ResearchPad - original-basic-research https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Community-Based Dialysis in Saskatchewan First Nations: A Grassroots Approach to Gaining Insight and Perspective From First Nations Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15110 Renal replacement options or dialysis can be delivered in the home setting or hospital setting. Home dialysis offers a number of benefits over hospital-delivered dialysis. These advantages include improved quality of life, less travel, and fewer dietary restrictions. Despite the benefits, home-based dialysis therapies are significantly underutilized by First Nations with only 16.2% uptake versus 25.7% uptake in non-First Nations people in Saskatchewan. It is important to recognize that First Nations have a greater burden of end-stage renal disease including higher prevalence, younger age at diagnosis, increased severity of disease, mortality at an earlier age, and increased travel distance to access kidney services.Objective:The goal of this study is to identify the existing barriers to home peritoneal dialysis and provide insight for future programs in Saskatchewan First Nations communities in a culturally meaningful framework.Design:Through qualitative research utilizing sharing circles and individual interviews, barriers to utilizing home-based dialysis were identified.Setting:Four sharing circles were held and interviews were conducted with four First Nations dialysis patients.Participants:Total number of participants in sharing circles were 67. Sharing circles were composed of patients with chronic kidney disease, patients on hospital-based dialysis, patients on home-based peritoneal dialysis, family members, health care providers (nurses, physicians, dietitians, primary care director, and coordinators). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with four First Nations dialysis patients.Measurements:The data from the sharing circles and interviews were transcribed and analyzed by a PhD researcher using constructivist grounded theory, with elements of narrative inquiry to ascertain participants’ experiences of care. Data were coded and then grouped into categories using qualitative research software NVivo. Saturation of data was achieved.Methods:Documenting and recounting patient and community experience with chronic kidney disease through sharing circles involving patients, family members, and health care providers has been the central information base for this project. Qualitative interviews were conducted with patients who currently use home dialysis and those who travel to hospital for dialysis. Written consent was obtained from all participants. Information was gathered via audio recording of all sharing circles and interviews. Transcription of the interviews was completed with confidentiality maintained during transcription.Results:The main theme of our results was addressing the underutilization of home-based peritoneal dialysis in First Nations Communities. Five subthemes emerged from the main theme and included logistics, education and information, training and support, community support, and culture and leadership. Through sharing circles, a secondary theme of observations about living with chronic kidney disease and experiences of being on dialysis was explored.Limitations:A small number of First Nations communities were involved in this project, and although the data reached saturation, we cannot presume that the information is representative of all First Nations in Saskatchewan. There were a limited number of patients currently on home-based peritoneal dialysis, and therefore their perceptions may not be adequately captured. Participant characteristics (patient, caregiver, nurse, etc) were not captured when speaking in the sharing circles, and therefore participants are not classified when quoted.Conclusions:Strategies to help improve home-based dialysis included improved education, local support, integrated traditional medicine, cultural sensitivity, and leadership prioritization. ]]> <![CDATA[Estimation of GFR in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-Sectional Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf27e2a4a-0b6e-4962-84c1-495d1d583bd2

Background:

Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have frequent infectious complications requiring nephrotoxic medications, necessitating monitoring of renal function. Although adult studies have suggested that cystatin C (CysC)-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may be preferable due to reduced muscle mass of patients with CF, pediatric patients remain understudied.

Objective:

Our objective was to determine which eGFR formula is best for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in pediatric patients with CF.

Methods:

A total of 17 patients with CF treated with nephrotoxic antibiotics were recruited from the Children’s Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada. 99Tc DTPA GFR (measured GFR [mGFR]) was measured with 4-point measurements starting at 120 minutes using a 2-compartmental model with Brøchner-Mortensen correction, with simultaneous measurement of creatinine, urea, and CysC. The eGFR was calculated using 16 known equations based on creatinine, urea, CysC, or combinations of these. Primary outcome measures were correlation with mGFR, and agreement within 10% for various eGFR equations.

Results:

Mean mGFR was 136 ± 21 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean creatinine, CysC, and urea were 38 ± 10 μmol/L, 0.72 ± 0.08 mg/L, and 3.9 ± 1.4 mmol/L, respectively. The 2014 Grubb CysC eGFR had the best correlation coefficient (r = 0.75, P = .0004); however, only 35% were within 10%. The new Schwartz formula with creatinine and urea had the best agreement within 10%, but a relatively low correlation coefficient (r = 0.63, P = .0065, 64% within 10%).

