ResearchPad - original-research-articles https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Infection control measures in ophthalmology during the COVID-19 outbreak: A narrative review from an early experience in Italy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16848 The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is infecting people and spreading easily from person-to-person. Cases have been detected in most countries worldwide. Italy is one of the most affected countries as of 30 March 2020. Public health response includes a rapid reorganization of the Italian National Healthcare System in order to reduce transmission of COVID-19 within hospitals and healthcare facilities, while optimizing the assistance to patients with severe COVID-19 complications.MethodsWe analysed the actions that were taken in three ophthalmology centres in northern Italy during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and how these measures affected patient’s attendance. In addition, due to the rapidly evolving scenario, we reviewed the evidence available during the course of this pandemic.ResultsA full reorganization of ophthalmology services is mandatory according to current existing infection containment measures in order to continue dispensing urgent procedures without endangering the community with amplification of the diffusion chain. Ophthalmologists are considered at elevated risk of exposure when caring patients and vice versa, due to their close proximity during eye examination. High volumes of procedures typically generated by ophthalmologists with concurrent implications on the risk of infection are considered when re-assessing healthcare facilities reorganization.ConclusionContainment measures in the event of pandemic due to infective agents should be well known by healthcare professionals and promptly applied in order to mitigate the risk of nosocomial transmission and outbreak. ]]> <![CDATA[Is Recovery of Somatosensory Impairment Conditional for Upper-Limb Motor Recovery Early After Stroke?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15546 Background. Spontaneous recovery early after stroke is most evident during a time-sensitive window of heightened neuroplasticity, known as spontaneous neurobiological recovery. It is unknown whether poststroke upper-limb motor and somatosensory impairment both reflect spontaneous neurobiological recovery or if somatosensory impairment and/or recovery influences motor recovery. Methods. Motor (Fugl-Meyer upper-extremity [FM-UE]) and somatosensory impairments (Erasmus modification of the Nottingham Sensory Assessment [EmNSA-UE]) were measured in 215 patients within 3 weeks and at 5, 12, and 26 weeks after a first-ever ischemic stroke. The longitudinal association between FM-UE and EmNSA-UE was examined in patients with motor and somatosensory impairments (FM-UE ≤ 60 and EmNSA-UE ≤ 37) at baseline. Results. A total of 94 patients were included in the longitudinal analysis. EmNSA-UE increased significantly up to 12 weeks poststroke. The longitudinal association between motor and somatosensory impairment disappeared when correcting for progress of time and was not significantly different for patients with severe baseline somatosensory impairment. Patients with a FM-UE score ≥18 at 26 weeks (n = 55) showed a significant positive association between motor and somatosensory impairments, irrespective of progress of time. Conclusions. Progress of time, as a reflection of spontaneous neurobiological recovery, is an important factor that drives recovery of upper-limb motor as well as somatosensory impairments in the first 12 weeks poststroke. Severe somatosensory impairment at baseline does not directly compromise motor recovery. The study rather suggests that spontaneous recovery of somatosensory impairment is a prerequisite for full motor recovery of the upper paretic limb.

