ResearchPad - original-study https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Effects of organic zinc on the performance and gut integrity of broilers under heat stress conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nce29af67-4519-489c-8c3a-e2c55a9e7713 Heat stress (HS) has negative impacts on farm animals. Many studies have been conducted in order to ameliorate the effects of heat stress in farm animals. The current project investigated the effects of organic zinc supplementation under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions on the production, physiological, and histological parameters in broiler chickens. Three-hundred and sixty chicks in the current project were assigned randomly to six different treatments (n=60 chicks per treatment). The treatments were (1) a basal diet containing 40 mg kg-1 of Zn from an organic source and rearing under thermoneutral (TN) conditions (Ctrl); (2) a diet containing the amount of Zn from the basal diet +50 % of the Zn level (from the basal diet) and rearing under TN conditions (50 TN); (3) a diet containing the amount of Zn from the basal diet +100 % of the Zn level (from the basal diet) and rearing under TN conditions (100 TN); (4) a basal diet containing 40 mg kg-1 of Zn from an organic source and exposure to 3 d of cyclical HS at the age of 35 d (CHS); (5) a diet containing the amount of Zn from the basal diet +50 % of the Zn level (from the basal diet) and exposure to 3 d of cyclical HS at the age of 35 d (50 HS); and (6) a diet containing the amount of Zn from the basal diet +100 % of the Zn level (from the basal diet) and exposure to 3 d of cyclical HS at the age of 35 d (100 HS). Our results indicated that HS has decreased final body weight (fBW), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) relative to TN chicks. However, organic zinc had little or no effects on the production parameters measures in the current project. Overall, intestinal histological measurements were negatively altered under HS relative to TN chicks. Organic zinc inclusion in the diet had improved villus height in the duodenum and jejunum relative to the Ctrl and CHS chicks. Blood calcium and glucose levels were decreased and increased, respectively, in HS relative to TN chicks. In summary, the results discussed in the current project revealed that the inclusion rates of organic zinc used here had little or no effects on the productive parameters. However, it improved the morphological characteristics of the intestines which might maximized the intestinal efficiency in nutrient absorption under HS conditions.

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<![CDATA[The effects of soy oil, poultry fat and tallow with fixed energy : protein ratio on broiler performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Necf94c88-47ea-4f74-a61a-95dd575451dd

Abstract

In this study, the effects of using soy oil (SO), poultry fat (PF) and tallow (T) in broiler feed at fixed energy : protein ratio on field and slaughter parameters were evaluated. The average live weight (ALW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), production efficiency factor (PEF) and mortality were investigated as field performance parameters; carcass weight (CW), carcass yield (CY), heart–liver weight (HLW), heart–liver yield (HLY), abdominal fat weight (AFW) and abdominal fat yield (AFY) were investigated as slaughter performance parameters. The experiment was performed in accordance with animal welfare legislation of Turkey and continued for 41 d. It was conducted with a total of 12 600 Ross 308 broiler chicks from Ross 308 strain middle-aged (36 weeks) broiler breeders. Ten different diets in which SO in starter; SO, PF and T in grower and single; or equal mixing of them (SO + PF, SO + T, PF + T) in finisher were used. When animal fat (PF and T) was used instead of SO, especially in grower feed, the field performance parameters improved except for mortality ( P<0.05 ). This situation was not seen in slaughter performance parameters except for CW, HLW and HLY ( P>0.05 ). However, it was found that sex affected slaughter performance parameters except for CY and AFW; higher CW and HLW and lower AFY and HLY were observed due to higher CW in male broilers ( P<0.05 ). In addition, the interactions between the type of the fat and sex were not found to be significant except for CW and CY ( P>0.05 ). At the end of the study, it was seen that if certain ratios are not exceeded, the use of animal fat instead of SO may be a good and economic alternative. Such an arrangement, which can be made depending on oil and fat prices, can reduce the feed cost, which is a more important result in terms of large integrations.