Conclusions:

Our study suggests that none of the eGFR formulae work well in this small cohort of pediatric patients with CF with preserved body composition, possibly due to inflammation causing false elevations of CysC. Based on the small numbers, we cannot conclude which eGFR formula is best.

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<![CDATA[Original approach for thrombolytic therapy in patients with Ilio-femoral deep vein thrombosis : 2 years follow-up]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0bab0ee8fa60b778de

Objective

The aim of the study was to discuss the results of catheter-directed thrombolysis and complementary procedures to treat acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) evaluating the safety and effectivness of an easy access such as the Great Saphenous Vein.

Methods and materials

A total of 22 consecutive patients with iliofemoral thrombosis and two patients with femoro-popliteal thrombosis on recent onset diagnosed with Ultrasound Doppler and contrast venography underwent intrathrombus drip infusion of urokinase while intravenous heparin was continued using saphenical access. Residual venous stenosis were treated in six patients by percutaneous balloon Angioplasty and stenting. All patients underwent routine venous duplex imaging at 30 days, 3 months, 6 months and every 6 months thereafter.

Results

Complete patency of thrombosed veins was restored in 22 patients (91 %) with prompt symptomatic relief. There were no major complications in the immediate outcomes. At follow-up, two patients reported a persistant slim iliac vein stenosis, two patients had post-thrombotic syndrome, and two patients showed Deep Vein Reflux.

Conclusion

Local thrombolysis using saphenical access was a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It seems to be a valid, easy and safe alternative, reducing the risks of haematoma and venous lesions, which can be observed when using femoral, popliteal, and trans-jugular access.

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<![CDATA[Diastolic timed Vibro-Percussion at 50 Hz delivered across a chest wall sized meat barrier enhances clot dissolution and remotely administered Streptokinase effectiveness in an in-vitro model of acute coronary thrombosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7dab0ee8fa60b99562

Background

Low Frequency Vibro-Percussion (LFVP) assists clearance of thrombi in catheter systems and when applied to the heart and timed to diastole is known to enhance coronary flow. However LFVP on a clotted coronary like vessel given engagement over a chest wall sized barrier (to resemble non-invasive heart attack therapy) requires study.

Methods

One hour old clots (n=16) were dispensed within a flexible segment of Soft-Flo catheter (4 mm lumen), weighted, interfaced with Heparinized Saline (HS), secured atop a curved dampening base, and photographed. A ~4 cm meat slab was placed over the segment and randomized to receive intermittent LFVP (engaged, - disengaged at 1 second intervals), or no LFVP for 20 minutes. HS was pulsed (~120/80 mmHg), with the diastolic phase coordinated to match LFVP delivery. The segment was then re-photographed and aspirated of fluid to determine post clot weight. The trial was then repeated with 0.5 mls of Streptokinase (15,000 IU/100 microlitre) delivered ~ 2 cm upstream from the clot.

Results

LFVP - HS only samples (vs. controls) showed; a) development of clot length fluid channels absent in the control group (p < 0.0002); b) enhanced dissolved clot mixing scores ( 5.0 vs. 0.8, p < 2.8 E – 6); and c) increased percent clot dissolution (23.0% vs. 1.8% respectively, p < 8.5 E-6). LFVP - SK samples had a similar comparative clot disruptive profile, however fluid channels developed faster and percent clot dissolution more than doubled (51.0% vs. 3.0%, p< 9.8 E- 6).

Conclusion

Diastolic timed LFVP (50 Hz) engaged across a chest wall sized barrier enhances clot disruptive effects to an underlying coronary like system.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of the potential of cancer cell lines to release tissue factor-containing microvesicles: correlation with tissue factor and PAR2 expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabdab0ee8fa60baf72c

Background

Despite the association of cancer-derived circulating tissue factor (TF)-containing microvesicles and hypercoagulable state, correlations with the incidence of thrombosis remain unclear.

