ResearchPad - original-article https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Viruses and atypical bacteria in the respiratory tract of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with airway infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13339 Respiratory tract infections (RTI) can take a serious course under immunosuppression. Data on the impact of the underlying pathogens are still controversial. Samples from the upper (n = 322) and lower RT (n = 169) were collected from 136 children and 355 adults; 225 among them have been immunocompromised patients. Exclusion criteria were presence of relevant cultivable microorganisms, C-reactive protein > 20 mg/dl, or procalcitonin > 2.0 ng/ml. Samples were tested by PCR for the presence of herpesviruses (HSV-1/-2; VZV; CMV; HHV6; EBV), adenoviruses, bocaviruses, entero-/rhinoviruses (HRV), parechoviruses, coronaviruses, influenza viruses (IV), parainfluenza viruses as well as for pneumoviruses (HMPV and RSV), and atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M.p.; Chlamydia pneumoniae, C.p.). Viral/bacterial genome equivalents were detected in more than two-thirds of specimens. Under immunosuppression, herpesviruses (EBV 30.9%/14.6%, p < 0.001; CMV 19.6%/7.9%, p < 0.001; HSV-1: 14.2%/7.1%, p = 0.012) were frequently observed, mainly through their reactivation in adults. Immunocompromised adults tended to present a higher RSV prevalence (6.4%/2.4%, p = 0.078). Immunocompetent patients were more frequently tested positive for IV (15.0%/5.8%, p = 0.001) and M.p. (6.4%/0.4%, p < 0.001), probably biased due to the influenza pandemic of 2009 and an M.p. epidemic in 2011. About 41.8% of samples were positive for a single pathogen, and among them EBV (19.9%) was most prevalent followed by HRV (18.2%) and IV (16.6%). HSV-2 and C.p. were not found. Marked seasonal effects were observed for HRV, IV, and RSV. Differences in pathogen prevalence were demonstrated between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The exact contribution of some herpesviruses to the development of RTI remains unclear.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s10096-020-03878-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ]]>
<![CDATA[‘Incantatory’ governance: global climate politics’ performative turn and its wider significance for global politics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13320 The 2015 Paris agreement represents a deep-rooted change in global climate governance. While existing scholarly assessments highlight central institutional features of the Paris shift, they tend to overlook its symbolic and discursive dimensions. Our analysis shows that the Paris architecture combines two core elements: an iterative pledge and review process to stimulate global climate action, and a ‘performative’ narrative aimed at aligning actors’ expectations on the prospect of a low-carbon future. We therefore suggest calling it an incantatory system of governance. We then examine the origins of the new approach and find that the rise of ‘soft law’ approaches and communicative techniques in global climate governance are both indicative of a broader process: the entry of management culture in international organisations. Against this backdrop, we examine the prospects, limitations and caveats of the new approach and discuss its wider implications for global politics.

]]>
<![CDATA[Clinical features of hemodialysis patients with COVID-19: a single-center retrospective study on 32 patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13172 We retrospectively analyzed the data of 32 hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 to clarify the epidemiological characteristics of this special population.MethodThe data of 32 hemodialysis patients with COVID-19, including epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological, were collected from the Blood Purification Department of Wuhan Fourth Hospital from February 3 to 16, 2020.ResultsOf the 32 patients, 23 were male, and the median age was 58 years; the median dialysis vintage was 33 months. Two groups were divided according to the patient’s primary renal disease: group 1 (16 patients with diabetic nephropathy), group 2 (12 patients with primary glomerulonephritis, 2 with obstructive kidney disease, 1 with hypertensive renal damage, and 1 with polycystic kidney). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in epidemiological characteristics, blood cell counts, and radiological performance. Hemodialysis patients are susceptible to COVID-19 at all ages, and patients with diabetes may be a high-risk population (50%). Common symptoms included fever (15 cases), cough (21 cases), and fatigue (7 cases). The blood lymphocyte count decreased in 84.6% of the patients (median: 0.765 × 109/L). Chest CT revealed ground-glass-like lesions in 18 cases, unilateral lung patchiness in 7 cases, bilateral lung patchiness in 7 cases, and pleural effusion in 2 cases.ConclusionOnly 46.875% of the hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 had fever in the early stage; and diabetics may be the most susceptible population. A decrease in blood lymphocyte count and ground-glass opacity on chest CT scan is beneficial in identifying the high-risk population. ]]> <![CDATA[Dose selection of chloroquine phosphate for treatment of COVID-19 based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13033 A PBPK model of chloroquine was developed to understand the drug exposure at the site of action as well as in the tissues of interest where toxicity is of concern, and to predict optimized dosage regimens for patients with COVID-19.Image 1

