ResearchPad - orthopedic-surgery https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Remote monitoring of clubfoot treatment with digital photographs in low resource settings: Is it accurate?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14742 Clinical examination and functional assessment are often the first steps to assess outcome of clubfoot treatment. Clinical photographs may be an adjunct used to assess treatment outcomes in lower resourced settings where physical review by a specialist is limited. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of photographic images of patients with clubfoot in assessing outcome following treatment.MethodsIn this single-centre diagnostic accuracy study, we included all children with clubfoot from a cohort treated between 2011 and 2013, in 2017. Two physiotherapists trained in clubfoot management calculated the Assessing Clubfoot Treatment (ACT) score for each child to decide if treatment was successful or if further treatment was required. Photographic images were then taken of 79 feet. Two blinded orthopaedic surgeons assessed three sets of images of each foot (n = 237 in total) at two time points (two months apart). Treatment for each foot was rated as ‘success’, ‘borderline’ or ‘failure’. Intra- and inter-observer variation for the photographic image was assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the photographic image compared to the ACT score.ResultsThere was perfect correlation between clinical assessment and photographic evaluation of both raters at both time-points in 38 (48%) feet. The raters demonstrated acceptable reliability with re-scoring photographs (rater 1, k = 0.55; rater 2, k = 0.88). Thirty percent (n = 71) of photographs were assessed as poor quality image or sub-optimal patient position. Sensitivity of outcome with photograph compared to ACT score was 83.3%–88.3% and specificity ranged from 57.9%–73.3%.ConclusionDigital photography may help to confirm, but not exclude, success of clubfoot treatment. Future work to establish photographic parameters as an adjunct to assessing treatment outcomes, and guidance on a standardised protocol for photographs, may be beneficial in the follow up of children who have treated clubfoot in isolated communities or lower resourced settings. ]]> <![CDATA[Predicting inadequate postoperative pain management in depressed patients: A machine learning approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d07d5eed0c484c81d9a

Widely-prescribed prodrug opioids (e.g., hydrocodone) require conversion by liver enzyme CYP-2D6 to exert their analgesic effects. The most commonly prescribed antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), inhibits CYP-2D6 activity and therefore may reduce the effectiveness of prodrug opioids. We used a machine learning approach to identify patients prescribed a combination of SSRIs and prodrug opioids postoperatively and to examine the effect of this combination on postoperative pain control. Using EHR data from an academic medical center, we identified patients receiving surgery over a 9-year period. We developed and validated natural language processing (NLP) algorithms to extract depression-related information (diagnosis, SSRI use, symptoms) from structured and unstructured data elements. The primary outcome was the difference between preoperative pain score and postoperative pain at discharge, 3-week and 8-week time points. We developed computational models to predict the increase or decrease in the postoperative pain across the 3 time points by using the patient’s EHR data (e.g. medications, vitals, demographics) captured before surgery. We evaluate the generalizability of the model using 10-fold cross-validation method where the holdout test method is repeated 10 times and mean area-under-the-curve (AUC) is considered as evaluation metrics for the prediction performance. We identified 4,306 surgical patients with symptoms of depression. A total of 14.1% were prescribed both an SSRI and a prodrug opioid, 29.4% were prescribed an SSRI and a non-prodrug opioid, 18.6% were prescribed a prodrug opioid but were not on SSRIs, and 37.5% were prescribed a non-prodrug opioid but were not on SSRIs. Our NLP algorithm identified depression with a F1 score of 0.95 against manual annotation of 300 randomly sampled clinical notes. On average, patients receiving prodrug opioids had lower average pain scores (p<0.05), with the exception of the SSRI+ group at 3-weeks postoperative follow-up. However, SSRI+/Prodrug+ had significantly worse pain control at discharge, 3 and 8-week follow-up (p < .01) compared to SSRI+/Prodrug- patients, whereas there was no difference in pain control among the SSRI- patients by prodrug opioid (p>0.05). The machine learning algorithm accurately predicted the increase or decrease of the discharge, 3-week and 8-week follow-up pain scores when compared to the pre-operative pain score using 10-fold cross validation (mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.87, 0.81, and 0.69, respectively). Preoperative pain, surgery type, and opioid tolerance were the strongest predictors of postoperative pain control. We provide the first direct clinical evidence that the known ability of SSRIs to inhibit prodrug opioid effectiveness is associated with worse pain control among depressed patients. Current prescribing patterns indicate that prescribers may not account for this interaction when choosing an opioid. The study results imply that prescribers might instead choose direct acting opioids (e.g. oxycodone or morphine) in depressed patients on SSRIs.

