ResearchPad - original-report https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Twelve‐month outcomes of a bioabsorbable implant for in‐office treatment of dynamic nasal valve collapse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7093 To examine 12‐month outcomes for in‐office treatment of dynamic nasal valve collapse (NVC) with a bioabsorbable implant.Study DesignProspective, multicenter, nonrandomized study.MethodsOne hundred sixty‐six patients with severe‐to‐extreme class of Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores were enrolled at 16 U.S. clinics (November 2016–July 2017). Patients were treated with a bioabsorbable implant (Latera, Spirox Inc., Redwood City, CA) to support the lateral wall, with or without concurrent inferior turbinate reduction (ITR), in an office setting. NOSE scores and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The Lateral Wall Insufficiency (LWI) score was determined by independent physicians observing the lateral wall motion video.ResultsOne hundred five patients were treated with implant alone, whereas 61 had implant + ITR. Thirty‐one patients reported 41 adverse events, all of which resolved with no clinical sequelae. Patients showed significant reduction in NOSE scores throughout 12 months postoperatively (77.4 ± 13.4 baseline vs. 36.2 ± 22.7 at 1 month postoperatively, 33.0 ± 23.4 at 3 months, 32.1 ± 24.6 at 6 months, and 30.3 ± 24.3 at 12 months; P < 0.001). They also showed significant reduction in VAS scores postoperatively (69.7 ± 18.1 baseline vs. 31.3 ± 27.1 at 12 months postoperatively, P < 0.001). These results were similar in patients treated with implant alone and those treated with the implant + ITR. Consistent with patient‐reported outcomes, postoperative LWI scores were demonstrably lower (1.42 ± 0.09 and 0.93 ± 0.08 pre‐ and postoperatively, P < 0.001).ConclusionIn‐office treatment of dynamic NVC with a bioabsorbable implant improves clinical evidence of LWI at 6 months and improves nasal obstructive symptoms in a majority of patients up to 12 months.Level of Evidence2b Laryngoscope, 130:1132–1137, 2020 ]]> <![CDATA[Descriptive analysis of postmarket surveillance data for hip implants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6824 Recent safety issues involving medical devices have highlighted the need for better postmarket surveillance (PMS) evaluation. This article aims to describe and to assess the quality of the PMS data for a medical device and, finally, to provide recommendations to improve the data gathering process.MethodsA descriptive analysis of medical device reports (MDRs) on the use of MRA, a specific type of hip implant replacement submitted to the Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2017. The number of reports was described as the number of MDRs per unique MDR number and stratified by different variables. The quality was assessed by the level of completeness of the collected PMS data.ResultsThe total number of reports related to MRA was 2377, and the number of MDRs per year ranged between 84 in 2009 and 452 in 2017. Most of the reports were reported by manufacturer Depuy Johnson & Johnson and were reported by a physician. In 44.9% of the reports, the device problem was reported as “Unknown.” When the device problem was known, in the majority of cases, it was related to an implant fracture. The quality of the collected data was assessed as low due to missing information.ConclusionThe underlying data should meet high quality standards to generate more evidence and to ensure a timely signal generation. This case study shows that the completeness and quality of the MDRs can be improved. The authors propose the development of tools to ensure a more dynamic complaint data collection to contribute to this enhancement. ]]> <![CDATA[Lighten Up! Postural Instructions Affect Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na61b37af-28d4-4ec6-9f6c-0b89cc5e471e

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Increased fall risk in older adults is associated with declining balance. Previous work showed that brief postural instructions can affect balance control in older adults with Parkinson’s disease. Here, we assessed the effects of brief instructions on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults.

Research Design and Methods

Nineteen participants practiced three sets of instructions, then attempted to implement each instructional set during: (1) quiet standing on foam for 30 s with eyes open; (2) a 3-s foot lift. “Light” instructions relied on principles of reducing excess tension while encouraging length. “Effortful” instructions relied on popular concepts of effortful posture correction. “Relax” instructions encouraged minimization of effort. We measured kinematics and muscle activity.