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<![CDATA[Two-year cumulative patency of endovascular arteriovenous fistula]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15536 The recent advent of a device to create a proximal radial artery arteriovenous fistula using an endovascular approach to create the anastomosis represents a significant advance in dialysis access creation. This endovascular arteriovenous fistula offers the beneficial attributes of the proximal radial artery arteriovenous fistula while adding the advantages of avoiding a surgical procedure. The endovascular arteriovenous fistula can be created safely, functions well, has excellent patency, and has a high degree of patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to report the 2-year cumulative patency rate for a large multicenter cohort of endovascular arteriovenous fistula cases.Design:An endovascular arteriovenous fistula was created in 105 patients using either local or regional anesthesia and conscious sedation. Patient data were obtained from each program’s electronic health record system. Data collection was truncated at 2 years postprocedure and used to calculate cumulative patency. Post-access creation patient satisfaction was assessed.Results:A physiologically mature arteriovenous fistula (blood flow ⩾500 mL/min and a target vein internal diameter ⩾4 mm) was obtained in 98%. A clinically functional arteriovenous fistula (supporting two-needle dialysis according to the patient’s dialysis prescription) was demonstrated in 95%. Access failure resulting in the loss of access occurred in eight cases during the study period. The cumulative patency rate at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months was 97.1%, 93.9%, 93.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. The post-procedure patient evaluation emphasized a high level of patient satisfaction.Conclusion:The proximal radial artery arteriovenous fistula created using an endovascular approach for the anastomosis is associated with excellent 2-year cumulative patency and is associated with a high level of patient satisfaction. ]]> <![CDATA[Decellularized equine carotid artery layers as matrix for regenerated neurites of spiral ganglion neurons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15532 Today’s best solution in compensating for sensorineural hearing loss is the cochlear implant, which electrically stimulates the spiral ganglion neurons in the inner ear. An optimum hearing impression is not ensured due to, among other reasons, a remaining anatomical gap between the spiral ganglion neurons and the implant electrodes. The gap could be bridged via pharmacologically triggered neurite growth toward the electrodes if biomaterials for neurite guidance could be provided. For this, we investigated the suitability of decellularized tissue. We compared three different layers (tunica adventitia, tunica media, and tunica intima) of decellularized equine carotid arteries in a preliminary approach. Rat spiral ganglia explants were cultured on decellularized equine carotid artery layers and neurite sprouting was assessed quantitatively. Generally, neurite outgrowth was possible and it was most prominent on the intima (in average 83 neurites per spiral ganglia explants, followed by the adventitia (62 neurites) and the lowest growth on the media (20 neurites). Thus, decellularized equine carotid arteries showed promising effects on neurite regeneration and can be developed further as efficient biomaterials for neural implants in hearing research.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and predictors of bacterial vaginosis in HIV-infected women in Maharashtra, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15524 We evaluated the prevalence and determinants of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in HIV-infected women from Maharashtra, India. Among 912 HIV-infected women enrolled, BV was diagnosed in 191 (20.9%) and intermediate BV was diagnosed in 258 (28.3%) women. Women with more than two pregnancies had 1.6 times increased risk of BV (95% CI 1.0, 2.5, p-value 0.038), women who were menopausal had 6.2 times increased risk of BV (95% CI 2.4, 15.6, p-value <0.001) and women who were human papillomavirus (HPV) positive had 2.3 times increased risk of BV (95% CI 1.4, 3.9, p-value 0.001). Although we observed significantly increased risk of BV among women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or worse disease in the univariate analysis (odds ratio 3.5, 95% CI 1.5, 8.1, p-value 0.004), it did not reach statistical significance in the multivariate analysis. Women who had the first sexual intercourse after the age of 18 had significantly lower risk of BV. To conclude, we observed high prevalence of BV in HIV-infected women and increased risk of BV in HPV positive, HIV-infected women.

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<![CDATA[Etiology, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics of severe respiratory infection in people living with HIV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15477 People living with HIV (PLWH) are more prone to severe respiratory infections. We used the severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) definition to describe the etiology, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics in this population. This was a prospective observational study including PLWH hospitalized with fever and cough. Those with symptom onset up to 10 days were classified as severe acute respiratory infection and 11–30 days as non-severe acute respiratory infection. Blood, urine samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. Data were extracted from patient charts during their hospital stay. Forty-nine patients were included, median CD4 cell count: 80 cells/mm3, median time since HIV diagnosis and hospital admission: 84 months and 80% were antiretroviral therapy exposed. Twenty-seven patients were classified as SARI. Etiology was identified in 69%, 47% were polymicrobial. Respiratory virus (9 SARI vs. 13 non-SARI), bacteria (5 SARI vs. 4 non-SARI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6 SARI group vs. 7 non-SARI group), Pneumocystis jirovecii (4 SARI vs. 1 non-SARI), Cryptococcus neoformans (1 SARI vs. 3 non-SARI), and influenza A (1 SARI vs. 2 non-SARI). Dyspnea was statistically more prevalent in SARI (78% vs. 36%, p = 0.011) but the risk of death was higher in the non-SARI (4% vs. 36%, p = 0.0067). In the severely immunocompromised PLWH, severe acute respiratory infection can be caused by multiple pathogens and codetection is a common feature.