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<![CDATA[Are multiple views superior to a single view when teaching hip surgery? A single-blinded randomized controlled trial of technical skill acquisition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5e9d5eed0c484caa022

Purpose

Surgical education videos currently all use a single point of view (POV) with the trainee locked onto a fixed viewpoint, which may not deliver sufficient information for complex procedures. We developed a novel multiple POV video system and evaluated its training outcome compared with traditional single POV.

Methods

We filmed a hip resurfacing procedure performed by an expert attending using 8 cameras in theatre. 30 medical students were randomly and equally allocated to learn the procedure using the multiple POV (experiment group [EG]) versus single POV system (control group [CG]). Participants advanced a pin into the femoral head as demonstrated in the video. We measured the drilling trajectories and compared it with pre-operative plan to evaluate distance of the pin insertion and angular deviations. Two orthopedic attendings expertly evaluated the participants’ performance using a modified global rating scale (GRS). There was a pre-video knowledge test that was repeated post-simulation alongside a Likert-scale questionnaire.

Results

The angular deviation of the pin in EG was significantly less by 29% compared to CG (p = 0.037), with no significant difference in the entry point’s distance between groups (p = 0.204). The GRS scores for EG were 3.5% higher than CG (p = 0.046). There was a 32% higher overall knowledge test score (p<0.001) and 21% improved Likert-scale questionnaire score (p = 0.002) after video-learning in EG than CG, albeit no significant difference in the knowledge test score before video-learning (p = 0.721).

Conclusion

The novel multiple POV provided significant objective and subjective advantages over single POV for acquisition of technical skills in hip surgery.

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<![CDATA[Surgeons are deeply affected when patients are diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c08422ed5eed0c484fcc16c

Knee replacement is a common preference sensitive quality-of-life procedure that can reduce pain and improve function for people with advanced knee arthritis. While most patients improve, knee replacement surgery has the potential for serious complications. Prosthetic knee infection is an uncommon but serious complication. This study explored the impact of cases of prosthetic knee infection on surgeons’ personal and professional wellbeing. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with consultant orthopaedic surgeons who treated patients for prosthetic knee infection in one of six high-volume NHS orthopaedic departments. Data was audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Eleven surgeons took part. Analysis identified three overarching themes: (i) At some point infection is inevitable but surgeons still feel accountable; (ii) A profound emotional impact and (iii) Supporting each other. The occurrence of prosthetic joint infection has a significant emotional impact on surgeons who report a collective sense of devastation and personal ownership, even though prosthetic joint infection cannot be fully controlled for. Surgeons stressed the importance of openly discussing the management of prosthetic joint infection with a supportive multidisciplinary team and this has implications for the ways in which orthopaedic surgeons may be best supported to manage this complication. This article also acknowledges that surgeons are not alone in experiencing personal impact when patients have infection.

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<![CDATA[Deep-learning-assisted diagnosis for knee magnetic resonance imaging: Development and retrospective validation of MRNet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f02bd5eed0c484c6d281

Background

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee is the preferred method for diagnosing knee injuries. However, interpretation of knee MRI is time-intensive and subject to diagnostic error and variability. An automated system for interpreting knee MRI could prioritize high-risk patients and assist clinicians in making diagnoses. Deep learning methods, in being able to automatically learn layers of features, are well suited for modeling the complex relationships between medical images and their interpretations. In this study we developed a deep learning model for detecting general abnormalities and specific diagnoses (anterior cruciate ligament [ACL] tears and meniscal tears) on knee MRI exams. We then measured the effect of providing the model’s predictions to clinical experts during interpretation.

Methods and findings

Our dataset consisted of 1,370 knee MRI exams performed at Stanford University Medical Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2012 (mean age 38.0 years; 569 [41.5%] female patients). The majority vote of 3 musculoskeletal radiologists established reference standard labels on an internal validation set of 120 exams. We developed MRNet, a convolutional neural network for classifying MRI series and combined predictions from 3 series per exam using logistic regression. In detecting abnormalities, ACL tears, and meniscal tears, this model achieved area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.937 (95% CI 0.895, 0.980), 0.965 (95% CI 0.938, 0.993), and 0.847 (95% CI 0.780, 0.914), respectively, on the internal validation set. We also obtained a public dataset of 917 exams with sagittal T1-weighted series and labels for ACL injury from Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka, Croatia. On the external validation set of 183 exams, the MRNet trained on Stanford sagittal T2-weighted series achieved an AUC of 0.824 (95% CI 0.757, 0.892) in the detection of ACL injuries with no additional training, while an MRNet trained on the rest of the external data achieved an AUC of 0.911 (95% CI 0.864, 0.958). We additionally measured the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of 9 clinical experts (7 board-certified general radiologists and 2 orthopedic surgeons) on the internal validation set both with and without model assistance. Using a 2-sided Pearson’s chi-squared test with adjustment for multiple comparisons, we found no significant differences between the performance of the model and that of unassisted general radiologists in detecting abnormalities. General radiologists achieved significantly higher sensitivity in detecting ACL tears (p-value = 0.002; q-value = 0.019) and significantly higher specificity in detecting meniscal tears (p-value = 0.003; q-value = 0.019). Using a 1-tailed t test on the change in performance metrics, we found that providing model predictions significantly increased clinical experts’ specificity in identifying ACL tears (p-value < 0.001; q-value = 0.006). The primary limitations of our study include lack of surgical ground truth and the small size of the panel of clinical experts.