Methods

In this study the upregulation of TF release upon activation of various cancer cell lines, and the correlation with TF and PAR2 expression and/or activity was examined. Microvesicle release was induced by PAR2 activation in seventeen cell lines and released microvesicle density, microvesicle-associated TF activity, and phoshpatidylserine-mediated activity were measured. The time-course for TF release was monitored over 90 min in each cell line. In addition, TF mRNA expression, cellular TF protein and cell-surface TF activities were quantified. Moreover, the relative expression of PAR2 mRNA and cellular protein were analysed. Any correlations between the above parameters were examined by determining the Pearson’s correlation coefficients.

Results

TF release as microvesicles peaked between 30–60 min post-activation in the majority of cell lines tested. The magnitude of the maximal TF release positively correlated with TF mRNA (c = 0.717; p < 0.001) and PAR2 mRNA (c = 0.770; p < 0.001) expressions while the percentage increase correlated with PAR2 mRNA (c = 0.601; p = 0.011) and protein (c = 0.714; p < 0.001). There was only a weak correlation between resting TF release, and microvesicle release. However, TF release in resting cells did not significantly correlate with any of the parameters examined. Furthermore, TF mRNA expression correlated with PAR2 mRNA expression (c = 0.745; p < 0.001).

Discussion and Conclusions

In conclusion, our data suggest that TF and PAR2 mRNA, and PAR2 protein are better indicators of the ability of cancer cells to release TF and may constitute more accurate predictors of risk of thrombosis.

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<![CDATA[Inhibition of thrombin generation in human plasma by phospholipid transfer protein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75db7

Background

Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers lipids between donors and acceptors (e.g., from HDL to VLDL) and modulates lipoprotein composition, size, and levels. No study has reported an assessment of the effects of PLTP on blood clotting reactions, such as reflected in thrombin generation assays, or on the association of venous thrombosis (VTE) risk with PLTP activity.

Methods

The in vitro effects of PLTP on blood coagulation reactions and the correlations between plasma PLTP activity levels and VTE were studied.

Results

Recombinant (r) PLTP concentration-dependently inhibited plasma thrombin generation and factor XII-dependent kallikrein generation when sulfatide was used to stimulate factor XII autoactivation in plasma. However, rPLTP did not inhibit thrombin generation in plasma induced by factor XIa or tissue factor, implicating an effect of PLTP on contact activation reactions. In purified systems, rPLTP inhibited factor XII autoactivation stimulated by sulfatide in the presence of VLDL. In surface plasmon resonance studies, purified factor XII bound to immobilized rPLTP, implying that rPLTP inhibits factor XII-dependent contact activation by binding factor XII in the presence of lipoproteins. Analysis of plasmas from 40 male patients with unprovoked VTE and 40 matched controls indicated that low PLTP lipid transfer activity (≤25th percentile) was associated with an increased risk of VTE after adjustment for body mass index, plasma lipids, and two known thrombophilic genetic risk factors.

Conclusion

These data imply that PLTP may be an antithrombotic plasma protein by inhibiting generation of prothrombotic factor XIIa in the presence of VLDL. This newly discovered anticoagulant activity of PLTP merits further clinical and biochemical studies.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12959-015-0054-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Preparation of platelet-rich plasma as a tissue adhesive for experimental transplantation in rabbits]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da37ab0ee8fa60b86c26

Purpose

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous substance with adhesive properties. We aimed at developing and testing the efficacy of a method for PRP preparation in rabbits.

Materials and methods

An in vitro study was carried out to obtain PRP from forty rabbits and to analyze the number of platelets and type of substance needed to trigger platelet activation. To induce platelet activation, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50% CaCl solutions were used. Then, an in vivo study was performed in twelve rabbits to test PRP adhesiveness in lamellar corneal graft. A control group made up of six rabbits underwent corneal transplantation without using PRP.

Results

5% CaCl was the most effective concentration in activating PRP, with a mean time of 19 minutes. An attached corneal flap was seen 3 months after surgery. A detached corneal button was seen in all controls.

Conclusion

Our method was able to produce rabbit-derived PRP with suitable properties for soft tissue adhesion. These results could be useful for researchers of the growing fields of tissue repair and experimental transplantation.

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<![CDATA[Detection and quantification of lupus anticoagulants in plasma from heparin treated patients, using addition of polybrene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9eab0ee8fa60ba4f3e

Background

Lupus anticoagulants prolong clotting times in phospholipid-dependent coagulation tests. Lupus Ratio assays are integrated tests for lupus anticoagulants that may be based on APTT, RVVT or dPT clotting times. If a patient is being treated with unfractionated heparin, however, the heparin prolong clotting times and the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulant is invalidated. Commercial assays may have heparin neutralising agents added to their reagents. However, the type and efficacy of the heparin neutralisation is often not documented. We wanted to test the influence and efficacy of heparin neutralisers in the Lupus Ratio assay.