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<![CDATA[Syphilis incidence among men who have sex with men in China: results from a meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd797b7d5eed0c484aeb1b5

The recent upsurge of syphilis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) is one of the major challenges facing China. However, the overall burden is still not clear. This study aims to summarize the incidence of syphilis among MSM in China by using meta-analysis. We comprehensively searched PubMed-MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Wanfang databases. Articles published between December 2009 and March 2015 that met the inclusion criteria were considerably involved in this meta-analysis. Two reviewers performed a quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating the overall syphilis incidence. STATA 12.0 was used to summarize the overall incidence of syphilis. In all, 14 studies from 13 papers were included in this study. Follow-up duration of these studies ranged from six to 36 months, while drop-out rates ranged from 11.9% to 83.6%. The individual incidence rates of the included studies varied from 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8–5.3/100 person-years) to 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9–48.1/100 person-years), with a pooled incidence of 9.6/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0–12.2/100 person-years). The subgroup meta-analysis revealed that incidence estimates were 38.5/100 person-years (95% CI, 28.9–48.1/100 person-years), 12.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 7.0–17.2/100 person-years), 11.2/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.7–23.1/100 person-years), 8.9/100 person-years (95% CI, 6.5–11.2/100 person-years), 5.7/100 person-years (95% CI, 3.4–8.0/100 person-years) and 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 0.8–5.3/100 person-years) in Northeast, North, Southwest, East, South and Northwest China, respectively. Syphilis incidence among Chinese MSM is high, and this may increase the spread of other sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. It is essential to integrate syphilis control programs with HIV control programs. This can be achieved by establishing public health response systems to monitor and control the epidemic of syphilis and HIV together in China.

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<![CDATA[A Case Study Evaluating the Risk of Infection from Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS‐CoV) in a Hospital Setting Through Bioaerosols]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndd23bde2-25f8-449c-9ad7-2e12bdeee9d5

Abstract

Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, an emerging viral infection with a global case fatality rate of 35.5%, caused major outbreaks first in 2012 and 2015, though new cases are continuously reported around the world. Transmission is believed to mainly occur in healthcare settings through aerosolized particles. This study uses Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to develop a generalizable model that can assist with interpreting reported outbreak data or predict risk of infection with or without the recommended strategies. The exposure scenario includes a single index patient emitting virus‐containing aerosols into the air by coughing, leading to short‐ and long‐range airborne exposures for other patients in the same room, nurses, healthcare workers, and family visitors. Aerosol transport modeling was coupled with Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the risk of MERS illness for the exposed population. Results from a typical scenario show the daily mean risk of infection to be the highest for the nurses and healthcare workers (8.49 × 10−4 and 7.91 × 10−4, respectively), and the lowest for family visitors and patients staying in the same room (3.12 × 10−4 and 1.29 × 10−4, respectively). Sensitivity analysis indicates that more than 90% of the uncertainty in the risk characterization is due to the viral concentration in saliva. Assessment of risk interventions showed that respiratory masks were found to have a greater effect in reducing the risks for all the groups evaluated (>90% risk reduction), while increasing the air exchange was effective for the other patients in the same room only (up to 58% risk reduction).