Results

During quiet stance, Effortful instructions increased mediolateral jerk and path length. In the foot lift task, Light instructions led to the longest foot-in-air duration and the smallest anteroposterior variability of the center of mass, Relax instructions led to the farthest forward head position, and Effortful instructions led to the highest activity in torso muscles.

Discussion and Implications

Thinking of upright posture as effortless may reduce excessive co-contractions and improve static and dynamic balance, while thinking of upright posture as inherently effortful may make balance worse. This may partly account for the benefits of embodied mindfulness practices such as tai chi and Alexander technique for balance in older adults. Pending larger-scale replication, this discovery may enable physiotherapists and teachers of dance, exercise, and martial arts to improve balance and reduce fall risk in their older students and clients simply by modifying how they talk about posture.

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<![CDATA[Development of treatment and clinical results in childhood AML in Austria (1993–2013)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4b512e10-8998-4ef5-96f0-708f77d6c5e7

Background

Since the early 1990s, three consecutive pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) trials have been performed in Austria (AML-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 93, AML-BFM 98, and AML-BFM 2004) in close cooperation with the international BFM study center. Herein, we review the pertinent patient characteristics, therapy, and outcome data.

Patients and methods

From January 1993 to April 2013, 249 children and adolescents (193 protocol patients) diagnosed with AML were enrolled in the three BFM studies. Patients were mainly treated in one of five pediatric hematology/oncology centers distributed over Austria.

Results

Many characteristics and outcome parameters were not statistically different between the three trials. Almost similar proportions of patients were stratified into two risk groups: standard risk (SR) (approximately 37 % overall) and high-risk (HR) (61 %). MLL rearrangements were found in 23 % of patients overall as the most frequent genetic aberration subtype. Complete remission (CR) was achieved by 84–95 % of patients. The most important type of event was leukemic relapse (5-year cumulative incidence 40 ± 8 %, 21 ± 5 %, and 39 ± 6 %; p = 0.058), with a trend to a higher rate specifically in SR patients of study AML-BFM 2004 compared with AML-BFM 98. Importantly, the frequency of death from causes other than relapse sequelae declined over the years (AML-BFM 93: 5/42 12 %, AML-BFM 98: 5/57 9 %, and AML-BFM 2004: 5/94 5 %). Altogether, event-free survival at 5 years varied insignificantly (48 ± 8 %, 61 ± 7 %, and 50 ± 6 %; p = 0.406). Nevertheless, survival (pSU) apparently improved from BFM 93 to subsequent studies, both overall (57 ± 8 %, 75 ± 6 %, and 62 ± 6 %; p = 0.046) and regarding the HR group (5-year-probability of survival (pSU) 40 ± 10 %, 66 ± 8 %, and 52 ± 8 %; p = 0.039).

Conclusion

Treatment of pediatric AML in Austria renders survival rates in the range of international best practice. However, unambiguous statistical comparison of treatment periods is eventually hampered by small numbers and inequalities of recruitment. Hence, only internationally collaborative trials will allow developing treatment further to achieve higher cure rates with fewer events.

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<![CDATA[Impact of EMA regulatory label changes on systemic diclofenac initiation, discontinuation, and switching to other pain medicines in Scotland, England, Denmark, and The Netherlands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N64f66e91-2065-4c4a-8d93-657268f71ed4

Abstract

Purpose

In June 2013 a European Medicines Agency referral procedure concluded that diclofenac was associated with an elevated risk of acute cardiovascular events and contraindications, warnings, and changes to the product information were implemented across the European Union. This study measured the impact of the regulatory action on the prescribing of systemic diclofenac in Denmark, The Netherlands, England, and Scotland.

Methods

Quarterly time series analyses measuring diclofenac prescription initiation, discontinuation and switching to other systemic nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory (NSAIDs), topical NSAIDs, paracetamol, opioids, and other chronic pain medication in those who discontinued diclofenac. Absolute effects were estimated using interrupted time series regression.