Methods

Several heparin neutralisers were tested, and polybrene was chosen for further testing. Unfractionated heparin and/or polybrene were added to normal plasma and to plasma from patients with or without lupus anticoagulant and clotting times compared before and after the additions. Lupus anticoagulant-positive patients were given 5000 IU i.v. of unfractionated heparin and plasma was collected just before and five minutes after the injection. Lupus Ratios were calculated after polybrene was added to the postinjection samples.

Results

The Lupus Ratio became slightly lower when polybrene was added to plasma without heparin. Plasma heparinised in vitro and plasma from patients that had received heparin, both had Lupus Ratios nearly identical to the Lupus Ratios calculated before any additions.

Conclusion

By addition of polybrene to a final concentration of 7.9 μg/ml in test plasma, Lupus Ratio may be determined in lupus anticoagulant-negative as well as positive plasmas irrespective of the presence of heparin 0.0 – 1.3 U/ml.

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<![CDATA[Low dose endotoxin priming is accountable for coagulation abnormalities and organ damage observed in the Shwartzman reaction. A comparison between a single-dose endotoxemia model and a double-hit endotoxin-induced Shwartzman reaction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1aab0ee8fa60b7c648

The clinical response of sepsis to a systemic inflammatory infection may be complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation or DIC. In order to experimentally study the syndrome of DIC, we aimed for a severe sepsis model complicated by disseminated coagulation. Most -simplified- experimental models describing coagulation abnormalities as a consequence of sepsis are based on single dose endotoxemia. The so called-Shwartzman reaction contrarily, is elicited by a low dose endotoxin priming followed by an LPS challenge and is characterized by pathological manifestations that represent the syndrome of DIC. In order to investigate whether the Shwartzman reaction is superior to a single endotoxin challenge as a model for sepsis-induced DIC and to determine what the pathological effect is of an encounter of low endotoxin prior to an LPS challenge, we undertook the present study.

In this study we demonstrate that low-dose endotoxin priming prior to an LPS challenge in the Shwartzman reaction is accountable for micro-vascular thrombosis in lung and liver and subsequent (multi-) organ failure, not observed after a single-dose endotoxin challenge, which indicates that the Shwartzman reaction is well suited-model to study sepsis-induced DIC adversities. Remarkably, only minor differences in the innate immune response were established between the single-dose endotoxin challenge and the Shwartzman reaction.

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<![CDATA[Application of basic and composite thrombelastography parameters in monitoring of the antithrombotic effect of the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin: an in vivo study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da12ab0ee8fa60b79d56

Background

Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is in vast usage for treatment of thromboembolic diseases such as deep venous thrombosis and acute coronary syndromes. There are certain clinical situations where a quick point of care testing of the effect of LMWH would be useful. At this point there are no point of care devices available in the market for monitoring the effect of LMWH. Thrombelastography (TEG) evaluates the viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation. The clinical application of TEG in monitoring LMWH treatment is not yet well defined. The purpose of this in vivo study was to systematically evaluate the most suitable TEG parameters for evaluation of the antithrombotic effect of LMWH. We furthermore evaluated for the first time the usefulness of the composite TEG parameter the Thrombodynamic Ratio (TDR) in monitoring LMWH treatment.

Methods

Healthy male volunteers (n = 7) were injected subcutaneously with the LMWH dalteparin 120 IU/kg. TEG parameters and antifactor Xa levels were measures at baseline, 2, 4, 5 and 24 hours after the injection. Correlation between TEG parameters and antiXa were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity of the TEG parameters for plasma levels of antiXa in the therapeutic range of 0.5 - 1.0 U/ml were calculated.

Results

All basic TEG parameters correlated significantly with antiXa levels. Among the basic parameters, the TEG reaction time R had the best correlation with antiXa levels with the most favorable combination of sensitivity and specificity for the therapeutic range of antiXa levels (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001, sensitivity 68%, specificity 100%). The composite TEG parameter TDR demonstrated the best correlation with antiXa levels, and an even more favorable combination of sensitivity and specificity compared to any of the basic parameters (r = - 0.87, p < 0.0001, sensitivity 95%, specificity 79%).