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<![CDATA[Development of a Dose-Response Model for SARS Coronavirus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nec5f0987-162f-4181-86e9-dc58c0cb1892

In order to develop a dose‐response model for SARS coronavirus (SARS‐CoV), the pooled data sets for infection of transgenic mice susceptible to SARS‐CoV and infection of mice with murine hepatitis virus strain 1, which may be a clinically relevant model of SARS, were fit to beta‐Poisson and exponential models with the maximum likelihood method. The exponential model (k= 4.1 × l02) could describe the dose‐response relationship of the pooled data sets. The beta‐Poisson model did not provide a statistically significant improvement in fit. With the exponential model, the infectivity of SARS‐CoV was calculated and compared with those of other coronaviruses. The does of SARS‐CoV corresponding to 10% and 50% responses (illness) were estimated at 43 and 280 PFU, respectively. Its estimated infectivity was comparable to that of HCoV‐229E, known as an agent of human common cold, and also similar to those of some animal coronaviruses belonging to the same genetic group. Moreover, the exponential model was applied to the analysis of the epidemiological data of SARS outbreak that occurred at an apartment complex in Hong Kong in 2003. The estimated dose of SARS‐CoV for apartment residents during the outbreak, which was back‐calculated from the reported number of cases, ranged from 16 to 160 PFU/person, depending on the floor. The exponential model developed here is the sole dose‐response model for SARS‐CoV at the present and would enable us to understand the possibility for reemergence of SARS.

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<![CDATA[IL‐17 alters the mesenchymal stem cell niche towards osteogenesis in cooperation with osteocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N83b4092e-4a62-4003-b981-727a07f4af95

Abstract

Bone remodeling is a strictly regulated dynamic process that cycles between bone formation and resorption, and interleukin‐17 (IL‐17) critically orchestrates the activation and differentiation of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within their native environment receive biochemical stimuli from surrounding cells that influences their differentiation into bone precursors, while the roles of osteocytes in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs remain unclear. This study investigated the specific roles of IL‐17 signaling cascades and osteocyte‐specific pathways in the osteogenesis of MSCs. Using a transwell coculture (CC) system, we explored the effects of osteocytes and osteoblasts on the osteogenesis of MSCs with and without IL‐17 supplementation. A polycaprolactone (PCL) three‐dimensional (3D) culture model was used to evaluate their osteogenic potential in the presence of osteocytes and IL‐17. Notably, IL‐17 induced osteogenesis in MSCs, which could be attenuated by blocking IL‐17 receptor A. The osteogenic differentiation of MSCs promoted by IL‐17 was further enhanced by CC with osteocytes. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines IL‐6 and IL‐1β played an important role in IL‐17‐dependent differentiation, via the phosphorylation of AKT, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and extracellular signal‐regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways in the MSC niche. The present study confirms a synergistic effect of osteocytes and IL‐17 in the production of biochemical signals to stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, which could be further promoted in the PCL 3D‐scaffold. These findings provide important insight into the mechanisms of MSCs activation and osteogenic differentiation within the native stem cell niche, and suggest a possible role of IL‐17 in bone tissue engineering.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of diabetes and diabetic macular edema in patients undergoing senile cataract surgery in Italy: The DIabetes and CATaract study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2d446fae-caba-4a58-b670-0e943005d090

Background:

The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of diabetes and diabetic macular edema in patients undergoing senile cataract surgery in Italy.

Methods:

It is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study. Thirteen ophthalmic units equally distributed across the Italian territory have been involved in the study. For a period of 3 months, all subjects undergoing phacoemulsification received an Optical Coherence Tompgraphy (OCT) scan and were screened for the anamnestic presence of diabetes. In addition, five selected units collected blood samples from all their patients to measure glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and detect the presence of occult diabetes (HbA1c > 6.5%). In diabetic patients, levels of retinopathy were measured and diabetic macular edema was considered significant (clinically significant macular edema) when foveal thickness was above 30% of normal levels.

