ResearchPad - original-scientific-report https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The Decreasing Incidence of Acute Appendicitis During COVID-19: A Retrospective Multi-centre Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10654 As the novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) spreads, a decrease in the number of patients with acute appendicitis (AA) has been noted in our institutions. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and severity of AA before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodsA retrospective cohort analysis was performed between December 2019 and April 2020 in the four high-volume centres that provide health care to the municipality of Jerusalem, Israel. Two groups were created. Group A consisted of patients who presented in the 7 weeks prior to COVID-19 first being diagnosed, whilst those in the 7 weeks after were allocated to Group B. A comparison was performed between the clinicopathological features of the patients in each group as was the changing incidence of AA.ResultsA total of 378 patients were identified, 237 in Group A and 141 in Group B (62.7% vs. 37.3%). Following the onset of COVID-19, the weekly incidence of AA decreased by 40.7% (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the length of preoperative symptoms or surgery, need for postoperative peritoneal drainage or the distribution of complicated versus uncomplicated appendicitis.ConclusionsThe significant decrease in the number of patients admitted with AA during the onset of COVID-19 possibly represents successful resolution of mild appendicitis treated symptomatically by patients at home. Further research is needed to corroborate this assumption and identify those patients who may benefit from this treatment pathway. ]]> <![CDATA[Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Renal Dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N84720fd8-b63b-4a24-aa62-1b6449dbd13d

Background

The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of liver resection in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with preoperative renal dysfunction (RD).

Methods

Data from 735 patients undergoing primary liver resection for HCC between 2002 and 2014 were analyzed. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the RD group, defined by a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate of <45 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the non-RD group.

Results

Sixty-two patients had RD. The incidence of postoperative pleural effusion (24 vs. 11%; P = 0.007) and major complications (Clavien–Dindo III–V; 31 vs. 15%; P = 0.003) were significantly higher in RD patients. In RD patients with Child-Pugh A, 90-day mortality rate (1.9%) and median survival time (6.11 years) were comparable to that of non-RD patients. In contrast, RD patients with Child-Pugh B had a very high 90-day mortality rate (22.2%), and a significant shorter median survival time compared to non-RD patients (1.19 vs. 4.84 years; P = 0.001).

Conclusions

Liver resection for Child-Pugh A patients with RD is safe and has comparable oncological outcomes compared to non-RD patients. However, selection of liver resection candidates from Child-Pugh B patients with RD should be stricter.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s00268-018-4698-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of Trauma Patients from the Mosul Offensive, 2016–2017: Results from a Dedicated Trauma Center in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e24dd5eed0c484112900

Introduction

Most epidemiological studies from conflicts are restricted to either combatants or civilians. It is largely unknown how the epidemiology differs between the two groups. In 2016, an Iraqi-led coalition began retaking Mosul from the terrorist group Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. One key institution that received trauma patients from Mosul was Emergency Management Center (EMC) in Erbil, 90 km away. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology, morbidity, and mortality of civilians and combatants admitted during the ongoing conflict.

Method

This retrospective cohort study utilized routinely collected data on patients with conflict-related injuries who were admitted to EMC between October 16, 2016, and July 10, 2017. Data processing and analysis was carried out using JMP 13. Categorical variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test.

Results

The analysis included 1725 patients, out of which 46% were civilian. Ordnance accounted for most injuries (68%), followed by firearms (18%) and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) (14%). The proportion of IED-related injuries among combatants were almost three times that of civilians. The proportions of abdominal injuries, need for surgery, laparotomies, and amputations were significantly higher among civilians than among combatants. The mortality rate was 0.5%.

Discussion

The fact that civilians had greater surgical needs than combatants may be explained by several factors including a lack of ballistic protection. The extremely low mortality rate indicates significant gaps in prehospital care and transport. Our results may provide useful information to guide medical preparedness and response during future conflicts.

Clinicaltrials.gov ID

NCT03358758.

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<![CDATA[Spontaneous Deceleration and Acceleration of Growth Rate in Medullary Thyroid Carcinomas Suggested by Changes in Calcitonin Doubling Times Over Long-Term Surveillance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e23fd5eed0c4841127eb

Background

Based on our long-term observation of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients, we hypothesized that some MTCs have spontaneous deceleration or regression of tumor growth over a long term and that a minority may acquire growth acceleration. We thus compared the calcitonin doubling time (Ct-DT) in the earlier and later half-periods of MTC patients’ postoperative course.