Conclusion

The TEG reaction time R and TDR are the most suitable TEG parameters for evaluation of the antithrombotic effect of dalteparin with a highly significant correlation with antiXa levels in healthy male volunteers. Measures for uniform clinical use of these parameters are proposed. Larger clinical trials are needed to correlate R and TDR with clinical outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Soluble fibrin inhibits monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity against tumor cells: implications for cancer metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db47ab0ee8fa60bd90ad

Background

Soluble fibrin (sFn) is a marker for disseminated intravascular coagulation and may have prognostic significance, especially in metastasis. However, a role for sFn in the etiology of metastatic cancer growth has not been extensively studied. We have reported that sFn cross-linked platelet binding to tumor cells via the major platelet fibrin receptor αIIbβ3, and tumor cell CD54 (ICAM-1), which is the receptor for two of the leukocyte β2 integrins (αLβ2 and aMβ2). We hypothesized that sFn may also affect leukocyte adherence, recognition, and killing of tumor cells. Furthermore, in a rat experimental metastasis model sFn pre-treatment of tumor cells enhanced metastasis by over 60% compared to untreated cells. Other studies have shown that fibrin(ogen) binds to the monocyte integrin αMβ2. This study therefore sought to investigate the effect of sFn on β2 integrin mediated monocyte adherence and killing of tumor cells.

Methods

The role of sFn in monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity against tumor cells was initially studied using static microplate adherence and cytotoxicity assays, and under physiologically relevant flow conditions in a microscope perfusion incubator system. Blocking studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies specific for β2 integrins and CD54, and specific peptides which inhibit sFn binding to these receptors.

Results

Enhancement of monocyte/tumor cell adherence was observed when only one cell type was bound to sFn, but profound inhibition was observed when sFn was bound to both monocytes and tumor cells. This effect was also reflected in the pattern of monocyte cytotoxicity. Studies using monoclonal blocking antibodies and specific blocking peptides (which did not affect normal coagulation) showed that the predominant mechanism of fibrin inhibition is via its binding to αMβ2 on monocytes, and to CD54 on both leukocytes and tumor cells.

Conclusion

sFn inhibits monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity of tumor cells by blocking αLβ2 and αMβ2 binding to tumor cell CD54. These results demonstrate that sFn is immunosuppressive and may be directly involved in the etiology of metastasis. Use of specific peptides also inhibited this effect without affecting coagulation, suggesting their possible use as novel therapeutic agents in cancer metastasis.

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<![CDATA[Enhancement of fibrinogen-triggered pro-coagulant activation of monocytes in vitro by matrix metalloproteinase-9]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e7ab0ee8fa60b6b9d6

Background

Interaction of fibrinogen with specific leukocyte integrins of monocytes may link coagulation and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of fibrinogen leading to the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory response on monocytes is yet unknown.

Results

Fibrinogen and its digestion fragment D induced pro-coagulant activation of monocytes as assessed in a cellular coagulation assay by reductions in clotting times. Pro-coagulant activation was reversed by blocking antibodies against Mac-1 or LFA-1. Pre-exposure of monocytes to the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190 and the MEK1.2 inhibitor U0126 led to significant increasees in coagulation times whereas blocking JNKII with its inhibitor had no such effect. Blocking NFκB with MG-132 also inhibited pro-coagulant activation of monocytes by fibrinogen. A selective inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-9 increased times to clot formation whereas other matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors did not significantly interfere with fibrinogen-augmented clot formation in this assay. Treatment of monocytes with fibrinogen increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 immunoreactivity in their supernatants.

Conclusions

Fibrinogen induces monocyte pro-coagulant activation in an integrin-, nuclear factor κB-, p38 MAPK-, and MEK1.2-dependent manner. Activation of monocytes by fibrinogen increases metalloproteinase-9 secretion, metalloproteinase-9 itself enhances monocyte coagulation by an autocrine mechanism. Results provide further evidence that mediators of hemostasis have a profound impact on cells of the immune system and are closely related to inflammatory pathways.

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<![CDATA[Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist therapy in patients with venous thromboembolism and renal impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f3ab0ee8fa60b6f3d1

Background

Patients with renal impairment receiving classical anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at increased risk of bleeding and possibly pulmonary embolism. We examined the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban in patients with VTE with and without renal impairment.

