pre-clinical studies of lung disease.

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<![CDATA[Validation of Novel Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Progression by the Combination of Bioinformatics, Clinical and Functional Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da22ab0ee8fa60b7f399

The identification and validation of biomarkers for clinical applications remains an important issue for improving diagnostics and therapy in many diseases, including prostate cancer. Gene expression profiles are routinely applied to identify diagnostic and predictive biomarkers or novel targets for cancer. However, only few predictive markers identified in silico have also been validated for clinical, functional or mechanistic relevance in disease progression. In this study, we have used a broad, bioinformatics-based approach to identify such biomarkers across a spectrum of progression stages, including normal and tumor-adjacent, premalignant, primary and late stage lesions. Bioinformatics data mining combined with clinical validation of biomarkers by sensitive, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), followed by functional evaluation of candidate genes in disease-relevant processes, such as cancer cell proliferation, motility and invasion. From 300 initial candidates, eight genes were selected for validation by several layers of data mining and filtering. For clinical validation, differential mRNA expression of selected genes was measured by qRT-PCR in 197 clinical prostate tissue samples including normal prostate, compared against histologically benign and cancerous tissues. Based on the qRT-PCR results, significantly different mRNA expression was confirmed in normal prostate versus malignant PCa samples (for all eight genes), but also in cancer-adjacent tissues, even in the absence of detectable cancer cells, thus pointing to the possibility of pronounced field effects in prostate lesions. For the validation of the functional properties of these genes, and to demonstrate their putative relevance for disease-relevant processes, siRNA knock-down studies were performed in both 2D and 3D organotypic cell culture models. Silencing of three genes (DLX1, PLA2G7 and RHOU) in the prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and VCaP by siRNA resulted in marked growth arrest and cytotoxicity, particularly in 3D organotypic cell culture conditions. In addition, silencing of PLA2G7, RHOU, ACSM1, LAMB1 and CACNA1D also resulted in reduced tumor cell invasion in PC3 organoid cultures. For PLA2G7 and RHOU, the effects of siRNA silencing on proliferation and cell-motility could also be confirmed in 2D monolayer cultures. In conclusion, DLX1 and RHOU showed the strongest potential as useful clinical biomarkers for PCa diagnosis, further validated by their functional roles in PCa progression. These candidates may be useful for more reliable identification of relapses or therapy failures prior to the recurrence local or distant metastases.

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<![CDATA[Metabolic Imaging of Head and Neck Cancer Organoids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2dab0ee8fa60b83120

Head and neck cancer patients suffer from toxicities, morbidities, and mortalities, and these ailments could be minimized through improved therapies. Drug discovery is a long, expensive, and complex process, so optimized assays can improve the success rate of drug candidates. This study applies optical imaging of cell metabolism to three-dimensional in vitro cultures of head and neck cancer grown from primary tumor tissue (organoids). This technique is advantageous because it measures cell metabolism using intrinsic fluorescence from NAD(P)H and FAD on a single cell level for a three-dimensional in vitro model. Head and neck cancer organoids are characterized alone and after treatment with standard therapies, including an antibody therapy, a chemotherapy, and combination therapy. Additionally, organoid cellular heterogeneity is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Gold standard measures of treatment response, including cell proliferation, cell death, and in vivo tumor volume, validate therapeutic efficacy for each treatment group in a parallel study. Results indicate that optical metabolic imaging is sensitive to therapeutic response in organoids after 1 day of treatment (p<0.05) and resolves cell subpopulations with distinct metabolic phenotypes. Ultimately, this platform could provide a sensitive high-throughput assay to streamline the drug discovery process for head and neck cancer.