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<![CDATA[Identification, molecular characteristics, and tissue differential expression of DGAT2 full-CDS cDNA sequence in Binglangjiang buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4f18e3b7-dd83-4e37-ab9a-37e99f2e1db9

Abstract

It has been found that diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) plays a crucial role in the synthesis of triglycerides (TGs) in some mammals, but its role in buffalo lactation is unclear. In the present study, the DGAT2 full-CDS cDNA sequence of Binglangjiang buffalo was isolated, and the physicochemical characteristics and structure of its encoding protein were characterized. Furthermore, the differential expressions of this gene in 10 tissues of lactating and non-lactating buffalo were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results showed that the coding region (CDS) of this gene was 1086 bp in length, encoding a peptide composed of 361 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared more than 98.6 % identity with that of cattle, zebu, yak, and bison in the Bovidae family. Buffalo DGAT2 protein is a slightly hydrophobic protein with a transmembrane region, which functions in membrane of endoplasmic reticulum. Besides, this protein belongs to the LPLAT_MGAT-like family and contains a conserved domain of DAGAT that has a function in the synthesis of TGs. The multi-tissue differential expression analysis demonstrated that DGAT2 was expressed in the heart, liver, mammary gland, and muscle in both non-lactating and lactating buffalo. And its expression level in the heart, liver, and mammary gland during lactation was significantly higher than that during non-lactation. The results indicate that buffalo DGAT2 may be involved in milk fat synthesis. This study can establish a foundation for further elucidating mechanisms of the buffalo DGAT2 gene in milk fat synthesis.

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<![CDATA[Investigation of burnout syndrome and job‐related risk factors in veterinary technicians in specialty teaching hospitals: a multicenter cross‐sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne684c96c-6f56-4a93-be10-df007a794323

Abstract

Objectives

To investigate veterinary technician burnout and associations with frequency of self‐reported medical error, resilience, and depression and job‐related risk factors.

Design

Cross‐sectional observational study using an anonymous survey conducted between November 2017 and June 2018.

Setting

Four referral teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada.

Subjects

A total of 344 veterinary technicians were invited to participate. Response rate was 95%. Overall 256 surveys were ultimately analyzed.

Interventions

Burnout, depression, and resilience were measured using validated instruments. Respondents reported perceptions of workload, working environment, and medical error frequency. Associations between burnout and factors related to physical work environment, workload and schedule, compensation package, interpersonal relationships, intellectual enrichment, and exposure to ethical conflicts were analyzed.

Measurements and Main Results

Burnout, characterized by high emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low sense of personal accomplishment was common, and was positively associated with perceived medical errors, desire to change career, and depression. Burnout levels on all 3 burnout subscales were higher in this population than previously reported for a contemporaneous group of trauma nurses working with human patients (P < 0.05). Burnout was negatively associated with resilience. Respondents’ feelings of fear or anxiety around supervisor communications, perception that patient load was too high to allow for excellent patient care, and perceived lack of available assistance during sudden workload increases were all associated with burnout.

Conclusions

Burnout in veterinary technicians is common and is associated with numerous undesirable outcomes. Work‐related interventions to reduce burnout should focus on improving supervisor relationships and maintaining an appropriate patient:caregiver ratio.

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<![CDATA[COMPARISON BETWEEN RELEASABLE SCLERAL BUCKLING AND VITRECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH PHAKIC PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf0ae01c7-e5e2-467d-8fac-89baa0d20ce4

By comparing releasable scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of phakic patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, we found that releasable scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy procedures have the same effects on the functional and anatomical success for patients with phakic primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, but releasable scleral buckling was associated with fewer complications.

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<![CDATA[EVOLUTION AND PATTERNS OF CHOROIDAL THICKNESS CHANGES IN RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N56e9e771-850b-4e45-85cc-32e0459ac6af

Using optical coherence tomography, we found that the extent of retinal detachment is related to preoperative and postoperative choroidal thickness, determined not only subfoveally but also within a central macular area measuring 5 mm in diameter.

