ResearchPad - orthomyxoviruses https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[When two are better than one: Modeling the mechanisms of antibody mixtures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14641 With the rise of new antibody combinations in therapeutic regimens, it is important to understand how antibodies work together as well as individually. Here, we investigate the specific case of monoclonal antibodies targeting a cancer-causing receptor or the influenza virus and develop a statistical mechanical framework that predicts the effectiveness of a mixture of antibodies. The power of this model lies in its ability to make a large number of predictions based on a limited amount of data. For example, once 10 antibodies have been individually characterized and their epitopes have been mapped, our model can predict how any of the 210 = 1024 combinations will behave. This predictive power can aid therapeutic efforts by assessing which combinations of antibodies will elicit the most effective response.

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<![CDATA[Low response in eliciting neuraminidase inhibition activity of sera among recipients of a split, monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine during the 2009 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14470 Antibodies against influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) protein prevent releasing of the virus from host cells and spreading of infection foci and are considered the ‘second line of defence’ against influenza. Haemagglutinin inhibition antibody-low responders (HI-LRs) are present among influenza split vaccine recipients. The NA inhibition (NAI) antibody response in vaccinees is worth exploring, especially those in the HI-LRs population. We collected pre- and post-vaccination sera from 61 recipients of an inactivated, monovalent, split vaccine against A/H1N1pdm09 and acute and convalescent sera from 49 unvaccinated patients naturally infected with the A/H1N1pdm09 virus during the 2009 influenza pandemic. All samples were subjected to haemagglutinin inhibition (HI), NAI and neutralisation assays. Most paired sera from naturally infected patients exhibited marked elevation in the NAI activity, and seroconversion rates (SCR) among HI-LRs and HI-responders (HI-Rs) were 60% and 87%, respectively; however, those from vaccinees displayed low increase in the NAI activity, and the SCR among HI-LRs and HI-Rs were 0% and 12%, respectively. In both HI-LRs and HI-Rs, vaccination with the inactivated, monovalent, split vaccine failed to elicit the NAI activity efficiently in the sera of the naive population, compared with the natural infection. Hence, the improvement of influenza vaccines is warranted to elicit not only HI but also NAI antibodies.

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<![CDATA[Virus detections among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, Northern Vietnam]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13805 Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is a major cause of death and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries, however, the etiologic agents are often undetermined due to the lack of molecular diagnostics in hospitals and clinics. To examine evidence for select viral infections among patients with SARI in northern Vietnam, we studied 348 nasopharyngeal samples from military and civilian patients admitted to 4 hospitals in the greater Hanoi area from 2017–2019. Initial screening for human respiratory viral pathogens was performed in Hanoi, Vietnam at the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE) or the Military Institute of Preventative Medicine (MIPM), and an aliquot was shipped to Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore for validation. Patient demographics were recorded and used to epidemiologically describe the infections. Among military and civilian cases of SARI, 184 (52.9%) tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Influenza A virus was the most prevalent virus detected (64.7%), followed by influenza B virus (29.3%), enterovirus (3.8%), adenovirus (1.1%), and coronavirus (1.1%). Risk factor analyses demonstrated an increased risk of influenza A virus detection among military hospital patients (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2), and an increased risk of influenza B virus detection among patients enrolled in year 2017 (adjusted OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.7–22.9). As influenza A and B viruses were commonly associated with SARI and are treatable, SARI patients entering these hospitals would benefit if the hospitals were able to adapt onsite molecular diagnostics.

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<![CDATA[Baloxavir treatment of ferrets infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus reduces onward transmission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nca8f7add-a1d9-4373-9c77-344aec55ea94

Influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks and pose a continuous pandemic threat. Although vaccines are available for influenza control, their efficacy varies each season and a vaccine for a novel pandemic virus manufactured using current technology will not be available fast enough to mitigate the effect of the first pandemic wave. Antivirals can be effective against many different influenza viruses but have not thus far been used extensively for outbreak control. Baloxavir, a recently licensed antiviral drug that targets the influenza virus endonuclease, has been shown to reduce virus shedding more effectively than oseltamivir, a widely used neuraminidase inhibitor drug. Thus it is possible that treatment with baloxavir might also interrupt onward virus transmission. To test this, we utilized the ferret model, which is the most commonly used animal model to study influenza virus transmission. We established a subcutaneous baloxavir administration method in ferrets which achieved similar pharmacokinetics to the approved human oral dose. Transmission studies were then conducted in two different locations with different experimental setups to compare the onward transmission of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus from infected ferrets treated with baloxavir, oseltamivir or placebo to naïve sentinel ferrets exposed either indirectly in adjacent cages or directly by co-housing. We found that baloxavir treatment reduced infectious viral shedding in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets compared to placebo, and reduced the frequency of transmission amongst sentinels in both experimental setups, even when treatment was delayed until 2 days post-infection. In contrast, oseltamivir treatment did not substantially affect viral shedding or transmission compared to placebo. We did not detect the emergence of baloxavir-resistant variants in treated animals or in untreated sentinels. Our results support the concept that antivirals which decrease viral shedding could also reduce influenza transmission in the community.

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<![CDATA[Seasonal characteristics of influenza vary regionally across US]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897716d5eed0c4847d2428

Given substantial regional differences in absolute humidity across the US and our understanding of the relationship between absolute humidity and influenza, we may expect important differences in regional seasonal influenza activity. Here, we assessed cross-seasonal influenza activity by comparing counts of positive influenza A and B rapid test results during the influenza season versus summer baseline periods for the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 influenza years. Our analysis indicates significant regional patterns in cross-seasonal influenza activity, with relatively fewer influenza cases during the influenza season compared to summertime baseline periods in humid areas of the US, particularly in Florida and Hawaii. The cross-seasonal ratios vary from year-to-year and influenza type, but the geographic patterning of the ratios is relatively consistent. Mixed-effects regression models indicated absolute humidity during the influenza season was the strongest predictor of cross-seasonal influenza activity, suggesting a relationship between absolute humidity and cross-seasonal influenza activity. There was also evidence that absolute humidity during the summer plays a role, as well. This analysis suggests that spatial variation in seasonal absolute humidity levels may generate important regional differences in seasonal influenza activity and dynamics in the US.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of the new fully automated extraction platform eMAG to the MagNA PURE 96 and the well-established easyMAG for detection of common human respiratory viruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac8ad5eed0c484d089f7

Respiratory viral infections constitute the majority of samples tested in the clinical virology laboratory during the winter season, and are mainly diagnosed using molecular assays, namely real-time PCR (qPCR). Therefore, a high-quality extraction process is critical for successful, reliable and sensitive qPCR results. Here we aimed to evaluate the performance of the newly launched eMAG compared to the fully automated MagNA PURE 96 (Roche, Germany) and to the semi-automated easyMAG (bioMerieux, France) extraction platforms. For this analysis, we assessed and compared the analytic and clinical performance of the three platforms, using 262 archived respiratory samples positive or negative to common viruses regularly examined in our laboratory (influenza A, B, H1N1pdm, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), human Metapneumovirus (hMPV), parainfluenza-3, adenovirus and negative samples). In addition, quantitated virus controls were used to determine the limit of detection of each extraction method.

In all categories tested, eMAG results were comparable to those of the easyMAG and MagNa PURE 96, highly sensitive for all viruses and over 98% clinical specificity and sensitivity for all viruses tested. Together with its high level of automation, the bioMerieux eMAG is a high-quality extraction platform enabling effective molecular analysis and is mostly suitable for medium-sized laboratories.

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<![CDATA[Potent anti-influenza H7 human monoclonal antibody induces separation of hemagglutinin receptor-binding head domains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8e4d5eed0c48496f33e

Seasonal influenza virus infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the threat from the emergence of a new pandemic influenza strain might have potentially even more devastating consequences. As such, there is intense interest in isolating and characterizing potent neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) viral surface glycoprotein. Here, we use cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to decipher the mechanism of action of a potent HA head-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) bound to an influenza H7 HA. The epitope of the antibody is not solvent accessible in the compact, prefusion conformation that typifies all HA structures to date. Instead, the antibody binds between HA head protomers to an epitope that must be partly or transiently exposed in the prefusion conformation. The “breathing” of the HA protomers is implied by the exposure of this epitope, which is consistent with metastability of class I fusion proteins. This structure likely therefore represents an early structural intermediate in the viral fusion process. Understanding the extent of transient exposure of conserved neutralizing epitopes also may lead to new opportunities to combat influenza that have not been appreciated previously.