Results:

A total number of 3657 subjects have been screened. Among them, 20.4% were diabetics. Prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in males (24.7%) than in females (17%). Levels of HbA1c were tested in a representative sample of 1216 consecutive subjects, and occult diabetes was diagnosed in 4.8% of cases. No significant differences were observed between age groups or different geographic areas. Among diabetic patients, diabetic macular edema of any kind was present in 27.5% (clinically significant macular edema (6.6%)). No significant differences were seen in the prevalence of diabetic macular edema between males and females or between age groups. Among the 745 diabetic patients, no signs of retinopathy were seen in 537 subjects (76.3%), while 101 patients (14.3%) had nonproliferative retinopathy, 13 (1.7%) had nontreated proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 53 (7.5%) had laser-treated retinopathy. In the entire sample of 3657 subjects, a normal macula was present in 90.9% of cases, diabetic macular edema of any kind in 5.4%, and other maculopathies in 3.4%.

Conclusion:

In this large cohort study on patients undergoing cataract surgery, more than one-fourth were diabetics and more than one-fourth of these had diabetic macular edema. These high prevalences suggest the opportunity to plan an adequate preoperative assessment in all patients in order to reduce the risk of postoperative development or worsening of a sight-threatening complication such as chronic diabetic macular edema.

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<![CDATA[Three-year results from the Retro-IDEAL study: Real-world data from diabetic macular edema (DME) patients treated with ILUVIEN® (0.19 mg fluocinolone acetonide implant)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c1449d5-acb3-4ad3-925d-3105ef9422b4

Introduction:

The Retro-IDEAL (ILUVIEN Implant for chronic DiabEtic MAcuLar edema) study is a retrospective study designed to assess real-world outcomes achieved with the ILUVIEN® (0.19 mg fluocinolone acetonide (FAc)) in patients with chronic diabetic macular edema (DME) in clinical practices in Germany.

Methods:

This study was conducted across 16 sites in Germany and involved 81 eyes (63 patients) with persistent or recurrent DME and a prior suboptimal response to a first-line intravitreal therapy (primarily anti-VEGF intravitreal therapies).

Results:

Patients were followed-up for 30.8 ± 11.3 months (mean ± standard deviation) and had a mean age of 68.0 ± 10.4 years. Best-recorded visual acuity (BRVA) improved by +5.5 letters at month 9 (P ⩽ 0.005, n=56; from a baseline of 49 letters) and this was maintained through to month 30 (P ⩽ 0.05, n = 42). There was a concurrent improvement in central macular thickness with a reduction from 502 µm at baseline to 338 µm at year 1 (P ⩽ 0.0001, n = 43). This effect was sustained to year 3 (i.e. 318 µm; P ⩽ 0.0001, n = 29). Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) remained constant between baseline and year 3 with a peak change of 1.9 mm Hg occurring at year 1. Elevated IOP was observed in a similar percentage of patients prior to (22.2% of cases) and following (27.2%) treatment with the FAc implant. In the majority of cases, these elevations were managed effectively with IOP medications.

Conclusions:

Despite substantial amounts of prior intravitreal treatments – primarily with anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs – this real-world study showed that sustained structural and functional improvements can last for up to 3 years with a single FAc implant.

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<![CDATA[Aortic dissection masquerading as a code stroke: A single-centre cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N11b34fb5-c99c-4c9d-82b9-8c75aa862970

Abstract

Introduction

Data on the incidence of acute aortic dissection in the code stroke population are scarce. We report estimated incidence, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of patients with an acute aortic dissection in a code stroke cohort from a comprehensive stroke centre.

Patients and methods

We used data from a single-centre prospective registry of consecutive adult patients who presented to the emergency department between 2015 and 2018 with neurological deficits suggestive of an acute stroke (‘code stroke’). All patients routinely underwent non-contrast computed tomography of the brain and computed tomography-angiography of the aortic arch, cervical and intracranial arteries.

Results

Of 2874 code stroke patients, 1563 (54.4%) had acute ischaemia (ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack). Fifteen patients (0.5% of code stroke patients and 0.8% of patients with acute ischaemia) had an acute aortic dissection (all Stanford classification type A). Discerning clinical manifestations were decreased consciousness in 11/15 (73%), pain in 8/15 (53%) and low systolic blood pressure (mean 106 mmHg, SD30). Acute aortic dissection was an incidental finding during computed tomography-angiography in 4/15 (27%). Two out of 15 patients (13%) received intravenous thrombolysis, 9/15 (60%) underwent aortic surgery and 10/15 (67%) died. Of those who survived, 3/5 (60%) had a good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0–2).