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<![CDATA[FIRST-IN-HUMAN CLINICAL STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY SURGERY USING A NEW HYPERSONIC TECHNOLOGY]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd7521405-80e3-41dd-a750-38d052d2873d

This is a first-in-human study using a new hypersonic vitrectomy technology, a promising new alternative to the currently commercially available guillotine vitrectors. This study shows the initial experience in humans and highlights potential benefits in various vitreoretinal surgical scenarios.

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<![CDATA[Interbreed variation in meiotic recombination rate and distribution in the domestic chicken Gallus gallus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2664cd38-ce53-4df7-9276-d504948382c5

Abstract

The efficiency of natural and artificial selection is critically dependent on the recombination rate. However, interbreed and individual variation in recombination rate in poultry remains unknown. Conventional methods of analysis of recombination such as genetic linkage analysis, sperm genotyping and chiasma count at lampbrush chromosomes are expensive and time-consuming. In this study, we analyzed the number and distribution of recombination nodules in spermatocytes of the roosters of six chicken breeds using immunolocalization of key proteins involved in chromosome pairing and recombination. We revealed significant effects of breed (R2=0.17; p<0.001) and individual (R2=0.28; p<0.001) on variation in the number of recombination nodules. Both interbreed and individual variations in recombination rate were almost entirely determined by variation in recombination density on macrochromosomes, because almost all microchromosomes in each breed had one recombination nodule. Despite interbreed differences in the density of recombination nodules, the patterns of their distribution along homologous chromosomes were similar. The breeds examined in this study showed a correspondence between the age of the breed and its recombination rate. Those with high recombination rates (Pervomai, Russian White and Brahma) are relatively young breeds created by crossing several local breeds. The breeds displaying low recombination rate are ancient local breeds: Cochin (Indo-China), Brown Leghorn (Tuscany, Italy) and Russian Crested (the European part of Russia).

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<![CDATA[The effect of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5 on triglyceride synthesis in bovine preadipocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe92004e-57d8-40c0-b5ad-471b8834cef1

Abstract

Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5 (ACSL5) is a member of the acyl coenzyme A (CoA) long-chain synthase families (ACSLs), and it plays a key role in fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we proved an association between the ACSL5 gene and triglyceride metabolism at the cellular level in cattle. pBI-CMV3-ACSL5 and pGPU6/GFP/Neo-ACSL5 plasmids were constructed and transfected into bovine preadipocytes by electroporation. The expression level of ACSL5 was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The triglyceride content was detected by a triglyceride kit. The results indicated that the expression level of ACSL5 mRNA and protein in the pBI-CMV3-ACSL5-transfected group was significantly increased compared with those in the control group. Furthermore, the pGPU6/GFP/Neo-ACSL5-transfected group was significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. A cell triglyceride test showed that overexpression or silencing of the ACSL5 gene could affect synthesis of cellular triglycerides. This study investigated the mechanism of ACSL on bovine fat deposition, and also provides a new candidate gene for meat quality traits in beef cattle.

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<![CDATA[The effect of polyphenols and vitamin E on the antioxidant status and meat quality of broiler chickens fed low-quality oil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5b8080ff-79f2-40fe-9d03-782295673e1c

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin E and polyphenols on the antioxidant potential and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with low-quality oil. The experimental materials comprised 120 male Ross 308 broilers (six treatments, 10 replications, two birds per replication). Dietary supplementation with vitamin E and/or polyphenols was applied in the following experimental design: group I (negative control) – without supplementation without low-quality oil; group II (positive control) – without supplementation + low-quality oil; group III – supplementation with 100 mg kg-1 of vitamin E+ low-quality oil; group IV – 200 mg kg-1 of vitamin E + low-quality oil; group V – 100 mg kg-1 of vitamin E and 100 mg kg-1 of polyphenols + low-quality oil; group VI – 200 mg kg-1 of polyphenols + low-quality oil. Rapeseed oil oxidised under laboratory conditions was added to the diets of broiler chickens from groups II to VI. The applied antioxidants had no effect on the growth performance of chickens fed oxidised oil. Increased dietary inclusion levels of vitamin E and/or polyphenols improved the antioxidant status in the blood and increased the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants in the liver and breast muscles of broilers fed low-quality oil. The tested antioxidants had no influence on carcass quality parameters in chickens fed oxidised oil. However, birds fed diets with the addition of vitamin E were characterised by a higher gizzard weight and higher pH of gizzard digesta. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E and polyphenols or polyphenols alone contributed to a lighter colour and lower pH of breast muscles and an increase in the content of fat and ash in the breast muscles of broilers fed oxidised oil. The breast muscles of birds given 100 or 200 mg kg-1 of supplemental vitamin E were characterised by higher concentrations of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids (DFAs), a more desirable DFA/OFA ratio, and a lower atherogenicity index (AI). Polyphenols combined with vitamin E can be a valuable component of diets for broiler chickens when the problem of low-quality oil occurs.