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<![CDATA[Learning the sequence of influenza A genome assembly during viral replication using point process models and fluorescence in situ hybridization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d65ed5eed0c484031d18

Within influenza virus infected cells, viral genomic RNA are selectively packed into progeny virions, which predominantly contain a single copy of 8 viral RNA segments. Intersegmental RNA-RNA interactions are thought to mediate selective packaging of each viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP). Clear evidence of a specific interaction network culminating in the full genomic set has yet to be identified. Using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization to visualize four vRNP segments within a single cell, we developed image-based models of vRNP-vRNP spatial dependence. These models were used to construct likely sequences of vRNP associations resulting in the full genomic set. Our results support the notion that selective packaging occurs during cytoplasmic transport and identifies the formation of multiple distinct vRNP sub-complexes that likely form as intermediate steps toward full genomic inclusion into a progeny virion. The methods employed demonstrate a statistically driven, model based approach applicable to other interaction and assembly problems.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of clinical prediction models to distinguish influenza from other viruses causing acute respiratory infections in children and adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26add5eed0c484289e58

Predictive models have been developed for influenza but have seldom been validated. Typically they have focused on patients meeting a definition of infection that includes fever. Less is known about how models perform when more symptoms are considered. We, therefore, aimed to create and internally validate predictive scores of acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms to diagnose influenza virus infection as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from respiratory specimens. Data from a completed trial to study the indirect effect of influenza immunization in Hutterite communities were randomly split into two independent groups for model derivation and validation. We applied different multivariable modelling techniques and constructed Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves to determine predictive indexes at different cut-points. From 2008–2011, 3288 first seasonal ARI episodes and 321 (9.8%) influenza positive events occurred in 2202 individuals. In children up to 17 years, the significant predictors of influenza virus infection were fever, chills, and cough along with being of age 6 years and older. In adults, presence of chills and cough but not fever were highly specific for influenza virus infection (sensitivity 30%, specificity 96%). Performance of the models in the validation set was not significantly different. The predictors were consistently found to be significant irrespective of the multivariable technique. Symptomatic predictors of influenza virus infection vary between children and adults. The scores could assist clinicians in their test and treat decisions but the results need to be externally validated prior to application in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[A localized surface plasmon resonance-amplified immunofluorescence biosensor for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of nonstructural protein 1 of Zika virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca293d5eed0c48441e69d

Among the members of flaviviruses, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remains a potent infectious disease agent, with its associated pandemic prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare it a global public health concern. Thus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of the ZIKV is needed. In this study, we report a new immunofluorescence biosensor for the detection of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the ZIKV, which operates using the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) signal from plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to amplify the fluorescence intensity signal of quantum dots (QDs) within an antigen-antibody detection process. The LSPR signal from the AuNPs was used to amplify the fluorescence intensity of the QDs. For ultrasensitive, rapid, and quantitative detection of NS1 of the ZIKV, four different thiol-capped AuNPs were investigated. Our biosensor could detect the ZIKV in a wide concentration range from 10–107 RNA copies/mL, and we found that the limit of detection (LOD) for the ZIKV followed the order Ab-L-cysteine-AuNPs (LOD = 8.2 copies/mL) > Ab-3-mercaptopropionic acid-AuNPs (LOD = 35.0 copies/mL). Immunofluorescence biosensor for NS1 exhibited excellent specificity against other negative control targets and could also detect the ZIKV in human serum.