Conclusions

Our deep learning model can rapidly generate accurate clinical pathology classifications of knee MRI exams from both internal and external datasets. Moreover, our results support the assertion that deep learning models can improve the performance of clinical experts during medical imaging interpretation. Further research is needed to validate the model prospectively and to determine its utility in the clinical setting.

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<![CDATA[The impact of Joint Commission International accreditation on time periods in the operating room: A retrospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98fe40307c0c23a1c156

The Joint Commission International (JCI) is responsible for upholding standards in healthcare and organizations in compliance receive accreditation. JCI requires quality improvement on patient safety goals, but requirements may prolong the total procedure/surgery time and reduce efficiency. Here, we evaluate the impact of JCI requirements on time periods in the operating room. We included patients who received elective and emergency surgeries under general anesthesia at Juntendo University Hospital between December 2014 and June 2016. Patients were classified as before and after JCI accreditation on December 12, 2015. The primary outcome was total procedure/surgery time. Secondary outcomes include five time periods comprising the total procedure/surgery time: pre-anesthesia time, anesthesia induction time, procedure/surgery time, anesthesia awareness time and post-anesthesia time. We compared these time periods between patients before and after JCI accreditation and patients were matched for age, sex and the specific type of surgery. Although total procedure/surgery time did not change significantly, pre-anesthesia time significantly increased (8.2 ± 6.9 minutes vs. 8.5 ± 6.9 minutes, before vs. after JCI, respectively, p = 0.028) and anesthesia induction time significantly decreased (34.4 ± 16.1 minutes vs. 33.6 ± 15.4 minutes, before vs. after JCI, respectively, p = 0.037) after JCI accreditation. Other secondary study outcomes did not change significantly. Quality improvement initiatives associated with time periods in the operating room can be achieved without undermining efficiency.

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<![CDATA[A Policy-into-Practice Intervention to Increase the Uptake of Evidence-Based Management of Low Back Pain in Primary Care: A Prospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db36ab0ee8fa60bd3539

Background

Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs).

Methods

To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 =  nil and 5 =  excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale).

Results

Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change  = −5.6±8.2, p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: −7.6 to −3.6) and significant positive shifts on all measures of clinical knowledge and skills (p<0.0001 for all questions). Self management strategies were recommended more frequently post-intervention. The majority of responders who were guideline-inconsistent for work and bed rest recommendations (82% and 62% respectively) at pre-intervention, gave guideline-consistent responses at post-intervention.

Conclusion

An interprofessional pain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice, encourages PCPs to adopt more self-reported evidence-based attitudes, beliefs and clinical behaviours in their management of patients with nsLBP. However, further research is required to determine cost effectiveness of this approach when compared with other modes of educational delivery and to examine PCP behaviours in actual clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Associations between Body Mass and the Outcome of Surgery for Scoliosis in Chinese Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da67ab0ee8fa60b921c3

Background

In this study we intended to prove that being overweight has an unfavorable impact on the surgical treatment outcome of adult idiopathic scoliosis (AdIS).

Methods

This is a retrospective study on the surgical treatment of seventy-one more than 30 years old (58 females and 13 males; mean age 42.9±12.2) idiopathic scoliotic patients with a minimum follow up of at least 2 years. The patients were divided into an overweight group (BMI≥23) and a non-overweight group (BMI<23). Preoperative, postoperative first erect and final follow-up radiographic measures, perioperative data, the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and the visual analog scale (VAS) were reviewed and compared.