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of Somatostatin and CXCR4 Receptor Expression in a Large Set of Prostate Cancer Samples Using Tissue Microarrays and Well-Characterized Monoclonal Antibodies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12691 BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer among men in Western countries. Despite numerous therapeutic options, few treatments are available for patients with end-stage disease. In the present study, different somatostatin receptors (SSTs) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 were evaluated for their suitability as novel therapeutic targets in PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of SST subtypes 1, 2A, 3, and 5 and of CXCR4 was evaluated in 276 PCa tumor samples on a tissue microarray (TMA) in 23 whole-block tumor samples and in 3 PCa cell lines by immunohistochemistry using well-characterized monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Overall, the frequency and intensity of expression of SSTs and CXCR4 were very low among the PCa samples investigated. Specifically, SST5, SST2A, and SST3 were expressed, albeit at low intensity, in 10.5%, 9.1%, and 0.7% of the TMA samples, respectively. None of the TMA samples showed SST1 or CXCR4 expression. Only a single small-cell-type neuroendocrine carcinoma that was coincidentally included among the whole-block samples exhibited strong SST2A, SST5, and CXCR4 and moderate SST3 expression. Independent of the tumor cells, the tumor capillaries in many of the PCa samples were strongly positive for SST2A, SST3, SST5, or CXCR4 expression. SST expression in the tumor cells was associated with advanced tumor grade and stage. CONCLUSION: Overall, SST and CXCR4 expression levels are clearly of no therapeutic relevance in PCa. SST- or CXCR4-based therapy might be feasible, however, in rare cases of small-cell-type neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate.

]]>
<![CDATA[Integrative Analysis of Periostin in Primary and Advanced Prostate Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12688 Periostin (POSTN) is an extracellular matrix protein associated with tumor progression and shorter survival in prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we performed an integrative analysis of POSTN’s role in patients with PCa. Clinical and POSTN data from large-scale datasets were analyzed. POSTN cutoffs were identified with X-Tile, and STRING was used for protein-protein interaction analysis. In a cohort of 48 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we used the AdnaTest platform to isolate circulating tumor cells and extract POSTN mRNA. Plasma samples were also tested for POSTN protein expression by dot blot assay. Data from large-scale datasets did not reveal any association between POSTN genetic alterations and outcome. In primary tumors, we found a significant correlation between POSTN mRNA overexpression, worse baseline prognostic features, and shorter disease-free survival. POSTN was overexpressed in mCRPC and correlated with aggressive features. In our cohort of mCRPC patients, we found a positive correlation between POSTN plasma levels and androgen-receptor variant 7 positivity and an association with shorter overall survival. Our integrative analysis shows that POSTN is associated with poor clinical features and worse outcome in patients with PCa. Further studies are warranted to uncover the function of POSTN in PCa progression and to validate the prognostic significance of POSTN in mCRPC.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Dodecapeptide Selected by Phage Display as a Potential Theranostic Probe for Colon Cancers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12684 Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. However, specific biomarkers for its diagnosis or treatment are not established well.MethodsWe developed a colon-cancer specific peptide probe using phage display libraries. We validated the specificity of this probe to colon cancer cells with immunohistochemical staining and FACS analysis using one normal cell and five colon cancer cell lines.ResultsThis peptide probe maintained binding affinity even after serum incubation. For therapeutic applications, this peptide probe was conjugated to hematoporphyrin, a photosensitizer, which showed a significantly enhanced cellular uptake and high photodynamic effect to kill tumor cells. As another application, we made a nanoparticle modified from the peptide probe. It efficiently delivered SN-38, an anticancer drug, into tumor cells, and its tumor-targeting ability was observed in vivo after intravenous injection to the same xenograft model.ConclusionThe noble dodecapeptide probe can be a promising candidate for both colon tumor diagnosis and targeted drug delivery. ]]> <![CDATA[Prostate Cancer Cell Phenotypes Remain Stable Following PDE5 Inhibition in the Clinically Relevant Range]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12682 Widespread cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor use in male reproductive health and particularly in prostate cancer patients following surgery has generated interest in how these drugs affect the ability of residual tumor cells to proliferate, migrate, and form recurrent colonies. Prostate cancer cell lines were treated with PDE5 inhibitors at clinically relevant concentrations. Proliferation, colony formation, and migration phenotypes remained stable even when cells were co-treated with a stimulator of cGMP synthesis that facilitated cGMP accumulation upon PDE5 inhibition. Surprisingly, supraclinical concentrations of PDE5 inhibitor counteracted proliferation, colony formation, and migration of prostate cancer cell models. These findings provide tumor cell-autonomous evidence in support of the field's predominant view that PDE5 inhibitors are safe adjuvant agents to promote functional recovery of normal tissue after prostatectomy, but do not rule out potential cancer-promoting effects of PDE5 inhibitors in the more complex environment of the prostate.