Discussion and Conclusion

In our comprehensive stroke centre, about 1/200 code stroke patients and 1/125 patients with acute ischaemia had an acute aortic dissection. Multicentre studies are necessary to acquire a more reliable estimate of the incidence of acute aortic dissection in the code stroke population. Given the ramifications of missing this diagnosis, imaging of the entire aortic arch is important in these patients.

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<![CDATA[Higher risk of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid haemorrhage in siblings of families with intracranial aneurysms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67d01642-8045-4996-8c42-f59a87cff59e

Abstract

Introduction

First-degree relatives of patients with familial aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have an increased risk of unruptured intracranial aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We assessed whether the type of kinship of first-degree relatives of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients influences this risk.

Patients and methods

We used all available data from the prospectively collected database of families consulting our outpatient clinic between 1994-2016. We constructed pedigrees for all families with ≥2 first-degree relatives with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The proband was defined as the first family member with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who sought medical attention. We compared both the proportion of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms in proband's first-degree relatives by calculating relative risks (RR) with children as the reference.

Results

We studied 154 families with 1,105 first-degree relatives of whom 146 had aneurysmalsubarachnoid hemorrhage. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms were identified in 63 (19%) of the 326 screened relatives. Siblings had a higher risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (RR:1.62, 95% CI:1.12–2.38) and parents a lower risk (RR:0.44, 95% CI:0.24–0.81) than children. Siblings also had a higher risk of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (RR:2.28, 95% CI:1.23–4.07, age-adjusted RR:2.04, 95% CI:1.07–3.92) than children.

Conclusion: Siblings of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have a significanthigher risk of both unruptured intracranial aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and parents have a lower risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage than children.

Discussion: Type of kinship is a relevant factor to consider in risk prediction and screening advice in families with familial aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

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<![CDATA[Imaging markers associated with the development of post-stroke depression and apathy: Results of the Cognition and Affect after Stroke – a Prospective Evaluation of Risks study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N98f4fcdb-5c93-44a5-8815-0e69b8119222

Introduction

It has been suggested that the development of post-stroke apathy (PSA) and depression (PSD) may be more strongly associated with generalised brain pathology, rather than the stroke lesion itself. The present study aimed to investigate associations between imaging markers of lesion-related and generalised brain pathology and the development of PSA and PSD during a one-year follow-up.

Patients and methods

In a prospective cohort study, 188 stroke patients received 3-Tesla MRI at baseline (three months post-stroke) for evaluation of lesion-related, vascular, and degenerative brain pathology. Presence of lacunes, microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities, and enlarged perivascular spaces was summed to provide a measure of total cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) burden (range 0–4). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Apathy Evaluation Scale were administered at baseline and repeated at 6- and 12-month follow-up to define presence of PSD and PSA, respectively.

Results

Population-averaged logistic regression models showed that global brain atrophy and severe cSVD burden (score 3–4) were significantly associated with the odds of having PSA (ORGEE 5.33, 95% CI 1.99–14.25 and 3.04, 95% CI 1.20–7.69, respectively), independent of stroke lesion volume and co-morbid PSD. Medium cSVD burden (score 2) was significantly associated with the odds of having PSD (ORGEE 2.92, 95% CI 1.09–7.78), independent of stroke lesion volume, co-morbid PSA, and pre-stroke depression. No associations were found with lesion-related markers.

Conclusions

The results suggest that generalised degenerative and vascular brain pathology, rather than lesion-related pathology, is an important predictor for the development of PSA, and less strongly for PSD.