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<![CDATA[Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad5ab0ee8fa60bb7cc0

Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

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<![CDATA[Self-Organizing 3D Human Neural Tissue Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Recapitulate Alzheimer’s Disease Phenotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b70c4c

The dismal success rate of clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) motivates us to develop model systems of AD pathology that have higher predictive validity. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allows us to model pathology and study disease mechanisms directly in human neural cells from healthy individual as well as AD patients. However, two-dimensional culture systems do not recapitulate the complexity of neural tissue, and phenotypes such as extracellular protein aggregation are difficult to observe. We report brain organoids that use pluripotent stem cells derived from AD patients and recapitulate AD-like pathologies such as amyloid aggregation, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and endosome abnormalities. These pathologies are observed in an age-dependent manner in organoids derived from multiple familial AD (fAD) patients harboring amyloid precursor protein (APP) duplication or presenilin1 (PSEN1) mutation, compared to controls. The incidence of AD pathology was consistent amongst several fAD lines, which carried different mutations. Although these are complex assemblies of neural tissue, they are also highly amenable to experimental manipulation. We find that treatment of patient-derived organoids with β- and γ-secretase inhibitors significantly reduces amyloid and tau pathology. Moreover, these results show the potential of this model system to greatly increase the translatability of pre-clinical drug discovery in AD.

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<![CDATA[Use of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) as a Timer of Cell Cycle S Phase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db19ab0ee8fa60bcdb1f

Incorporation of thymidine analogues in replicating DNA, coupled with antibody and fluorophore staining, allows analysis of cell proliferation, but is currently limited to monolayer cultures, fixed cells and end-point assays. We describe a simple microscopy imaging method for live real-time analysis of cell proliferation, S phase progression over several division cycles, effects of anti-proliferative drugs and other applications. It is based on the prominent (~ 1.7-fold) quenching of fluorescence lifetime of a common cell-permeable nuclear stain, Hoechst 33342 upon the incorporation of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in genomic DNA and detection by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We show that quantitative and accurate FLIM technique allows high-content, multi-parametric dynamic analyses, far superior to the intensity-based imaging. We demonstrate its uses with monolayer cell cultures, complex 3D tissue models of tumor cell spheroids and intestinal organoids, and in physiological study with metformin treatment.

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<![CDATA[Promotion of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Turnover by Commensal Bacteria: Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da26ab0ee8fa60b80bd9

The life span of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is short (3–5 days), and its regulation is thought to be important for homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of IEC turnover in the small intestine. The proliferative activity of IECs in intestinal crypts as well as the migration of these cells along the crypt-villus axis were markedly attenuated both in germ-free mice and in specific pathogen–free (SPF) mice treated with a mixture of antibiotics, with antibiotics selective for Gram-positive bacteria being most effective in this regard. Oral administration of chloroform-treated feces of SPF mice to germ-free mice resulted in a marked increase in IEC turnover, suggesting that spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria contribute to this effect. Oral administration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as bacterial fermentation products also restored the turnover of IECs in antibiotic-treated SPF mice as well as promoted the development of intestinal organoids in vitro. Antibiotic treatment reduced the phosphorylation levels of ERK, ribosomal protein S6, and STAT3 in IECs of SPF mice. Our results thus suggest that Gram-positive commensal bacteria are a major determinant of IEC turnover, and that their stimulatory effect is mediated by SCFAs.

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<![CDATA[Retinol Promotes In Vitro Growth of Proximal Colon Organoids through a Retinoic Acid-Independent Mechanism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da87ab0ee8fa60b9c928

Retinol (ROL), the alcohol form of vitamin A, is known to control cell fate decision of various types of stem cells in the form of its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). However, little is known about whether ROL has regulatory effects on colonic stem cells. We examined in this study the effect of ROL on the growth of murine normal colonic cells cultured as organoids. As genes involved in RA synthesis from ROL were differentially expressed along the length of the colon, we tested the effect of ROL on proximal and distal colon organoids separately. We found that organoid forming efficiency and the expression level of Lgr5, a marker gene for colonic stem cells were significantly enhanced by ROL in the proximal colon organoids, but not in the distal ones. Interestingly, neither retinaldehyde (RAL), an intermediate product of the ROL-RA pathway, nor RA exhibited growth promoting effects on the proximal colon organoids, suggesting that ROL-dependent growth enhancement in organoids involves an RA-independent mechanism. This was confirmed by the observation that an inhibitor for RA-mediated gene transcription did not abrogate the effect of ROL on organoids. This novel role of ROL in stem cell maintenance in the proximal colon provides insights into the mechanism of region-specific regulation for colonic stem cell maintenance.