Findings

In the overweight group, no significant differences in radiographic measures, perioperative data, preoperative comorbidities, or postoperative complications, except for the more frequent concomitance of preoperative thoracic kyphosis 37.9±7.7 vs. 26.5±11.8 (P = 0.000) and thoracolumbar kyphosis 14.9±10.1 overweighted group vs. 6.5±9.9 non-overweighted group respectively (P = 0.002) were found. A higher morbidity of hypertension 36.8% vs. 9.6% (P = 0.004) was also observed in the overweight group. Postoperative ODI and VAS improved significantly in both groups compared to pre-operative values. The postoperative ODI of the overweight group (19.6±12.4) was significantly higher than that of the non-overweight group (12.4±7.9) (P = 0.022).

Conclusions

Overweight adult idiopathic scoliotic patients had more frequent concomitance of preoperative thoracic kyphosis and thoracolumbar kyphosis and more serious postoperative pain. However, BMI did not affect the outcomes of surgical correction for coronal and sagittal scoliotic deformity and their postoperative complication rates were not significantly affected.

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<![CDATA[A Preliminary Evaluation of Limb Salvage Surgery for Osteosarcoma around Knee Joint]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da34ab0ee8fa60b85905

Objective

To evaluate the effectiveness and drawbacks of diversified procedures of limb salvage surgery (LSS), providing a reference of rational surgical criterion of LSS.

Methods

Fifty eight patients with stage IIB extremity osteosarcoma around knee joint area between 1992 and 2002 were studied retrospectively. Among them, 43 patients were treated by LSS followed by reconstruction. Reconstruction approaches included re-implantation of irradiation-devitalized tumor bone (n = 12), autoclaving-devitalized tumor bone (n = 8), prosthetic replacement (n = 11), allograft transplantation (n = 8) and vascularized fibula autograft implantation (n = 4). Amputations were performed in 15 patients. Patients were followed up for 6–16 years.

Results

There were no significant difference between LSS and amputation groups regarding disease free survival and local recurrence rates. The actuarial 5-year continuous disease free survival and local recurrence rate were 30.0% and 25.0% in patients of devitalized LSS group, whereas those were 56.5% and 8.7% in patients of non-devitalized reconstruction group. The complication rate was significantly higher in LSS group compared to amputation group (P = 0.003).

Conclusion

LSS with non-devitalized procedures is the optimal treatment for osteosarcoma around knee joint area. Prosthesis implantation is the preferred option for bone reconstruction following LSS. Prevention and treatment of post-operative complications should be paid more attention to get good long-term outcomes of surgery.

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<![CDATA[In Vivo Comparison of the Bone Regeneration Capability of Human Bone Marrow Concentrates vs. Platelet-Rich Plasma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da22ab0ee8fa60b7f5c6

Background

Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) including high densities of stem cells and progenitor cells may possess a stronger bone regenerative capability compared with Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which contains enriched growth factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of human BMAC and PRP in combination with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on promoting initial bone augmentation in an immunodeficient mouse model.

Methodology/Principal Findings

BMAC and PRP were concentrated with an automated blood separator from the bone marrow and peripheral blood aspirates. β-TCP particles were employed as a scaffold to carry cells. After cell counting and FACS characterization, three groups of nude mice (BMAC+TCP, PRP+TCP, and a TCP control) were implanted with graft materials for onlay placement on the cranium. Samples were harvested after 4 weeks, and serial sections were prepared. We observed the new bone on light microscopy and performed histomorphometric analysis. After centrifugation, the concentrations of nucleated cells and platelets in BMAC were increased by factors of 2.8±0.8 and 5.3±2.4, respectively, whereas leucocytes and platelets in PRP were increased by factors of 4.1±1.8 and 4.4±1.9, respectively. The concentrations of CD34-, CD271-, CD90-, CD105-, and CD146-positive cells were markedly increased in both BMAC and PRP. The percentage of new bone in the BMAC group (7.6±3.9%) and the PRP group (7.2±3.8%) were significantly higher than that of TCP group (2.7±1.4%). Significantly more bone cells in the new bone occurred in sites transplanted with BMAC (552±257) and PRP (491±211) compared to TCP alone (187±94). But the difference between the treatment groups was not significant.

Conclusions/Significance

Both human BMACs and PRP may provide therapeutic benefits in bone tissue engineering applications. These fractions possess a similar ability to enhance early-phase bone regeneration.