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<![CDATA[Comprehensive profiling of translation initiation in influenza virus infected cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521870d5eed0c4847983a1

Translation can initiate at alternate, non-canonical start codons in response to stressful stimuli in mammalian cells. Recent studies suggest that viral infection and anti-viral responses alter sites of translation initiation, and in some cases, lead to production of novel immune epitopes. Here we systematically investigate the extent and impact of alternate translation initiation in cells infected with influenza virus. We perform evolutionary analyses that suggest selection against non-canonical initiation at CUG codons in influenza virus lineages that have adapted to mammalian hosts. We then use ribosome profiling with the initiation inhibitor lactimidomycin to experimentally delineate translation initiation sites in a human lung epithelial cell line infected with influenza virus. We identify several candidate sites of alternate initiation in influenza mRNAs, all of which occur at AUG codons that are downstream of canonical initiation codons. One of these candidate downstream start sites truncates 14 amino acids from the N-terminus of the N1 neuraminidase protein, resulting in loss of its cytoplasmic tail and a portion of the transmembrane domain. This truncated neuraminidase protein is expressed on the cell surface during influenza virus infection, is enzymatically active, and is conserved in most N1 viral lineages. We do not detect globally higher levels of alternate translation initiation on host transcripts upon influenza infection or during the anti-viral response, but the subset of host transcripts induced by the anti-viral response is enriched for alternate initiation sites. Together, our results systematically map the landscape of translation initiation during influenza virus infection, and shed light on the evolutionary forces shaping this landscape.

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<![CDATA[Incorporating media data into a model of infectious disease transmission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e90cd5eed0c48496f731

Understanding the effect of media on disease spread can help improve epidemic forecasting and uncover preventive measures to slow the spread of disease. Most previously introduced models have approximated media effect through disease incidence, making media influence dependent on the size of epidemic. We propose an alternative approach, which relies on real data about disease coverage in the news, allowing us to model low incidence/high interest diseases, such as SARS, Ebola or H1N1. We introduce a network-based model, in which disease is transmitted through local interactions between individuals and the probability of transmission is affected by media coverage. We assume that media attention increases self-protection (e.g. hand washing and compliance with social distancing), which, in turn, decreases disease model. We apply the model to the case of H1N1 transmission in Mexico City in 2009 and show how media influence—measured by the time series of the weekly count of news articles published on the outbreak—helps to explain the observed transmission dynamics. We show that incorporating the media attention based on the observed media coverage of the outbreak better estimates the disease dynamics from what would be predicted by using media function that approximate the media impact using the number of cases and rate of spread. Finally, we apply the model to a typical influenza season in Washington, DC and estimate how the transmission pattern would have changed given different levels of media coverage.

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<![CDATA[Phylogeographic analysis of human influenza A and B viruses in Myanmar, 2010–2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7c1d5eed0c48438683f

We investigated the circulation patterns of human influenza A and B viruses in Myanmar between 2010 and 2015 by analyzing full HA genes. Upper respiratory tract specimens were collected from patients with symptoms of influenza-like illness. A total of 2,860 respiratory samples were screened by influenza rapid diagnostic test, of which 1,577 (55.1%) and 810 (28.3%) were positive for influenza A and B, respectively. Of the 1,010 specimens that were positive for virus isolation, 370 (36.6%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, 327 (32.4%) were A(H3N2), 130 (12.9%) B(Victoria), and 183 (18.1%) were B(Yamagata) viruses. Our data showed that influenza epidemics mainly occurred during the rainy season in Myanmar. Our three study sites, Yangon, Pyinmana, and Pyin Oo Lwin had similar seasonality and circulating type and subtype of influenza in a given year. Moreover, viruses circulating in Myanmar during the study period were closely related genetically to those detected in Thailand, India, and China. Phylogeographic analysis showed that A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in Myanmar originated from Europe and migrated to other countries via Japan. Similarly, A(H3N2) viruses in Myanmar originated from Europe, and disseminated to the various countries via Australia. In addition, Myanmar plays a key role in reseeding of influenza B viruses to Southeast Asia and East Asia as well as Europe and Africa. Thus, we concluded that influenza virus in Myanmar has a strong link to neighboring Asian countries, Europe and Oceania.