]]>
<![CDATA[A strategy for large-scale comparison of evolutionary- and reaction-based classifications of enzyme function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12656 Determining the molecular function of enzymes discovered by genome sequencing represents a primary foundation for understanding many aspects of biology. Historically, classification of enzyme reactions has used the enzyme nomenclature system developed to describe the overall reactions performed by biochemically characterized enzymes, irrespective of their associated sequences. In contrast, functional classification and assignment for the millions of protein sequences of unknown function now available is largely done in two computational steps, first by similarity-based assignment of newly obtained sequences to homologous groups, followed by transferring to them the known functions of similar biochemically characterized homologs. Due to the fundamental differences in their etiologies and practice, `how’ these chemistry- and evolution-centric functional classification systems relate to each other has been difficult to explore on a large scale. To investigate this issue in a new way, we integrated two published ontologies that had previously described each of these classification systems independently. The resulting infrastructure was then used to compare the functional assignments obtained from each classification system for the well-studied and functionally diverse enolase superfamily. Mapping these function assignments to protein structure and reaction similarity networks shows a profound and complex disconnect between the homology- and chemistry-based classification systems. This conclusion mirrors previous observations suggesting that except for closely related sequences, facile annotation transfer from small numbers of characterized enzymes to the huge number uncharacterized homologs to which they are related is problematic. Our extension of these comparisons to large enzyme superfamilies in a computationally intelligent manner provides a foundation for new directions in protein function prediction for the huge proportion of sequences of unknown function represented in major databases. Interactive sequence, reaction, substrate and product similarity networks computed for this work for the enolase and two other superfamilies are freely available for download from the Structure Function Linkage Database Archive (http://sfld.rbvi.ucsf.edu).

]]>
<![CDATA[Analysis of Puncture Site-related Complications in Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET)3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12634 A subgroup analysis of puncture site-related complications listed in the Japanese Registry of NeuroEndovascular Therapy 3, based on retrospective studies, was performed. Puncture site-related complications occurred in 315 (0.73%, average age: 65.2) of 36,708 patients out of all 43,303 registered cases. Carotid artery stenting (CAS, 95 patients, 1.1%, P <0.01) and extracranial percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA, 21 patients, 1.4%, P <0.01) were associated with significantly higher incidence of puncture site-related complications. The incidence of complications correlated with the number of antiplatelet drugs (P <0.001). Although 40% of the puncture complications were treated conservatively, 13% were treated endovascularly and 5% underwent open surgery.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Immediate Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Intractable Epilepsy: An Intra-operative Electrocorticographic Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12633 The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reduces the epileptogenic activity in the bilateral cerebral cortex in patients with intractable epilepsy. We analyzed the electrocorticograms (ECoGs) of five patients who underwent callosotomy due to intractable epilepsy even after VNS implantation. We recorded ECoGs and analyzed power spectrum in both VNS OFF and ON phases. We counted the number of spikes and electrodes with epileptic spikes, distinguishing unilaterally and bilaterally hemispherically spread spikes as synchronousness of the epileptic spikes in both VNS OFF and ON phases. There were 24.80 ± 35.55 and 7.20 ± 9.93 unilaterally spread spikes in the VNS OFF and ON phases, respectively (P = 0.157), and 35.8 ± 29.21 and 10.6 ± 13.50 bilaterally spread spikes in the VNS OFF and ON phases, respectively (P = 0.027). The number of electrodes with unilaterally and bilaterally spread spikes in the VNS OFF and ON phases was 3.84 ± 2.13 and 3.59 ± 1.82 (P = 0.415), and 8.20 ± 3.56 and 6.89 ± 2.89 (P = 0.026), respectively. The ECoG background power spectra recordings in the VNS OFF and ON phases were also analyzed. The spectral power tended to be greater in the high-frequency band at VNS ON phase than OFF phase. This study showed the reduction of epileptogenic spikes and spread areas of the spikes by VNS as immediate effects, electrophysiologically.