Methods

We followed 26 MTC patients (14 hereditary and 12 sporadic MTCs) with postoperative hypercalcitoninemia with periodic measurements of serum calcitonin (Ct) for >10 years without major interventions. The median period of Ct measurements was 18.3 years (range 10.6–30.2 years). We divided the individual patients’ study periods into the earlier and later halves and calculated the Ct-DTs for both periods.

Results

In the hereditary group, the Ct-DT in the later half-period (Later-Ct-DT) was significantly longer than that in the earlier half-period (Earlier-Ct-DT) (median 20.0 years vs. 7.1 years, p = 0.013). These values in the sporadic group were 20.0 years versus 11.1 years, respectively (p =0.774). Twelve patients (seven hereditary and five sporadic) had Later-Ct-DTs significantly longer than their Earlier-Ct-DTs (median 27.4 years vs. 4.9 years) and good prognoses. Two patients (one hereditary, one sporadic) had Later-Ct-DTs significantly shorter than their Earlier-Ct-DTs, and both developed structural recurrence and died of the disease.

Conclusion

Many of the hereditary and some of the sporadic MTC patients had elongated Ct-DTs over a long period, suggesting spontaneous deceleration and regression of tumor growth. A minority of the MTC patients showed Ct-DT shortening, suggesting tumor growth acceleration.

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<![CDATA[Variation in Classification and Postoperative Management of Complex Appendicitis: A European Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e24bd5eed0c4841128f1

Background

Data on common practice in the management of patients with complex appendicitis are scarce, especially for the adult population. Variation in the definition of complex appendicitis, indications for and the type of prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis have not been well studied yet. The aim of this study was to document current practice of the classification and postoperative management of complex appendicitis on an international level.

Methods

An online survey was dispersed among practicing surgeons and surgical residents. Survey questions pertained to the definition of a complex appendicitis, indications for antibiotic prophylaxis after appendectomy, the duration, route of administration and antibiotic agents used.

Results

A total of 137 survey responses were eligible for analysis. Most respondents were from Northern or Western Europe and were specialized in gastrointestinal surgery. Opinion varied substantially regarding the management of appendicitis, in particular for phlegmonous appendicitis with localized pus, gangrenous appendicitis and iatrogenic rupture of appendicitis. The most common duration of postoperative antibiotics was evenly spread over <3, 3, 5 and 7 days. Whereas most respondents indicated a combined intravenous and oral route of administration was common practice, 28% answered a completely intravenous route of administration was standard practice.

Conclusion

Current practice patterns in the classification and postoperative management of complex appendicitis are highly variable.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s00268-018-4806-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Analysing Breast Cancer Multidisciplinary Patient Management: A Prospective Observational Evaluation of Team Clinical Decision-Making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e22cd5eed0c4841126c4

Background

Multidisciplinary team (MDT)-driven cancer care is a mandatory UK national policy, widely used globally. However, few studies have examined how MDT members make decisions as a team. We report a single-centre prospective study on team working within breast cancer MDT.

Methods

This was a prospective observational study of 10 breast MDT meetings (MDM). Trained clinical observer scored quality of presented information and disciplinary contribution to case reviews in real time, using a validated tool, namely Metric for the Observation of Decision-Making. Data were analysed to evaluate quality of team working.

Results

Ten MDMs were observed (N = 346 patients). An average of 42 patients were discussed per MDM (range: 29–51) with an average 3 min 20 s (range: 31 s–9 min) dedicated to each patient. Management decision was made in 99% of cases. In terms of contribution to case reviews, breast care nurses scored significantly (p < 0.05) lower (M = 1.79, SD = 0.12) compared to other team members (e.g. surgeons, M = 4.65; oncologists, M = 3.07; pathologists, M = 4.51; radiologists, M = 3.21). Information on patient psychosocial aspects (M = 1.69, SD = 0.68), comorbidities (M = 1.36, SD = 0.39) and views on treatment options (M = 1.47, SD = 0.34) was also significantly (p < 0.05) less well represented compared to radiology (M = 3.62, SD = 0.77), pathology (M = 4.42, SD = 0.49) and patient history (M = 3.91, SD = 0.48).

Conclusion

MDT evaluation via direct observation in a meeting is feasible and reliable. We found consistent levels of quality of information coverage and contribution within the team, but certain aspects could be improved. Contribution to patient review resides predominantly with surgeons, while presented patient information is largely of biomedical nature. These findings can be fed to cancer MDTs to identify potential interventions for improvement.