Results

Overall, diclofenac prescription initiations fell during the observation periods of all countries. Compared with Denmark where there appeared to be a more limited effect, the regulatory action was associated with significant immediate reductions in diclofenac initiation in The Netherlands (−0.42%, 95% CI, −0.66% to −0.18%), England (−0.09%, 95% CI, −0.11% to −0.08%), and Scotland (−0.67%, 95% CI, −0.79% to −0.55%); and falling trends in diclofenac initiation in the Netherlands (−0.03%, 95% CI, −0.06% to −0.01% per quarter) and Scotland (−0.04%, 95% CI, −0.05% to −0.02% per quarter). There was no significant impact on diclofenac discontinuation in any country. The regulatory action was associated with modest differences in switching to other pain medicines following diclofenac discontinuation.

Conclusions

The regulatory action was associated with significant reductions in overall diclofenac initiation which varied by country and type of exposure. There was no impact on discontinuation and variable impact on switching.

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<![CDATA[Statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and the risk of acute kidney injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb2c590d8-89f7-4f2e-84cf-6e13698ab828

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in subjects initiating statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods

A nationwide cohort study using French hospital discharge and claims databases was performed, studying subjects from the general population aged 40 to 75 years in 2009, with no history of CVD and no lipid‐lowering drugs during the preceding 3‐year period, followed for up to 7 years. Exposure to statins (type, dose, and time since first use) and to other drugs for CVD risk was assessed. The primary outcome was hospital admission for AKI.

Results

The cohort included 8 236 279 subjects, 818 432 of whom initiated a statin for primary prevention. During 598 487 785 person‐months exposed to statins, 700 events were observed, corresponding to an incidence of AKI of 4.59 per 10 000 person‐years (7.01 in men, 3.01 in women). AKI mainly occurred in the context of organ failure, sepsis, and genitourinary disease. A 19% increased rate of AKI (hazard ratio = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.08‐1.31) was observed in men exposed to statins, whereas no increase in the overall risk of AKI was observed in women. However, exposure to high‐potency statins was associated with a 72% to 116% increased risk in both genders and a dose‐effect relationship observed for rosuvastatin and atorvastatin. No temporal pattern of occurrence nor interaction with drugs for CVD risk was observed.

Conclusions

Although the overall risk of AKI appears moderately increased, more attention should be paid to renal function in subjects taking statins for primary prevention both in clinical practice and from a research viewpoint.

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<![CDATA[Amiodarone use and the risk of acute pancreatitis: Influence of different exposure definitions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na765b4e6-b915-4653-895a-8192e3e7ff33

Abstract

Purpose

The antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone has a long half‐life of 60 days, which is often ignored in observational studies. This study aimed to investigate the impact of different exposure definitions on the association between amiodarone use and the risk of acute pancreatitis.

Method

Using data from the Dutch PHARMO Database Network, incident amiodarone users were compared to incident users of a different type of antiarrhythmic drug. Eighteen different definitions were applied to define amiodarone exposure, including dichotomized, continuous and categorized cumulative definitions with lagged effects to account for the half‐life of amiodarone. For each exposure definition, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis.

Results

This study included 15,378 starters of amiodarone and 21,394 starters of other antiarrhythmic drugs. Adjusted HRs for acute pancreatitis ranged between 1.21−1.43 for dichotomized definitions of exposure to amiodarone, between 1.13‐1.22 for dose definitions (per DDD) and between 0.52‐1.72 for cumulative dose definitions, depending on the category. Accounting for lagged effects had little impact on estimated HRs.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates the relative insensitivity of the association between amiodarone and the risk of acute pancreatitis against a broad range of different exposure definitions. Accounting for possible lagged effects had little impact, possibly because treatment switching and discontinuation was uncommon in this population.

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<![CDATA[Survival of Critically Ill Oncologic Patients Requiring Invasive Ventilatory Support: A Prospective Comparative Cohort Study With Nononcologic Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8c34dbe4-9e16-4e87-9a87-83c5648d0712

PURPOSE

Cancer is in the process of changing to become a chronic disease; therefore, an increasing number of oncologic patients (OPs) are being admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) for supportive care of disease or therapy-related complications. We compare the short- and long-term outcomes of critically ill mechanically ventilated OPs with those of their nononcologic counterparts.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

We performed a prospective study of patients admitted to our ICU between October 2017 and February 2019. Demographic, physiologic, laboratory, clinical, and treatment data were obtained. The primary outcome was survival at 28 days and at the end of the follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were survival according to acute severity scoring (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and Charlson comorbidity index.