]]>
<![CDATA[Endovascular Therapy for Intracranial Artery Stenosis: Results from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET)3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12631 A total of 907 patients enrolled in the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET)3, a surveillance study in Japan, who underwent intracranial percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)/stenting for intracranial stenosis during the period from 2010 to 2014 were investigated. Technical success was achieved in 97.5% of the patients, and 6.8% had a residual stenosis of ≥50%. The incidence rates of ischemic and hemorrhagic complications were as low as 5.3% and 3.1%, respectively, and the mortality rate was 1.9%. However, the mortality rate of cases with either complications was higher at 10.7%. About half of the treatment cases were performed between 24 h and 14 days after onset, and the incidence of perioperative complications was similar to that after at least 15 days. Although it is necessary to verify the effectiveness of PTA/stenting within 14 days, the results of this treatment were stable regardless of the intervention period.

]]>
<![CDATA[Is the Postoperative Horizontal Decubitus Position Following Transection of a Tight Filum Terminale in Pediatric Patients Necessary? – A Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12630 After untethering surgery of a tethered spinal cord of a tight filum terminale, patients are usually kept in the horizontal decubitus position to prevent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, the optimal period for keeping these patients in this position has not been established yet. Surgical results in two groups of pediatric patients with a tight filum terminale were retrospectively analyzed. Group A was maintained in the horizontal decubitus position for 72 h and group B was managed without being kept in this position postoperatively. A total of 313 patients underwent sectioning of a tight filum terminale. Of these patients, 144 were maintained horizontally for 72 h postoperatively (group A) and 169 were managed without this position (group B). Among the patients who were maintained horizontally for 72 h, one (0.7%) developed pseudomeningocele. No patients experienced CSF leakage in this group. Among the patients who were not horizontal, one (0.6%) developed CSF leakage and one (0.6%) developed pseudomeningocele. Maintaining patients without restriction of their position does not appear to change the rate of postoperative CSF leakage or pseudomeningocele. This suggests that maintaining patients horizontally after transection of a tight filum terminale is not necessary for preventing CSF leakage.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Assessment of Geometric Reliability of Conventional Trajectory of Ventriculostomy in a Three Dimensional Virtual Model and Proposal of a New Trajectory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12629 Ventriculostomy is a common neurosurgery procedure performed for many purposes. Kocher’s point is most often used as the ventriculostomy entry point. But the accuracy of a cannula’s trajectory into the ventricles from entry at Kocher’s point is controversial. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the conventional sagittal trajectory, which uses Kocher’s point, and evaluate a new trajectory by creating virtual ventriculostomy simulations from computed tomography images of the brain. About 66 patients without brain and skull pathology in radiography were included. Three dimensional images were constructed using thin sliced brain computed tomography images, and a virtual ventriculostomy was performed toward the previous used surface landmark. And the path of ideal ventricular catheter was simulated. The anterior surface landmarks included the ipsilateral medial canthus, the contralateral medial canthus, and the midpoint between bilateral medial canthi. The lateral surface landmark was the external auditory canal. The sagittal trajectory of the three surface landmarks located in the frontal horn of ipsilateral ventricle was 0% for the ipsilateral medial canthus, 87.88% for the midpoint between bilateral medial canthi and 26.52% for the contralateral medial canthus. The anterior surface target of ideal sagittal trajectory, which connects the Kocher’s point with the central axis of ipsilateral ventricle, is contralaterally 6.7 mm away from midline. It was found that the conventional sagittal trajectory is inaccurate. The anterior target of surface landmark for the ideal sagittal trajectory is medial one third of the distance between the midline and the contralateral medial canthus.