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<![CDATA[Emergency Bleeding Control Interventions After Immediate Total-Body CT Scans in Trauma Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e225d5eed0c484112675

Background

Immediate total-body CT (iTBCT) is often used for screening of potential severely injured patients. Patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions benefit from fast and optimal trauma screening. The aim of this study was to assess whether an initial trauma assessment with iTBCT is associated with lower mortality in patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions.

Methods

In the REACT-2 trial, patients who sustained major trauma were randomized for iTBCT or for conventional imaging and selective CT scanning (standard workup; STWU) in five trauma centers. Patients who underwent emergency bleeding control interventions following their initial trauma assessment with iTBCT were compared for mortality and clinically relevant time intervals to patients that underwent the initial trauma assessment with the STWU.

Results

In the REACT-2 trial, 1083 patients were enrolled of which 172 (15.9%) underwent emergency bleeding control interventions following their initial trauma assessment. Within these 172 patients, 85 (49.4%) underwent iTBCT as primary diagnostic modality during the initial trauma assessment. In trauma patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions, in-hospital mortality was 12.9% (95% CI 7.2–21.9%) in the iTBCT group compared to 24.1% (95% CI 16.3–34.2%) in the STWU group (p = 0.059). Time to bleeding control intervention was not reduced; 82 min (IQR 5–121) versus 98 min (IQR 62–147), p = 0.108.

Conclusions

Reduction in mortality in trauma patients requiring emergency bleeding control interventions by iTBCT could not be demonstrated in this study. However, a potentially clinically relevant absolute risk reduction of 11.2% (95% CI − 0.3 to 22.7%) in comparison with STWU was observed.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01523626.

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<![CDATA[The Reporting on ERAS Compliance, Outcomes, and Elements Research (RECOvER) Checklist: A Joint Statement by the ERAS® and ERAS® USA Societies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4271dfd5eed0c48465ec15

Background

Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs are multimodal care pathways designed to minimize the physiological and psychological impact of surgery for patients. Increased compliance with ERAS guidelines is associated with improved patient outcomes across surgical types. As ERAS programs have proliferated, an unintentional effect has been significant variation in how ERAS-related studies are reported in the literature.

Methods

To improve the quality of ERAS reporting, ERAS® USA and the ERAS® Society launched an effort to create an instrument to assist authors in manuscript preparation. Criteria to include were selected by a combination of literature review and expert opinion. The final checklist was refined by group consensus.

Results

The Societies present the Reporting on ERAS Compliance, Outcomes, and Elements Research (RECOvER) Checklist. The tool contains 20 items including best practices for reporting clinical pathways, compliance auditing, and formatting guidelines.

Conclusions

The RECOvER Checklist is intended to provide a standardized framework for the reporting of ERAS-related studies. The checklist can also assist reviewers in evaluating the quality of ERAS-related manuscripts. Authors are encouraged to include the RECOvER Checklist when submitting ERAS-related studies to peer-reviewed journals.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Trials of Active Surveillance of Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af8cfc0463d7e0de97e2e41

Background

The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing globally. This is mainly due to the increase in the detection of small papillary carcinomas, including papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) 1 cm or smaller. It was suggested recently that PMCs are overdiagnosed and overtreated.

Methods

In 1993, the author proposed a clinical trial to compare surgery and observation for low-risk PMC at doctors’ meeting in Kuma Hospital, which was approved and the trial started in the same year. Patients choose immediate surgery or observation. This paper shares our 22-year experience with the active surveillance of more than 2000 patients with low-risk PMC and compares the outcomes of immediate surgery with that of active observation.

Results

The oncological outcomes of these management groups were similarly excellent. In our active surveillance trial on 1235 patients, 8 % of patients showed tumor enlargement by 3 mm or more at 10 years of observation, and 3.8 % of the patients showed novel appearance of lymph node metastasis at 10 years. Patients 40 years or younger tended to show progression of the disease. Patients with these slight progressions of the disease were successfully treated with a rescue surgery. None of the patients in both study groups died of the disease. However, incidences of unfavorable events, such as temporary vocal cord paralysis (VCP) and temporary and permanent hypoparathyroidism, were significantly higher in the immediate surgery group than in the observation group (4.1 vs. 0.6 %, p < 0.0001; 16.7 vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.0001; and 1.6 vs. 0.08 %, p < 0.0001, respectively). Permanent VCP occurred in two of the surgery group.

Conclusions

As a result, although we still offer two options, immediate surgery or observation, to patients with low-risk PMC at Kuma Hospital, we now strongly recommend observation as the best choice.

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