Methods

Prespecified subgroup analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies comparing fixed-dose rivaroxaban with enoxaparin/a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), performed in 8246 patients enrolled from 2007 to 2011 in 314 hospitals.

Results

Outcomes were recurrent VTE and major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients with normal renal function (n = 5569; 67.3%) or mild (n = 2037; 24.6%), moderate (n = 636; 7.7%), or severe (n = 21; 0.3%) renal impairment. Rates of recurrent VTE were 1.8%, 2.8%, 3.3%, and 4.8% in patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively (ptrend = 0.001). Hazard ratios for recurrent VTE were similar between treatment groups across renal function categories (pinteraction = 0.72). Major bleeding in rivaroxaban recipients occurred in 0.8%, 1.4%, 0.9%, and 0%, respectively (ptrend = 0.50). Respective rates in enoxaparin/VKA recipients were 1.0%, 3.0%, 3.9%, and 9.1% (ptrend < 0.001). Rivaroxaban–enoxaparin/VKA hazard ratios were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46–1.36) for normal renal function, 0.44 (95% CI 0.24–0.84) for mild renal impairment, and 0.23 (95% CI 0.06–0.81) for moderate renal impairment (pinteraction = 0.034).

Conclusions

Patients with symptomatic VTE and renal impairment are at increased risk of recurrent VTE. Renal impairment increased the risk of major bleeding in enoxaparin/VKA-treated patients but not in rivaroxaban-treated patients.

Trial registration

NCT00440193 and NCT00439777.

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<![CDATA[Development of a perfusion chamber assay to study in real time the kinetics of thrombosis and the antithrombotic characteristics of antiplatelet drugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db40ab0ee8fa60bd68a2

Background

Arterial thrombosis triggered by vascular injury is a balance between thrombus growth and thrombus fragmentation (dethrombosis). Unbalance towards thrombus growth can lead to vascular occlusion, downstream ischemia and tissue damage.

Here we describe the development of a simple methodology that allows for continuous real time monitoring and quantification of both processes during perfusion of human blood under arterial shear rate conditions. Using this methodology, we have studied the effects of antiplatelet agents targeting COX-1 (aspirin), P2Y12 (2-MeSAMP, clopidogrel), GP IIb-IIIa (eptifibatide) and their combinations on the kinetics of thrombosis over time.

Results

Untreated samples of blood perfused over type III collagen at arterial rates of shear promoted the growth of stable thrombi. Modulation by eptifibatide affected thrombus growth, while that mediated by 2-MeSAMP and aspirin affected thrombus stability. Using this technique, we confirmed the primacy of continuous signaling by the ADP autocrine loop acting on P2Y12 in the maintenance of thrombus stability. Analysis of the kinetics of thrombosis revealed that continuous and prolonged analysis of thrombosis is required to capture the role of platelet signaling pathways in their entirety. Furthermore, studies evaluating the thrombotic profiles of 20 healthy volunteers treated with aspirin, clopidogrel or their combination indicated that while three individuals did not benefits from either aspirin or clopidogrel treatments, all individuals displayed marked destabilization profiles when treated with the combination regimen.

Conclusions

These results show the utility of a simple perfusion chamber technology to assess in real time the activity of antiplatelet drugs and their combinations. It offers the opportunity to perform pharmacodynamic monitoring of arterial thrombosis in clinical trials and to investigate novel strategies directed at inhibiting thrombus stability in the management of cardiovascular disease.

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<![CDATA[Thrombotic genetic risk factors and warfarin pharmacogenetic variants in São Miguel's healthy population (Azores)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e0ab0ee8fa60b6962b

Background

The Azorean population presents the highest standardized mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) when compared to mainland Portugal and other populations. Since thrombosis is a common cause of CVD, we assessed four polymorphisms in three thrombotic risk genes – F5 (G1691A), F2 (G20210A) and MTHFR (C677T, A1298C), in 469 healthy blood donors from São Miguel Island (Azores). We also analysed the CYP2C9 (C430T, A1075C) and VKORC1 (G1639A) variants in fifty-eight individuals with predisposition to thrombosis (possessing at least one variation in F5 or F2 genes and one in MTHFR) to evaluate their warfarin drug response genetic profiles.