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<![CDATA[Meat production characteristics of Turkish native breeds: II. meat quality, fatty acid, and cholesterol profile of lambs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne526b8e2-9525-48f7-9cd2-8e72ec782c95

Abstract

The study conducted a comparison of meat quality, fatty acid profile, and cholesterol amounts of longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles of male lambs born to Turkish indigenous sheep breeds raised under intensive conditions. A total of 36 singleton male lambs were used as experimental animals of the Akkaraman (A), Morkaraman (M), Awassi (IW), Karayaka (KR), Kıvırcık (KV), and Middle Anatolian Merino (MAM) pure breeds. All lambs were fed the same diet until they reached a target weight of 40 kg weight. After the feeding period, all lambs were slaughtered and LD and ST muscle samples were collected to determine meat quality traits, fatty acid profile, and cholesterol amounts. Although there were no significant differences between lambs in terms of the fatty acid profile of LD and ST muscles, KR lambs had a higher cholesterol content in both muscles in comparison with the lambs born to other breeds (p<0.05). While water-holding capacity, dripping loss, pH, color, dry matter, ash, and intramuscular fat values of ST muscles showed differences among breeds (p<0.05), dripping loss, pH, cooking loss, color, dry matter, ash, protein, and intramuscular fat values of LD muscles differed between breeds (p<0.05). The data of the current study indicated that meat quality characteristics and cholesterol contents of Turkish indigenous breeds showed differences, and these differences may be used for alternative lamb meat production for the consumer.

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<![CDATA[Genetic variations in the sheep SIRT7 gene and their correlation with body size traits]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7934a513-5e69-4f2e-bbf5-eeacc932d1a6

Abstract

As a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylase and ADP ribosyl transferase, the silent information regulator 7 (Sirtuin 7, SIRT7) plays a crucial role in regulating the differentiation of adipocytes and myoblasts, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and cellular growth in mammals. It has been hypothesized that SIRT7 affects growth traits in animals; therefore, in this study, the potential insertion/deletion (indel) of genetic variations within the ovine SIRT7 gene and their correlation with sheep growth traits were explored. A total of 709 individuals from five Chinese and Mongolian sheep breeds were analyzed. Two novel indel loci of the sheep SIRT7 gene were detected and were named 5 promoter region-insertion-7 bp (5 promoter region-7 bp) and 3 UTR-insertion-17 bp (3 UTR-17 bp), respectively. In all of the sheep breeds, frequencies of the 5 promoter region-7 bp mutation were low, whereas mutations of 3 UTR-17 bp were high in Tong sheep and Lanzhou fat-tail sheep (LFTS). Furthermore, both indel polymorphisms had significant associations with different growth characteristics (P<0.05). Among these associations, the 3 UTR-17 bp was highly correlated with rump width in small-tail Han sheep (STHS, rams; P<0.01), and individuals with the ID genotype had better chest depth values than those with the II genotype. In this paper, two novel indels within the sheep SIRT7 gene were identified, and genetic diversity and its effects on body size traits were explored. These findings will potentially provide useful DNA markers for the improvement of economic traits in sheep genetic breeding.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity and relationships of Chinese donkeys using microsatellite markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N103ded31-346f-42f3-a31b-8ed0e929a0e7