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<![CDATA[Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 blocks fusion of sensitive but not resistant viruses by partitioning into virus-carrying endosomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46651fd5eed0c484517878

Late endosome-resident interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits fusion of diverse viruses, including Influenza A virus (IAV), by a poorly understood mechanism. Despite the broad antiviral activity of IFITM3, viruses like Lassa virus (LASV), are fully resistant to its inhibitory effects. It is currently unclear whether resistance arises from a highly efficient fusion machinery that is capable of overcoming IFITM3 restriction or the ability to enter from cellular sites devoid of this factor. Here, we constructed and validated a functional IFITM3 tagged with EGFP or other fluorescent proteins. This breakthrough allowed live cell imaging of virus co-trafficking and fusion with endosomal compartments in cells expressing fluorescent IFITM3. Three-color single virus and endosome tracking revealed that sensitive (IAV), but not resistant (LASV), viruses become trapped within IFITM3-positive endosomes where they underwent hemifusion but failed to release their content into the cytoplasm. IAV fusion with IFITM3-containing compartments could be rescued by amphotericin B treatment, which has been previously shown to antagonize the antiviral activity of this protein. By comparison, virtually all LASV particles trafficked and fused with endosomes lacking detectable levels of fluorescent IFITM3, implying that this virus escapes restriction by utilizing endocytic pathways that are distinct from the IAV entry pathways. The importance of virus uptake and transport pathways is further reinforced by the observation that LASV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion is inhibited by IFITM3 and other members of the IFITM family expressed in target cells. Together, our results strongly support a model according to which IFITM3 accumulation at the sites of virus fusion is a prerequisite for its antiviral activity and that this protein traps viral fusion at a hemifusion stage by preventing the formation of fusion pores. We conclude that the ability to utilize alternative endocytic pathways for entry confers IFITM3-resistance to otherwise sensitive viruses.

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<![CDATA[Molecular characterization of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Cameroon during the 2014-2016 influenza seasons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46658ed5eed0c484519c00

In 2009, Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century with high mortality rates of about 284 500 deaths. This virus, however, continues to circulate as a seasonal influenza virus and to cause illness and deaths worldwide. In this study, we describe the genetic diversity of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses collected between 2014 and 2016 in Cameroon. Three gene segments (HA, NA and M) of Cameroon strains were studied. The phylogenetic tree of the coding nucleotide sequences was generated by MEGA version 6.0 using a Maximum Likelihood method. The NA and M protein coding sequences were analyzed for the reported genetic markers of resistance against neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, while predicted vaccine efficacy was estimated using the Pepitope method. Overall 39 strains were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 showed that Cameroon strains belonged to two major clades. The 2014 Cameroon sequences belonged to clade 6C while all sequences collected between 2015 and 2016 belonged to clade 6B. Majority of the samples had some mutations in the NA gene notably: I117M, N248D, and N369K while the amantadine-resistant M mutant, S31N, was found to be absent only in the two sequences collected in 2014. Overall, A/California/07/2009 vaccine strain showed a predicted vaccine efficacy of 24.55% to 35.77% against Cameroon A(H1N1)pdm09 strains circulating between 2014 and 2016. Our findings confirms the fast evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 since its first introduction and highlights on the importance of influenza vaccine in reducing the burden caused by influenza in the community.

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<![CDATA[<i>PLoS Computational Biology</i> Issue Image | Vol. 15(1) January 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca277d5eed0c48441e448

Spatial dependencies between influenza virus vRNPs.

In influenza virus infected cells, eight viral genomic RNPs are assembled into progeny virions, which predominantly contain one copy of each. Using sets of fluorescence microscope images of four vRNPs, the likelihood that the subcellular distribution of one vRNP can be predicted from the distribution of another was estimated for all pairs of vRNPs with significant relationships. The thick base of the bands indicates the vRNP whose location can be used to predict the location of the vRNP indicated by the thin base. These pairwise and higher order relationships were used to infer the assembly network for all eight vRNPs.