RESULTS

A total of 1,490 patients were admitted during the study period; 358 patients (24%) were OPs, and 100 of these OPs were supported with mechanical ventilation. Seventy-three percent of OPs had an ECOG performances status of 0 or 1, and 90% had solid tumors. Reason for admission to the ICU was postoperative admission in 44 patients and neutropenic infection in 10 patients. The follow-up period was 148 days (range, 42 to 363 days). Survival at 28 days was similar between OPs and nononcologic patients and associated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. However, long-term survival was lower in OPs compared with nononcologic patients (52% v 76%, respectively; P < .001) and associated with poor ECOG performance status.

CONCLUSION

Short-term survival of critically ill, mechanically ventilated OPs is similar to that of their nononcologic counterparts and is determined by the severity of the critical illness.

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<![CDATA[Assessing Knowledge Sharing in Cancer Screening Among High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Countries: Insights From the International Cancer Screening Network]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd387fa9a-391c-467a-bb85-dde9b0ce582b

PURPOSE

As the global burden of cancer rises, global knowledge sharing of effective cancer control practices will be critical. The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) of the US National Cancer Institute facilitates knowledge sharing to advance cancer screening research and practice. Our analysis assessed perceptions of ICSN’s value and knowledge sharing in cancer screening among participants working in high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

METHODS

In 2018, the National Cancer Institute fielded a self-administered, online survey to 665 ICSN participants from both HICs and LMICs.

RESULTS

Two hundred forty-three individuals (36.5%) completed the full survey. LMIC participants engaged in more diverse screening activities and had fewer years of experience (13.5% with more than 20 years of experience v 31%; P = .048) in screening and were more interested in cervical cancer (76.9% v 52.6%; P = .002) than HIC participants. However, both groups spent most of their time on research (30.8% LMIC v 36.6% HIC; P = .518) and agreed that the ICSN biennial meeting enabled them to learn from the experiences of both higher-resource (88.2% v 75.7%; P = .122) and lower-resource (61.8% v 68.0%; P = .507) settings. ICSN helped them form new collaborations for research and implementation (55.1% v 58.2%; P = .063); informed advances in research/evaluation (71.4% v 68.0%; P = .695), implementation (59.2% v 47.9%; P = .259), and policies in their settings (55.1% v 48.0%; P = .425); and provided the opportunity to contribute their knowledge and expertise to assist others (67.3% v 71.1%; P = .695).

CONCLUSION

Findings suggest that HIC and LMIC participants benefit from knowledge sharing at ICSN meetings although their interests, backgrounds, and needs differ. This points to the importance of international research networks that are inclusive of HIC and LMIC participants in cancer control to advance knowledge and effective practices globally.

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<![CDATA[Multidisciplinary Cancer Management of Colorectal Cancer in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34d8bf9f-dc86-4904-9a51-cd64d2a8b0d6

PURPOSE

Multidisciplinary cancer care is currently considered worldwide as standard for the management of patients with cancer. It improves patient diagnostic and staging accuracy and provides patients the benefit of having physicians of various specialties participating in their treatment plan. The purpose of this study was to describe the profile of patients discussed in the Tikur Anbessa Multidisciplinary Tumor Board (MTB) and the potential benefits brought by multidisciplinary care.

METHODS

The study involved the retrospective assessment of all patient cases presented to the Tikur Anbessa Hospital colorectal cancers MTB between March 2016 and November 2017. The data were collected from the MTB medical summary documents and were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS, Chicago, IL).

RESULTS

Of 147 patients with colorectal cancer, 96 (65%) were men. The median age at presentation was 46 years (range, 17-78 years). The predominant cancer was rectal (n = 101; 69%), followed by colon (n = 24; 16%). Of these, 68 (45%) and 22 (15%) had stage III and IV disease, respectively, on presentation to the MTB. The oncology department presented the majority of the patients for discussion. Most patients had undergone surgery before the MTB discussion but had no proper preoperative clinical staging information. The majority of patients with rectal cancer treated before the MTB discussion had undergone surgery upfront; however, most of the patients who were treatment naive before MTB received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy before surgery.