Results

Among the 469 individuals, the data showed that thrombotic risk allele frequencies – 1691A (4.9%), 20210A (1.8%), 677T (41.7%) and 1298C (24.8%) – were similar to other Caucasians, but significantly different from mainland Portuguese (χ2, p < 0.001). The combined analysis of these variants identified twenty-two different genetic profiles (genotype order: F5, F2, MTHFR C677T and A1298C). Complete homozygosity for all wild-type alleles (GG GG CC AA) was present in 11.7%, being GG GG CT AA (22.4%) the most frequent profile. The results also demonstrated that 12.4% (58 out of 469) of São Miguel islanders have increased genetic predisposition to thrombosis. Subsequently, we evaluated these individuals for their warfarin response genetic profiles. The data showed that seven out of fifty-eight individuals are poor metabolizers (two with CYP2C9*2/*2 and five with CYP2C9*2/*3 genotypes). VKORC1 polymorphism analysis identified twelve individuals (20.7%) with AA genotype, who probably will require lower doses of warfarin. The joint analysis of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 revealed that 79.3% (46 out of 58) of the individuals carry at least one polymorphism in these genes. Within these, twenty-five individuals (43.1%) need intermediate and/or low doses of warfarin, if treatment is started.

Conclusion

The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that São Miguel, and possibly the Azores population, shows significant differences on allele frequencies of thrombotic risk factors when compared to mainland Portugal. This research constitutes a primary approach for future studies on CVD, as well as for the implementation of warfarin dosing protocols using the patient's genotypic information.

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<![CDATA[Effects of rosiglitazone on contralateral iliac artery after vascular injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd432f

Background

The objective was to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on iliac arteries of hypercholesterolemic rabbits undergoing balloon catheter injury in the contralateral iliac arteries.

Methods

White male rabbits were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 6 weeks and divided into two groups as follows: rosiglitazone group, 14 rabbits treated with rosiglitazone (3 mg/Kg body weight/day) during 6 weeks; and control group, 18 rabbits without rosiglitazone treatment. All animals underwent balloon catheter injury of the right iliac artery on the fourteenth day of the experiment.

Results

There was no significant difference in intima/media layer area ratio between the control group and the rosiglitazone group. Rosiglitazone did not reduce the probability of lesions types I, II, or III (72.73% vs. 92.31%; p = 0.30) and types IV or V (27.27% vs. 7.69%; p = 0.30). There were no differences in the extent of collagen type I and III deposition or in the percentage of animals with macrophages in the intima layer. The percentage of rabbits with smooth muscle cells in the intima layer was higher in rosiglitazone group (p = 0.011).

Conclusion

These findings demonstrate that rosiglitazone given for 6 weeks did not prevent atherogenesis at a vessel distant from the injury site.

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<![CDATA[Development of an in vitro model to study clot lysis activity of thrombolytic drugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4eab0ee8fa60bdb2ba

Background

Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients. Several in vitro models have been developed to study clot lytic activity of thrombolytic drugs, but all of these have certain limitations. There is need of an appropriate model to check the clot lytic efficacy of thrombolytic drugs. In the present study, an attempt has been made to design and develop a new model system to study clot lysis in a simplified and easy way using a thrombolytic drug, streptokinase.

Methods

Whole blood from healthy individuals (n = 20) was allowed to form clots in a pre-weighed sterile microcentrifuge tubes; serum was removed and clot was weighed. After lysis by streptokinase fluid was removed and remnants of clot were again weighed along with the tube. Percentage of Clot lysis was calculated on the basis of the weight difference of microcentrifuge tubes obtained before and after clot lysis.

Results

There was a significant percentage of clot lysis observed when streptokinase was used. On the other hand with water (negative control), minimal (2.5%) clot lysis was observed. There was a significant difference between clot lysis done by streptokinase and water.

Conclusion

Our study could be a rapid and effective methodology to study clot-lytic effect of newly developed drugs as well as known drugs.

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<![CDATA[Genetic risk factors in patients with deep venous thrombosis, a retrospective case control study on Iranian population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fcab0ee8fa60b72524

Background

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) could be manifested as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT is usually the more common manifestation and is usually formation of a thrombus in the deep veins of lower extremities. DVT could occur without known underlying cause (idiopathic thrombosis) which could be a consequence of an inherited underlying risk factor or could be a consequence of provoking events, such as trauma, surgery or acute illness (provoked thrombosis). Our aim in this study was to assess the impact of some previously reported genetic risk factors including, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) 4G/5G, prothrombin 20210 and FV Leiden on occurrence of DVT in a population of Iranian patients.