Image Credit: Timothy D. Majarian, Robert F. Murphy and Seema S. Lakdawala. © 2018, Carnegie Mellon University

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<![CDATA[IgA tetramerization improves target breadth but not peak potency of functionality of anti-influenza virus broadly neutralizing antibody]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7b8d5eed0c484490a6e

Mucosal immunoglobulins comprise mainly secretory IgA antibodies (SIgAs), which are the major contributor to pathogen-specific immune responses in mucosal tissues. These SIgAs are highly heterogeneous in terms of their quaternary structure. A recent report shows that the polymerization status of SIgA defines their functionality in the human upper respiratory mucosa. Higher order polymerization of SIgA (i.e., tetramers) leads to a marked increase in neutralizing activity against influenza viruses. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of SIgA polymerization remain elusive. Here, we developed a method for generating recombinant tetrameric monoclonal SIgAs. We then compared the anti-viral activities of these tetrameric SIgAs, which possessed variable regions identical to that of a broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody F045-092 against influenza A viruses, with that of monomeric IgG or IgA. The tetrameric SIgA showed anti-viral inhibitory activity superior to that of other forms only when the antibody exhibits low-affinity binding to the target. By contrast, SIgA tetramerization did not substantially modify anti-viral activity against targets with high-affinity binding. Taken together, the data suggest that tetramerization of SIgA improved target breadth, but not peak potency of antiviral functions of the broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody. This phenomenon presumably represents one of the mechanisms by which SIgAs present in human respiratory mucosa prevent infection by antigen-drifted influenza viruses. Understanding the mechanisms involved in cross neutralization of viruses by SIgAs might facilitate the development of vaccine strategies against viral infection of mucosal tissues.

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<![CDATA[Toll-like receptor 4 in acute viral infection: Too much of a good thing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25454ad5eed0c48442c43d ]]> <![CDATA[Specificity and functional interplay between influenza virus PA-X and NS1 shutoff activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c099405d5eed0c4842ae0b7

Influenza A viruses modulate host antiviral responses to promote viral growth and pathogenicity. Through viral PA-X and NS1 proteins, the virus is capable of suppressing host protein synthesis, termed “host shutoff.” Although both proteins are known to induce general shutoff, specificity of target genes and their functional interplay in mediating host shutoff are not fully elucidated. In this study, we generated four recombinant influenza A/California/04/2009 (pH1N1) viruses containing mutations affecting the expression of active PA-X and NS1. We analyzed viral growth, general shutoff activity, specificity of mRNA targets, and viral gene expressions. Our results showed that PA-X was the major contributor in reducing general host protein expression in the virus-infected cells. Intriguingly, our transcriptomic analysis from infected human airway A549 cells indicate that shutoff-active NS1 specifically targeted host mRNAs related to interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and cytokine release. Specificity of target mRNAs was less evident in PA-X, although it preferentially degraded genes associated with cellular protein metabolism and protein repair. Interestingly, in the presence of shutoff-active NS1, PA-X also degraded viral mRNAs, especially NS segments. The virus expressing shutoff-active NS1 with reduced amount of PA-X expression most efficiently suppressed antiviral and innate immune responses in human cells, indicating that influenza virus needs to optimize the contribution of these two shutoff proteins to circumvent host responses for its optimum growth.

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<![CDATA[Tissue tropisms opt for transmissible reassortants during avian and swine influenza A virus co-infection in swine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed78ed5eed0c484f143b4

Genetic reassortment between influenza A viruses (IAVs) facilitate emergence of pandemic strains, and swine are proposed as a “mixing vessel” for generating reassortants of avian and mammalian IAVs that could be of risk to mammals, including humans. However, how a transmissible reassortant emerges in swine are not well understood. Genomic analyses of 571 isolates recovered from nasal wash samples and respiratory tract tissues of a group of co-housed pigs (influenza-seronegative, avian H1N1 IAV–infected, and swine H3N2 IAV–infected pigs) identified 30 distinct genotypes of reassortants. Viruses recovered from lower respiratory tract tissues had the largest genomic diversity, and those recovered from turbinates and nasal wash fluids had the least. Reassortants from lower respiratory tracts had the largest variations in growth kinetics in respiratory tract epithelial cells, and the cold temperature in swine nasal cells seemed to select the type of reassortant viruses shed by the pigs. One reassortant in nasal wash samples was consistently identified in upper, middle, and lower respiratory tract tissues, and it was confirmed to be transmitted efficiently between pigs. Study findings suggest that, during mixed infections of avian and swine IAVs, genetic reassortments are likely to occur in the lower respiratory track, and tissue tropism is an important factor selecting for a transmissible reassortant.

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