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<![CDATA[Paneth Cell-Rich Regions Separated by a Cluster of Lgr5+ Cells Initiate Crypt Fission in the Intestinal Stem Cell Niche]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dbab0ee8fa60b67b9a

The crypts of the intestinal epithelium house the stem cells that ensure the continual renewal of the epithelial cells that line the intestinal tract. Crypt number increases by a process called crypt fission, the division of a single crypt into two daughter crypts. Fission drives normal tissue growth and maintenance. Correspondingly, it becomes less frequent in adulthood. Importantly, fission is reactivated to drive adenoma growth. The mechanisms governing fission are poorly understood. However, only by knowing how normal fission operates can cancer-associated changes be elucidated. We studied normal fission in tissue in three dimensions using high-resolution imaging and used intestinal organoids to identify underlying mechanisms. We discovered that both the number and relative position of Paneth cells and Lgr5+ cells are important for fission. Furthermore, the higher stiffness and increased adhesion of Paneth cells are involved in determining the site of fission. Formation of a cluster of Lgr5+ cells between at least two Paneth-cell-rich domains establishes the site for the upward invagination that initiates fission.

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<![CDATA[Cytokeratin-14 contributes to collective invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc54d

Collective invasion of cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing, immune response and cancer metastasis. This paper aimed to investigate cytokeratin-14 (CK14) expression and analyze its association with collective invasion in the invasive front of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) to uncover the role of collective invasion in SACC. Here, in the clinical data of 121 patients with SACC, the positive expression of CK14 was observed in 35/121(28.93%) of the invasive front of SACC. CK14 expression in the invasive front, local regional recurrence and distant metastasis were independent and significant prognostic factors in SACC patients. Then, we found that in an ex vivo 3D culture assay, CK14 siRNA receded the collective invasion, and in 2D monolayer culture, CK14 overexpression induced a collective SACC cell migration. These data indicated that the presence of characterized CK14+ cells in the invasive front of SACC promoted collective cell invasion of SACC and may be a biomarker of SACC with a worse prognosis.

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<![CDATA[Influenza Virus Infects Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells of the Distal Lung: Impact on Fgfr2b-Driven Epithelial Repair]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da61ab0ee8fa60b91095

Influenza Virus (IV) pneumonia is associated with severe damage of the lung epithelium and respiratory failure. Apart from efficient host defense, structural repair of the injured epithelium is crucial for survival of severe pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem/progenitor cell mediated regenerative responses are not well characterized. In particular, the impact of IV infection on lung stem cells and their regenerative responses remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that a highly pathogenic IV infects various cell populations in the murine lung, but displays a strong tropism to an epithelial cell subset with high proliferative capacity, defined by the signature EpCamhighCD24lowintegrin(α6)high. This cell fraction expressed the stem cell antigen-1, highly enriched lung stem/progenitor cells previously characterized by the signature integrin(β4)+CD200+, and upregulated the p63/krt5 regeneration program after IV-induced injury. Using 3-dimensional organoid cultures derived from these epithelial stem/progenitor cells (EpiSPC), and in vivo infection models including transgenic mice, we reveal that their expansion, barrier renewal and outcome after IV-induced injury critically depended on Fgfr2b signaling. Importantly, IV infected EpiSPC exhibited severely impaired renewal capacity due to IV-induced blockade of β-catenin-dependent Fgfr2b signaling, evidenced by loss of alveolar tissue repair capacity after intrapulmonary EpiSPC transplantation in vivo. Intratracheal application of exogenous Fgf10, however, resulted in increased engagement of non-infected EpiSPC for tissue regeneration, demonstrated by improved proliferative potential, restoration of alveolar barrier function and increased survival following IV pneumonia. Together, these data suggest that tropism of IV to distal lung stem cell niches represents an important factor of pathogenicity and highlight impaired Fgfr2b signaling as underlying mechanism. Furthermore, increase of alveolar Fgf10 levels may represent a putative therapy to overcome regeneration failure after IV-induced lung injury.