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<![CDATA[Myosin Sequestration Regulates Sarcomere Function, Cardiomyocyte Energetics, and Metabolism, Informing the Pathogenesis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nadbe1384-330e-4570-85de-4d701eded258

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

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<![CDATA[Improved Survival With Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Despite Progressive Metabolic Derangement Associated With Prolonged Resuscitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb103f6a1-12da-4888-bfd9-7a40c9b9f7a0

Background:

The likelihood of neurologically favorable survival declines with prolonged resuscitation. However, the ability of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) to modulate this decline is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effects of resuscitation duration on survival and metabolic profile in patients who undergo ECPR for refractory ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Methods:

We retrospectively evaluated survival in 160 consecutive adults with refractory ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated with the University of Minnesota (UMN) ECPR protocol (transport with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for ECPR) compared with 654 adults who had received standard CPR in the amiodarone arm of the ALPS trial (Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo Study). We evaluated the metabolic changes and rate of survival in relation to duration of CPR in UMN-ECPR patients.

Results:

Neurologically favorable survival was significantly higher in UMN-ECPR patients versus ALPS patients (33% versus 23%; P=0.01) overall. The mean duration of CPR was also significantly longer for UMN-ECPR patients versus ALPS patients (60 minutes versus 35 minutes; P<0.001). Analysis of the effect of CPR duration on neurologically favorable survival demonstrated significantly higher neurologically favorable survival for UMN-ECPR patients compared with ALPS patients at each CPR duration interval <60 minutes; however, longer CPR duration was associated with a progressive decline in neurologically favorable survival in both groups. All UMN-ECPR patients with 20 to 29 minutes of CPR (8 of 8) survived with neurologically favorable status compared with 24% (24 of 102) of ALPS patients with the same duration of CPR. There were no neurologically favorable survivors in the ALPS cohort with CPR ≥40 minutes, whereas neurologically favorable survival was 25% (9 of 36) for UMN-ECPR patients with 50 to 59 minutes of CPR and 19% with ≥60 minutes of CPR. Relative risk of mortality or poor neurological function was significantly reduced in UMN-ECPR patients with CPR duration ≥60 minutes. Significant metabolic changes included decline in pH, increased lactic acid and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and thickened left ventricular wall with prolonged professional CPR.

Conclusions:

ECPR was associated with improved neurologically favorable survival at all CPR durations <60 minutes despite severe progressive metabolic derangement. However, CPR duration remains a critical determinate of survival.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence, incidence, and distribution of human papillomavirus types in female sex workers in Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N57ad1e35-1b2b-4248-b71d-15c2381b3dac

Female sex workers (FSWs) have a notably high risk of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Relatively few studies address the type-specific prevalence and incidence of HPV among FSWs in sub-Saharan Africa. FSWs (n = 348) attending the Korogocho clinic in Nairobi, Kenya participated from August 2009 to March 2011. HPV DNA was detected using the SPF10-LiPA25 PCR assay. Baseline prevalence of HPV infection and cervical dysplasia were calculated, stratified by HIV-serostatus. Incidence rate (IR) of infection was calculated as number of new infections from baseline over person-months among 160 HPV-negative participants with complete 12-month follow-up. Baseline HPV prevalence was 23.6% for any HPV and 20.4% for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types. Most prevalent types were HPV52 (10.1%), HPV35 (2.3%), and HPV51 (2.3%). A quarter (24%) of participants were HIV-positive. HPV prevalence was higher in HIV-positive (32.1%) than HIV-negative (20.8%) participants. hrHPV prevalence was higher in HIV-positive (27.4%) than HIV-negative (18.2%) women. During follow-up, HPV IR was 31.4 (95% CI: 23.8–41.5) for any HPV and 24.2 (95% CI: 17.9–32.8) for hrHPV types. HPV52 had the highest IR (6.0; 95% CI: 6.5–10.3). Overall HPV and hrHPV prevalence were lower than expected, but both prevalence and incidence were higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women.

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<![CDATA[Orai1 Channel Inhibition Preserves Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Normal Ca2+ Handling After Pressure Overload]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N39a2bec3-56ef-4c76-ad15-67086685b800

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

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<![CDATA[High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin and the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N949439c5-adf5-48e7-a261-e70d1615ee77

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

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