CONCLUSION

Decisions made by tumor boards are more likely to conform to evidence-based guidelines than are those made by individual clinicians. Therefore, early referral of patients to MTB before any treatment should be encouraged. Finally, other hospitals in Ethiopia should take a lesson from the Tikur Anbessa Hospital colorectal cancers MTB and adopt multidisciplinary cancer management.

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<![CDATA[Pregnancy Outcomes in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Single Center Experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf58bc6ba-8a9d-4e98-bab5-0a8e72af516c

PURPOSE

The aim of the current work was to report the effect of imatinib on pregnancy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

METHODS

Data were collected between January 1998 and December 2014. One hundred four patients met inclusion criteria, and we report the results of 104 pregnancies—conceived by the participant or partner—while being on imatinib therapy for CML.

RESULTS

Fifty-eight patients were male and 46 were female. Eighty-three patients, 20 patients, and one patient were had CML in the chronic phase, accelerated phase, or blast phase, respectively. Of 46 female patients, 21 underwent abortion (spontaneous, n = 36.9; elective termination, n = 8.6%). In the case of full-term pregnancy in the female partners of male patients with CML, all outcomes were uneventful. Of 46 female patients, 25 had full-term pregnancy outcomes. During the pre–imatinib era (total n = 6), patients were treated with hydroxyurea, interferon-alpha, and therapeutic leukapheresis. A total 10 of 19 pregnant patients continued on imatinib until their delivery and experienced the following outcomes: normal full-term deliveries (n = 7), preterm delivery (n = 1), omphalocele (n = 1), and craniosynostosis (n = 1). Of those who discontinued imatinib after counseling (n = 9), eight patients had full-term normal delivery, of which two patients required leukapheresis and one patient expired. All patients who continued on imatinib while pregnant were in complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response (MMR) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and postpregnancy. Of nine patients who discontinued imatinib, two lost MMR during the third trimester and all of these patients were in complete cytogenetic response and MMR before pregnancy.

CONCLUSION

It is clear that there is no standard of care for the best treatment of CML in the case of pregnancy. Interferon and/or leukapheresis will be included as treatment options. Patients can have normal pregnancies even with the administration of imatinib at the risk of congenital anomalies, intervention for which can be done after birth.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Predictive Biomarkers in Patients With Lung Adenocarcinoma From Southern Brazil Reveals a Distinct Profile From Other Regions of the Country]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0b7133bd-265e-47c7-9531-6f83b9e20d0a

PURPOSE

Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic subtype of non–small-cell lung cancer, representing 40% of all diagnoses. Several biomarkers are currently used to determine patient eligibility for targeted treatments, including analysis of molecular alterations in EGFR and ALK, as well as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein expression. Epidemiologic data reporting the frequency of these biomarkers in Brazilian patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are limited, and existing studies predominantly included patients from the southeast region of the country.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of somatic mutations in the EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF genes, ALK, and PD-L1 expression in a series of Brazilian patients diagnosed with LUAD predominantly recruited from centers in southern Brazil. Molecular analysis of the EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF genes was performed by next-generation sequencing using DNA extracted from tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect ALK and PD-L1 expression.

RESULTS

Analysis of 619 tumors identified KRAS mutations in 189 (30.2%), EGFR mutations in 120 (19.16%), and BRAF mutations in 19 (3%). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated ALK and PD-L1 expression in 4% and 35.1% of patients, respectively.

CONCLUSION

To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the molecular epidemiology of patients with LUAD from southern Brazil and the largest assessing the frequency of multiple predictive biomarkers for this tumor in the country. The study also reveals a distinct mutation profile compared with data originating from other regions of Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Treatment of Wilms Tumor in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results of the Second French African Pediatric Oncology Group Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6659de0-6704-4d0f-a364-650ac2d6195e

PURPOSE

Multidisciplinary management of Wilms tumor has been defined through multicenter prospective studies and an average expected patient cure rate of 90%. In sub-Saharan Africa, such studies are uncommon. After the encouraging results of the first Groupe Franco-Africain d'Oncologie Pédiatrique (GFAOP) study, we report the results of the GFAOP-NEPHRO-02 study using an adaptation of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology 2001 protocol.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

From April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2011, seven African units participated in a nonrandomized prospective study. All patients who were referred with a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of renal tumor were screened. Those older than age 6 months and younger than 18 years with a unilateral tumor previously untreated were pre-included and received preoperative chemotherapy. Patients with unfavorable histology or with a tumor other than Wilms, or with a nonresponding stage IV tumor were excluded secondarily.