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<![CDATA[Identification of the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 as a potential survival biomarker in breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf74d

Metastasis is the ultimate cause of breast cancer related mortality. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to play a crucial role in the metastatic potential of breast cancer. Growing evidence has implicated the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 in the regulation of EMT in mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer metastasis. However, the relevance of PIAS1 in human cancer and mechanisms by which PIAS1 might regulate breast cancer metastasis remain to be elucidated. Using tissue-microarray analysis (TMA), we report that the protein abundance and subcellular localization of PIAS1 correlate with disease specific overall survival of a cohort of breast cancer patients. In mechanistic studies, we find that PIAS1 acts via sumoylation of the transcriptional regulator SnoN to suppress invasive growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-derived organoids. Our studies thus identify the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer, and suggest a potential role for the PIAS1-SnoN sumoylation pathway in controlling breast cancer metastasis.

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<![CDATA[Modulation of Wnt Signaling Enhances Inner Ear Organoid Development in 3D Culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd427d

Stem cell-derived inner ear sensory epithelia are a promising source of tissues for treating patients with hearing loss and dizziness. We recently demonstrated how to generate inner ear sensory epithelia, designated as inner ear organoids, from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a self-organizing 3D culture. Here we improve the efficiency of this culture system by elucidating how Wnt signaling activity can drive the induction of otic tissue. We found that a carefully timed treatment with the potent Wnt agonist CHIR99021 promotes induction of otic vesicles—a process that was previously self-organized by unknown mechanisms. The resulting otic-like vesicles have a larger lumen size and contain a greater number of Pax8/Pax2-positive otic progenitor cells than organoids derived without the Wnt agonist. Additionally, these otic-like vesicles give rise to large inner ear organoids with hair cells whose morphological, biochemical and functional properties are indistinguishable from those of vestibular hair cells in the postnatal mouse inner ear. We conclude that Wnt signaling plays a similar role during inner ear organoid formation as it does during inner ear development in the embryo.

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<![CDATA[Intestinal organoids model human responses to infection by commensal and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1070

Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause the potentially fatal complication hemolytic uremic syndrome, and currently only supportive therapy is available. Lack of suitable animal models has hindered study of this disease. Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs), generated by in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, represent differentiated human intestinal tissue. We show that iHIOs with addition of human neutrophils can model E. coli intestinal infection and innate cellular responses. Commensal and O157:H7 introduced into the iHIO lumen replicated rapidly achieving high numbers. Commensal E. coli did not cause damage, and were completely contained within the lumen, suggesting defenses, such as mucus production, can constrain non-pathogenic strains. Some O157:H7 initially co-localized with cellular actin. Loss of actin and epithelial integrity was observed after 4 hours. O157:H7 grew as filaments, consistent with activation of the bacterial SOS stress response. SOS is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and O157:H7 infection increased ROS production. Transcriptional profiling (RNAseq) demonstrated that both commensal and O157:H7 upregulated genes associated with gastrointestinal maturation, while infection with O157:H7 upregulated inflammatory responses, including interleukin 8 (IL-8). IL-8 is associated with neutrophil recruitment, and infection with O157:H7 resulted in recruitment of human neutrophils into the iHIO tissue.

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<![CDATA[On the adhesion-cohesion balance and oxygen consumption characteristics of liver organoids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb4c

Liver organoids (LOs) are of interest in tissue replacement, hepatotoxicity and pathophysiological studies. However, it is still unclear what triggers LO self-assembly and what the optimal environment is for their culture. Hypothesizing that LO formation occurs as a result of a fine balance between cell-substrate adhesion and cell-cell cohesion, we used 3 cell types (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) to investigate LO self-assembly on different substrates keeping the culture parameters (e.g. culture media, cell types/number) and substrate stiffness constant. As cellular spheroids may suffer from oxygen depletion in the core, we also sought to identify the optimal culture conditions for LOs in order to guarantee an adequate supply of oxygen during proliferation and differentiation. The oxygen consumption characteristics of LOs were measured using an O2 sensor and used to model the O2 concentration gradient in the organoids. We show that no LO formation occurs on highly adhesive hepatic extra-cellular matrix-based substrates, suggesting that cellular aggregation requires an optimal trade-off between the adhesiveness of a substrate and the cohesive forces between cells and that this balance is modulated by substrate mechanics. Thus, in addition to substrate stiffness, physicochemical properties, which are also critical for cell adhesion, play a role in LO self-assembly.

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