Methods

This long-term study was conducted on 182 patients with DVT and also 250 age and sex matched healthy subjects as control group. The diagnosis of DVT was based on patient’s history, clinical findings, D-dimer test, and confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. After confirmation of DVT, both groups were assessed for the five mentioned mutations. The relationship between mutations and predisposition to DVT was calculated by using logistic regression and expressed as an OR with a 95 % confidence interval (CI).

Results

Our results revealed that FV Leiden (OR 6.7; 95 % CI = 2.2 to 20.3; P = 0.001), MTHFR C677T (OR 6.0; 95 % CI = 2.2 to 16.4; P < 0.001), MTHFR A1298C (OR 8.3; 95 % CI = 4.4 to 15.8; P < 0.001), and PAI-1 4G/5G (OR 3.8; 95 % CI = 2.1 to 7.2; P < 0.001) mutations were all significantly associated with an increased risk of DVT. Prothrombin 20210 was found in none of the patients and controls.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that genetic risk factors have a contributory role on occurrence of DVT.

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<![CDATA[Platelet-derived NO slows thrombus growth on a collagen type III surface]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daacab0ee8fa60ba9a40

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical that plays an important role in modulating platelet adhesion and aggregation. Platelets are a source of vascular NO, but since erythrocytes avidly scavenge NO, the functional significance of platelet-derived NO is not clear. Our purpose was to determine if NO from platelets affects platelet thrombus formation in the presence of anticoagulated whole blood in an in vitro parallel plate flow system. We studied platelet adhesion and aggregation on a collagen type III surface in the presence of physiologically relevant fluid mechanical shear stress. We found that certain receptor mediated agonists (insulin and isoproterenol) caused a concentration dependent reduction in thrombus formation at a shear rate of 1000 s-1. This effect was mediated by NO since it was abolished in the presence of the NO inhibitor L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME). As expected, at venous levels of shear rate (100 s-1) neither of the agonists had any effect on thrombus formation since platelet adhesion does not depend on activation at these low levels of shear. Interestingly, at a shear rate of 2000 s-1 the addition of L-NAME caused an increase in platelet coverage suggesting that shear, by itself, induces NO production by platelets. This is the first demonstration of shear stress causing platelets to produce an inhibitor of platelet activation. These results demonstrate that the development of a platelet thrombus is regulated in a complex way and that platelets produce functionally significant amounts of NO even in the presence of whole blood.

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<![CDATA[Systemic coagulation parameters in mice after treatment with vascular targeting agents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da44ab0ee8fa60b8b42e

Background

Vascular targeting of malignant tumors has become a clinically validated new treatment approach with clear patient benefit. However clinical studies have also revealed that some types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) are prone to coagulation system side effects. It is therefore essential to predetermine coagulation parameters in preclinical studies. As of to date, this has rarely been done, predominantly due to technical issues.

The goal of this study was to establish and apply a standardized process, whereby systemic coagulation activation can be routinely measured in mice.

Results

We have evaluated a number of sampling techniques and coagulation tests regarding their suitability for this purpose. We were able to adapt two assays measuring soluble fibrin, a marker for a prethrombotic status. Thus, soluble fibrin could be measured for the first time in mice. All assays were validated in a positive control model for systemic coagulation activation, i.e. lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

Based on our results, we selected a panel of coagulation tests, which are both feasable and informative for preclinical testing of VTAs: soluble fibrin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, free antithrombin III, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. The effect of tumor transplants on coagulation parameters was evaluated using this panel. We then applied this set of assays in treatment studies with a VTA developed in our laboratory to investigate a potential systemic coagulation activation.

Conclusion

We have established a standardized panel of assays that can be used to test murine blood samples for coagulation activation in preclinical studies. All tests are feasible to perform in any research laboratory without specialized equipment. In addition, this is the first report to measure soluble fibrin, an early marker of systemic coagulation activation, in mice. The panel was applied on tumor bearing mice and mice treated with a VTA. We suggest its general application for coagulation activation analyses in mice.

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