RESULTS

Three hundred thirteen patients were initially screened. Two hundred fifty-seven patients were pre-included and 169 with histologic confirmation of intermediate-risk nephroblastoma were registered in the study and administered postoperative treatment. Thirty-one percent of patients were classified as stage I, 38% stage II, 24% stage III, and 7% stage IV. Radiotherapy was not available for any stage III patients. Three-year overall survival rate was 72% for all study patients and 73% for those with localized disease.

CONCLUSION

It was possible to conduct sub-Saharan African multicenter therapeutic studies within the framework of GFAOP. Survival results were satisfactory. Improvements in procedure, data collection, and outcome are expected in a new study. Radiotherapy is needed to reduce the relapse rate in patients with stage III disease.

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<![CDATA[Procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein As Markers of Bacteremia in Patients With Febrile Neutropenia Who Receive Chemotherapy for Acute Leukemia: A Prospective Study From Nepal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N436a7980-6df5-44ed-a20e-dab8e5bc566b

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of the biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia.

METHODS

We conducted a prospective, observational study in patients who developed FN while undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia. PCT and CRP were obtained in patients who presented with FN. Blood cultures also were obtained. The primary goals were to evaluate the ability of PCT and CRP to predict bacteremia in patients with FN. The secondary goals were to assess the prognostic role of PCT and CRP and to assess the microbiologic profile and culture sensitivity patterns in the study population.

RESULTS

A total of 124 episodes of FN that involved 67 patients with acute leukemia occurred in the study. PCT was superior to CRP in the prediction of bacteremia. The median PCT level in the bacteremia group was 3.25 ng/mL compared with 0.51 ng/mL in the group without bacteremia (P < .01). The median values of CRP in the bacteremia and without-bacteremia groups were 119.3 mg/L and 94.5 mg/L, respectively (P = .07). There were no differences in median PCT and CRP in patients who died and those who improved. Of the 42 positive cultures, Gram-negative bacteremia was common (86%), and Escherichia coli was the most frequent organism isolated. Carbapenem resistance was seen in 39% of positive cultures.

CONCLUSION

PCT is an effective biomarker to predict bacteremia in patients with FN undergoing chemotherapy for acute leukemia.

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<![CDATA[Association of Hospital Admission Risk Profile Score with Mortality in Hospitalized Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c157b75d5eed0c4841a2882

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the association of the Hospital Admission Risk Profile (HARP) score with mortality after discharge in a population of hospitalized older adults.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Participants

Hospitalized patients aged 70 years or older.

Measurements

Patient age at the time of admission, modified Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam score, and self-reported instrumental activities of daily living 2 weeks prior to admission were used to calculate a HARP score. The primary outcome assessed was overall mortality up to 365 days after hospital discharge. Cox proportional hazard analyses evaluated the association between HARP score and mortality adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities associated with increased mortality.

Results

Of the 474 patients, 165 (34.8%) had a low HARP score, 177 (37.4%) had an intermediate, and 132 (27.8%) had a high score. HARP score was not associated with differences in 30-day readmission rates. High HARP score patients had higher mortality when compared to patients with low HARP scores at all time frames (30 days: 12.9% vs 1.8%, p < .05; 90 days: 19.7% vs 4.8%, p < .05; 365 days: 34.8% vs 16.9%, p < .05). In fully adjusted Cox proportional models, patients with high HARP scores had a 3.5 times higher odds of mortality when compared to low HARP score patients.