Abstract

Donkeys are one important livestock in China because of their nourishment and medical values. To investigate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese donkey breeds, a panel of 25 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers was applied to genotype 504 animals from 12 Chinese donkey breeds. A total of 226 alleles were detected, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.6315 (Guanzhong) to 0.6999 (Jiami). The mean value of the polymorphism information content, observed number of alleles, and expected number of alleles for all the tested Chinese donkeys were 0.6600, 6.890, and 3.700, respectively, suggesting that Chinese indigenous donkeys have relatively abundant genetic diversity. Although there were abundant genetic variations found, the genetic differentiation between the Chinese donkey breeds was relatively low, which displayed only 5.99 % of the total genetic variance among different breeds. The principal coordinates analysis clearly splits 12 donkey breeds into two major groups. The first group included Xiji, Xinjiang, Liangzhou, Kulun, and Guanzhong donkey breeds. In the other group, Gunsha, Dezhou, Biyang, Taihang, Jiami, Qingyang, and Qinghai donkeys were clustered together. This grouping pattern was further supported by structure analysis and neighbor-joining tree analysis. Furthermore, genetic relationships between different donkey breeds identified in this study were corresponded to their geographic distribution and breeding history. Our results provide comprehensive and precise baseline information for further research on preservation and utilization of Chinese domestic donkeys.

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<![CDATA[Associations of ORMDL1 gene copy number variations with growth traits in four Chinese sheep breeds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N21cfa7ed-0192-4768-a955-7b72684a1619

Abstract

Copy number variations (CNVs) are gains and losses of genomic sequence of more than 50 bp between two individuals of a species. Also, CNV is considered to be one of the main elements affecting the phenotypic diversity and evolutionary adaptation of animals. ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 1 (ORMDL1) is a protein-coding gene associated with diseases and development. In our study, the polymorphism of ORMDL1 gene copy numbers in four Chinese sheep breeds (abbreviated CK, HU, STH, and LTH) was detected. In addition, we analyzed the transcriptional expression level of ORMDL1 gene in different tissues of sheep and examined the association of ORMDL1 CNV with growth traits. The statistical analysis revealed that ORMDL1 CNV was remarkably correlated with body height, heart girth, and circumference of cannon bone in HU sheep (P<0.05), and there are significant effects on body weight, body height, body length, chest depth, and height of hip cross in STH sheep (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results provide a basis for the relationship between CNV of ORMDL1 gene and sheep growth traits, suggesting that ORMDL1 CNV may be considered a promising marker for the molecular breeding of Chinese sheep.

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<![CDATA[Valuing breeders' preferences in the conservation of the Koundoum sheep in Niger by multi-attribute analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb7a5a620-e627-4c01-b416-3265ebc90f7d

Abstract

This study characterises farmer's preferences for breeding rams and tackles their willingness to contribute to the Koundoum sheep conservation programme through their quantified appreciation of the main phenotypic features of the sheep breed in the region. The Koundoum is the main wool sheep of Niger and shows a remarkable adaptation to the environment of the Niger River valley. In Tillabéri region, i.e. the Koundoum sheep's area of origin, the proportional piling tool is first used in 11 focus group discussions of breeders to determine the main selection criteria of breeding rams. The multi-attribute analysis method is then applied with 168 sheep owners. The econometric estimation of the utility function of breeders is conducted with a conditional logit model and the marginal willingness to pay is calculated. The results reveal a strong rejection by the breeders of characteristics like wool and black-coloured coat and thus shows the poor acceptability of an in situ conservation programme. Few breeders with a particular concern for the breed's conservation for cultural motives may nevertheless join such a conservation programme that should mainly be based on ex situ strategies.