]]>
<![CDATA[BRAZILIAN VERSION OF THE SHRINERS HOSPITAL UPPER EXTREMITY EVALUATION (SHUEE): TRANSLATION, CULTURAL ADAPTATION, AND EVALUATION OF PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12529 To validate the upper limb assessments tool, Shriners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE), for individuals with hemiplegic cerebral palsy in the Brazilian population.Methods: Validation study to translate and culturally adapt the Manual and the instrument. The psychometric properties evaluated were reliability and convergent validity. Reliability was determined by internal consistency (Cronbach’s α coefficient), ceiling and floor effect, sensitivity to changes, and intra- and interobserver agreement. Convergent validity was performed using the Pediatric Motor Activity Log, the self-care scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and the Manual Ability Classification System.Results: We evaluated 21 individuals with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, with a mean age of 8.7±4.0 years. After the instrument was translated, there was no need for cultural adaptation. The total Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.887 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.745-0.970). We calculated sensitivity to changes in five subjects who underwent treatment with Botulinum Toxin Type A and physical therapy, with a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment evaluations in the Spontaneous Functional Analysis and Dynamic Positional Analysis. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation of the Spontaneous Functional Analysis and Dynamic Positional Analysis with the scales evaluated. All items of SHUEE presented high intra- and interobserver agreement.Conclusions: The results revealed that the Brazilian version of the SHUEE demonstrated good reliability and convergent validity, suggesting that it is an adequate and reliable tool for individuals with hemiplegic cerebral palsy in the Brazilian population. ]]> <![CDATA[COVID-19 pandemic and derogation to human rights]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12389 Under international human rights law, States can limit the exercise of most human rights if it is necessary to protect the rights of others or collective interests. The exceptional circumstances brought by the COVID-19 global pandemic lead to more extensive, on both their scope and their duration, restrictions of human rights than in usual times. This article introduces the States’ specific right to derogate to human rights in circumstances of public emergency and the conditions of a legitimate derogation in the context of COVID-19. It argues that States must ensure that the general measures they adopt to face the crisis do not disproportionally harm vulnerable people.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effectiveness of interventions targeting air travellers for delaying local outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12387 We evaluated if interventions aimed at air travellers can delay local severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) community transmission in a previously unaffected country.MethodsWe simulated infected air travellers arriving into countries with no sustained SARS-CoV-2 transmission or other introduction routes from affected regions. We assessed the effectiveness of syndromic screening at departure and/or arrival and traveller sensitisation to the COVID-2019-like symptoms with the aim to trigger rapid self-isolation and reporting on symptom onset to enable contact tracing. We assumed that syndromic screening would reduce the number of infected arrivals and that traveller sensitisation reduces the average number of secondary cases. We use stochastic simulations to account for uncertainty in both arrival and secondary infections rates, and present sensitivity analyses on arrival rates of infected travellers and the effectiveness of traveller sensitisation. We report the median expected delay achievable in each scenario and an inner 50% interval.ResultsUnder baseline assumptions, introducing exit and entry screening in combination with traveller sensitisation can delay a local SARS-CoV-2 outbreak by 8 days (50% interval: 3–14 days) when the rate of importation is 1 infected traveller per week at time of introduction. The additional benefit of entry screening is small if exit screening is effective: the combination of only exit screening and traveller sensitisation can delay an outbreak by 7 days (50% interval: 2–13 days). In the absence of screening, with less effective sensitisation, or a higher rate of importation, these delays shrink rapidly to <4 days.ConclusionSyndromic screening and traveller sensitisation in combination may have marginally delayed SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in unaffected countries. ]]> <![CDATA[Modeling consent in the time of COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12371 Effective responses to the COVID-19 pandemic require novel solutions for research and responsible data sharing. Biobanking presents itself as a key priority in furthering our understanding of COVID-19. In this article, we propose a tripartite approach to consent to create resources for research relating to COVID-19. The approach aims to link three levels of participation: COVID-19 patients, respiratory/infectious disease patients, and longitudinal study participants. We explore the potential approaches that can be taken to consent processes with these three participant groups. We furthermore describe an access model for both single-site and multi-site data and sample storage. Through dealing with these topics at a high level, the model may be adapted to local legal and ethical requirements while still pursuing its ultimate goal: the creation of a research infrastructure that supports transparent, strong, and open science.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mass surveillance in the age of COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12290 Epidemiological surveillance programs such as digital contact tracing have been touted as a silver bullet that will free the American public from the strictures of social distancing, enabling a return to school, work, and socializing. This Article assesses whether and under what circumstances the United States ought to embrace such programs. Part I analyzes the constitutionality of programs like digital contact tracing, arguing that the Fourth Amendment’s protection against unreasonable searches and seizures may well regulate the use of location data for epidemiological purposes, but that the legislative and executive branches have significant latitude to develop these programs within the broad constraints of the ``special needs'' doctrine elaborated by the courts in parallel circumstances. Part II cautions that the absence of a firm warrant requirement for digital contact tracing should not serve as a green light for unregulated and mass digital location tracking. In light of substantial risks to privacy, policy makers must ask hard questions about efficacy and the comparative advantages of location tracking versus more traditional means of controlling epidemic contagions, take seriously threats to privacy, tailor programs parsimoniously, establish clear metrics for determining success, and set clear plans for decommissioning surveillance programs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Key Ethical Concepts and Their Application to COVID-19 Research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12277 During the WHO-GloPID COVID-19 Global Research and Innovation Forum meeting held in Geneva on the 11th and 12th of February 2020 a number of different ethical concepts were used. This paper briefly states what a number of these concepts mean and how they might be applied to discussions about research during the COVID-19 pandemic and related outbreaks. This paper does not seek to be exhaustive and other ethical concepts are, of course, relevant and important.

]]>