Conclusion

The HARP score is a simple and easy to use instrument that identifies patients at increased risk for mortality after hospital discharge. Early identification of patients at increased risk for mortality has the potential to help guide treatment decisions following hospital discharge and provides additional information to providers and patients for shared decision making and may help in clarifying and achieving patient and family goals of care.

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<![CDATA[Revealing anelasticity and structural rearrangements in nanoscale metallic glass films using in situ TEM diffraction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b38161c463d7e75fb1645bf

ABSTRACT

We used a novel diffraction-based method to extract the local, atomic-level elastic strain in nanoscale amorphous TiAl films during in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation, while simultaneously measuring the macroscopic strain. The complementary strain measurements revealed significant anelastic deformation, which was independently confirmed by strain rate experiments. Furthermore, the distribution of first nearest-neighbor distances became narrower during loading and permanent changes were observed in the atomic structure upon unloading, even in the absence of macroscopic plasticity. The results demonstrate the capability of in situ electron diffraction to probe structural rearrangements and decouple elastic and anelastic deformation in metallic glasses.

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<![CDATA[A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc5caa540307c51dd5acbbd

Objective

A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD.

Methods

Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time.

Results

Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7).

Conclusion

Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD.

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<![CDATA[Weighing frequency among working adults: Cross-sectional analysis of two community samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af6c247463d7e6b832ebc0a

Objective

Self-weighing frequency is associated with lower body weight and less weight gain. This study describes self-weighing frequency in two samples of working adults from different fields: office-based and transit employees.

Methods

Self-weighing frequency and demographic information were self-reported at baseline measurement of two worksite interventions. Data were collected from transit employees (n = 1479) enrolled in a worksite intervention between October and December of 2005 and office based employees (n = 1747) in another worksite intervention between January 2006 and April 2007 in the Minneapolis, MN and St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Trained staff measured height and weight. Multinomial logistic regression models examined associations between self-weighing frequency and body mass index, study sample, and gender adjusting for age, race, and education.

Results

Odds ratios showed self-weighing frequency was significantly different between overweight and obese categories and between study samples. Office-based employees self-weighed more frequently than transit employees. Overweight employees self-weighed more frequently than obese employees.

Conclusion

While self-weighing outcomes and associations with obesity prevention and weight loss are still under investigation, these results may help in improving obesity intervention planning and informing worksite weight management programs by identifying how often working adults naturally engage in this behavior prior to weight loss interventions.

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<![CDATA[Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Chronic Widespread Pain in Adolescence: Population Birth Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b375d42463d7e68b5c56875

Although many studies have investigated the overlap between pain phenotypes and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adults, little is known about the relationship between these conditions in adolescents. The study's aim was therefore to identify whether a relationship exists between chronic widespread pain (CWP) and CFS in adolescents and investigate whether the two share common associations with a set of covariates. A questionnaire was administered to offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 17, asking about site, duration, and pain intensity, from which participants with CWP were identified. At the same research clinic, a computer-based Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was filled out, from which a classification of CFS was obtained. The relationship between selected covariates and CFS and CWP was investigated using a variety of logistic, ordinal logistic, and multinomial regressions. We identified 3,214 adolescents with complete data for all outcomes and covariates. There were 82 (2.6%) individuals classified as CFS and 145 (4.5%) as CWP. A classification of CFS resulted in an increased likelihood of having CWP (odds ratio = 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.05–7.31). Female adolescents were approximately twice as likely to have CFS or CWP, with multinomial regression revealing a greater sex effect for CWP compared with CFS. Those with exclusive CFS were more likely to report higher levels of pain and greater effect of pain compared with those without CFS, although associations attenuated to the null after adjustment for covariates, which did not occur in those with exclusive CWP. Multinomial regression revealed that relative to having neither CFS nor CWP, a 1-unit increase in the depression and anxiety scales increased the risk of having exclusive CFS and, to a greater extent, the risk of having comorbid CFS and CWP, but not exclusive CWP, which was only related to anxiety.

Perspective

In this cohort, 14.6% of adolescents with CFS have comorbid CWP. The likely greater proportion of more mild cases observed in this epidemiological study means that prevalence of overlap may be underestimated compared with those attending specialist services. Clinicians should be aware of the overlap between the 2 conditions and carefully consider treatment options offered.

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