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<![CDATA[Association between Fbxl5 gene polymorphisms and partial economic traits in Jinghai Yellow chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na83858e1-6fcd-4492-b0fc-5f20641e60e0

Abstract

The Fbxl5 gene is a member of the F-BOX family and plays an important role in maintaining iron homeostasis in cells. In order to reveal the genetic effects of Fbxl5 gene polymorphisms on body weight (BW) traits and reproductive performance in chickens, Fbxl5 gene polymorphisms were detected in 363 Jinghai Yellow chickens by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods using three primers. With primer 1, three genotypes (BB, bb, Bb) were detected in the Jinghai Yellow chicken population and two mutations (g. 14257 T > C and g. 14262 T > C) were revealed by gene sequencing. With primer 2, two genotypes (EE, Ee) were detected in the same population and one mutation (g. 19018 G > A), and for primer 3, three genotypes (FF, ff, Ff) and one mutation (g. 19018 G > A) were detected. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to estimate the frequency distributions of the eight haplotypes with PHASE 2.1 software. CTCG was the major haplotype with a frequency of 37.93 %, while the least frequent was TCTA with a frequency of 2.98 %. The BW of haplotype combination H1H8 was higher than that of the other haplotypes and was a dominant combination. In terms of reproductive performance, the age at the first egg of the haplotype combination H9H1 was later than in the other haplotypes, but the mean egg weight at 300 days was relatively optimal. The H1H2 haplotype produced the highest mean egg weight in 300 days, although the total number of eggs in 300 days was smaller in the H2H4 haplotype with the highest at first egg. Therefore, we can consider using the haplotype combination H1H2 for selection. The findings of this study expand the theoretical basis of the use of the Fbxl5 gene in the molecular breeding of poultry.

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<![CDATA[Identification of genomic regions and candidate genes of functional importance for gastrointestinal parasite resistance traits in Djallonké sheep of Burkina Faso]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4a001d89-af99-4297-a72c-25826c503461

Abstract

A total of 184 Djallonké lambs from Burkina Faso with phenotypes for packed-cell volume (PCV), log-transformed fecal egg count (lnFEC), and FAffa MAlan CHArt (FAMACHA©) eye scores were typed with the OvineSNP50 BeadChip of Illumina to contribute to the knowledge of the genetic basis of gastrointestinal (GIN) parasite resistance in sheep. Association analysis identified a total of 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related with PCV (6 SNPs), lnFEC (7), and FAMACHA scores (9) distributed among 14 Ovis aries chromosomes (OAR). The identified SNPs accounted for 18.76 % of the phenotypic variance for PCV, 21.24 % for lnFEC, and 34.38 % for FAMACHA scores. Analyses pointed out the importance of OAR2 for PCV, OAR3 for FAMACHA scores, and OAR6 for lnFEC. The 125 kb regions surrounding the identified SNPs overlapped with seven previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the traits analyzed in the current work. The only chromosome harboring markers associated with the three traits studied was OAR2. In agreement with the literature, two different chromosomal areas on OAR2 can play a major role in the traits studied. Gene-annotation enrichment analysis allowed us to identify a total of 34 potential candidate genes for PCV (6 genes), lnFEC (4), and FAMACHA scores (24). Annotation analysis allowed us to identify one functional term cluster with a significant enrichment score (1.302). The cluster included five genes (TRIB3, CDK4, CSNK2A1, MARK1, and SPATA5) involved in immunity-related and cell-proliferation processes. Furthermore, this research suggests that the MBL2 gene can underlie a previously reported QTL for immunoglobulin A levels on OAR22 and confirms the importance of genes involved in growth and size (such as the ADAMTS17 gene on OAR18) for GIN resistance traits. Since association studies for the ascertainment of the genetic basis of GIN resistance may be affected by genotype–environment interactions, obtaining information from local sheep populations managed in harsh environments contributes to the identification of novel genomic areas of functional importance for GIN resistance for that trait.

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<![CDATA[Temporal variations of herbage production and nutritive value of three grasslands at different elevation zones regarding grazing needs and welfare of ruminants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9fbf37ee-9785-4c3d-8b93-4c3e4e7ad774

Abstract

Interannual and monthly variations of herbage production and nutritive value regarding grazing ruminants' needs and welfare were evaluated in three grasslands (semi-mountainous, mountainous and sub-alpine) located at different altitudes (480–900, 901–1500 and 1501–2334 m, respectively) in northern Greece during 2015–2016. Herbage biomass was collected from 30 experimental cages (10 per grassland), weighed, dried at 65 C, milled and analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). The sub-alpine grassland was the most productive (1031 and 1231 kg DM ha-1) with the highest mean annual herbage CP content (93 and 87 g kg-1 dry matter; DM) for 2015 and 2016, respectively. CP content was sufficient to meet small ruminants' and beef cattle maintenance requirements until April and May in the semi-mountainous and mountainous grasslands, respectively, while it could cover the above requirements in the sub-alpine grassland until June and August, respectively. The herbage Ca concentration was higher than the grazing ruminants' needs, while the phosphorus concentration was insufficient. Protein and phosphorus supplementation should be provided to animals to cover their maintenance requirements during the whole period and to reach high levels of welfare. Even though grazing is considered as a welfare-friendly procedure, it is uncertain whether all the welfare principals are satisfied in extensive production systems due to variations of forage availability and nutritive value as well as the lack of infrastructure in grasslands.

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<![CDATA[Cows fed hydroponic fodder and conventional diet: effects on milk quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N923715c2-dd5c-408b-80e5-09899828fec6

Abstract

The technology of green fodder production is especially important in arid and semiarid regions. Hydroponics improves on average the amount of crops in the same space, as traditional soil-based farming and can reduce water consumption compared to traditional farming methods. Limited research has been carried out on the use of hydroponic fodder and milk quality.

A comparative study of traditional (Malta farm) and hydroponic fodder (Gozo farm) was conducted in Malta with 20 cows of the Holstein–Friesian breed from two farms. Individual and bulk-tank milk samples were collected once a week for a period of 1 month in order to evaluate physical (pH, conductivity, density, freezing point) and chemical (fat, protein, ash, lactose, solid nonfat) parameters as well as mineral (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ba) content. Milk proximate and physical data were processed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures and an ANOVA procedure with farm and time as effects for minerals.

The results indicated differences in fat content and pH, showing higher values (P<0.05) in milk samples of cows fed with the hydroponic rather than the traditional fodder; a significant time effect (P<0.001) was found in all qualitative analyses except for lactose and salts. Minerals were in the range as reported elsewhere; Cu and Pb content was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Gozo farm than the one in Malta, whereas Zn content showed higher values in Malta (P<0.001) than Gozo. Although the proximate results were similar for both farms, except for the higher fat content for the Gozo farm, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that milk quality for the Gozo farm was superior to that of the Malta farm. However, further studies are needed to determine the effects of different hydroponic fodder using a large herd size.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and body trait measurements and climatic factors in prepubertal goat kids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbf858ea9-c8e6-41e5-9bc4-4f484e8c8352

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate relations between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and some body trait measurements (body weight, withers height, rump height, body length, chest depth, chest width, chest girth and cannon bone circumference) and climatic factors in prepubertal male and female White (75 % Saanen and 25 % Kilis goat) and Angora goat kids. For this purpose, blood samples were regularly taken from the vena jugularis, and body trait measurements were regularly carried out (every 15 d for 5 months) on each kid. The IGF-1 analysis on the blood serum was performed using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. Climatic values and the length of the photoperiod were obtained from the Turkish State Meteorological Service for the experimental period, and the temperature–humidity index (THI) was calculated using these values. Statistical analysis showed that the IGF-1 concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in female White goat kids. Furthermore, differences in IGF-1 concentrations were found (P<0.05) between periods and between the gender groups for both the White and the Angora goat kids. Moreover, the difference between the IGF-1 concentrations between genders was higher (P<0.05) in White goat kids. Additionally, positive and significant correlations were found between IGF-1 concentrations and some body trait measurements in prepubertal kids, except for in female White goat kids. In summary, it was found that there was a significant relationship between IGF-1 concentrations and growth characteristics of the goat kids. Furthermore, IGF-1 concentrations in the goat kids were significantly influenced by climatic factors such as photoperiod, temperature and the temperature–humidity index, with the release of IGF-1 increasing due to increases in the photoperiod and the environmental temperature.

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