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<![CDATA[Degenerate Wave and Capacitive Coupling Increase Human MSC Invasion and Proliferation While Reducing Cytotoxicity in an In Vitro Wound Healing Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daedab0ee8fa60bbff92

Non-unions pose complications in fracture management that can be treated using electrical stimulation (ES). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are essential in fracture healing; however, the effect of different clinical ES waveforms on BMMSCs cellular activities remains unknown. We compared the effects of direct current (DC), capacitive coupling (CC), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and degenerate wave (DW) on cellular activities including cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell-kinetics and apoptosis by stimulating human-BMMSCs 3 hours a day, up to 5 days. In addition, migration and invasion were assessed using fluorescence microscopy and by quantifying gene and protein expression. We found that DW had the greatest proliferative and least apoptotic and cytotoxic effects compared to other waveforms. DC, DW and CC stimulations resulted in a higher number of cells in S phase and G2/M phase as shown by cell cycle analysis. CC and DW caused more cells to invade collagen and showed increased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. DC increased cellular migration in a scratch-wound assay and all ES waveforms enhanced expression of migratory genes with DC having the greatest effect. All ES treated cells showed similar progenitor potential as determined by MSC differentiation assay. All above findings were shown to be statistically significant (p<0.05). We conclude that ES can influence BMMSCs activities, especially DW and CC, which show greater invasion and higher cell proliferation compared to other types of ES. Application of DW or CC to the fracture site may help in the recruitment of BMMSCs to the wound that may enhance rate of bone healing at the fracture site.

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<![CDATA[Computed Tomographic Imaging of Subchondral Fatigue Cracks in the Distal End of the Third Metacarpal Bone in the Thoroughbred Racehorse Can Predict Crack Micromotion in an Ex-Vivo Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9feab0ee8fa60b7305c

Articular stress fracture arising from the distal end of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) is a common serious injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Currently, there is no method for predicting fracture risk clinically. We describe an ex-vivo biomechanical model in which we measured subchondral crack micromotion under compressive loading that modeled high speed running. Using this model, we determined the relationship between subchondral crack dimensions measured using computed tomography (CT) and crack micromotion. Thoracic limbs from 40 Thoroughbred racehorses that had sustained a catastrophic injury were studied. Limbs were radiographed and examined using CT. Parasagittal subchondral fatigue crack dimensions were measured on CT images using image analysis software. MC3 bones with fatigue cracks were tested using five cycles of compressive loading at -7,500N (38 condyles, 18 horses). Crack motion was recorded using an extensometer. Mechanical testing was validated using bones with 3 mm and 5 mm deep parasagittal subchondral slots that modeled naturally occurring fatigue cracks. After testing, subchondral crack density was determined histologically. Creation of parasagittal subchondral slots induced significant micromotion during loading (p<0.001). In our biomechanical model, we found a significant positive correlation between extensometer micromotion and parasagittal crack area derived from reconstructed CT images (SR = 0.32, p<0.05). Correlations with transverse and frontal plane crack lengths were not significant. Histologic fatigue damage was not significantly correlated with crack dimensions determined by CT or extensometer micromotion. Bones with parasagittal crack area measurements above 30 mm2 may have a high risk of crack propagation and condylar fracture in vivo because of crack micromotion. In conclusion, our results suggest that CT could be used to quantify subchondral fatigue crack dimensions in racing Thoroughbred horses in-vivo to assess risk of condylar fracture. Horses with parasagittal crack arrays that exceed 30 mm2 may have a high risk for development of condylar fracture.

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<![CDATA[Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Caused by Single-Level Vertebral Spontaneous Fusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db01ab0ee8fa60bc6a77

Purpose

To evaluate the clinical features, imaging characteristics, surgical options, and clinical outcomes of patients with Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) caused by single-level vertebral spontaneous fusion (SLVSF).

Methods

Sixteen consecutive patients with SLVSF who underwent anterior surgery were included in this study and 38 patients with CSM caused by spinal degeneration were enrolled as a control group. Demographic features, clinical presentations, imaging characteristics, surgery strategy, Nurick grade, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, neck disability index (NDI), and complications were evaluated.

Results

There were significant differences between the two groups in the mean age and the average duration of neck pain. There was no significant difference between the two groups in length of cervical spine. In the SLVSF group, 13 patients had upper segment translational instability and none had rotational instability. Pre- and postoperative Nurick grades were 2.94±0.77 and 2.19±0.54 in the SLVSF group, and 2.97±0.72 and 2.16±0.64 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative JOA scores were 9.25±2.02 and 11.69±1.62 in the SLVSF group, and 9.87±2.58 and 12.53±2.69 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative NDI values were 28.5±7.75 and 15.56±5.51 in the SLVSF group, and 16±6.13 and 11.29±4.58 in the control group.

Conclusions

Patients with SLVSF have necks of normal lengths, which can be used to distinguish this disorder from Klippel-Feil syndrome. There are three main features of SLVSF: (1) hypoplasia at both of the spontaneously fused vertebral bodies; (2) a major pathological feature of translational instability of the upper vertebra to the fused level; and (3) severe neck pain. Anterior surgery has a good therapeutic effect for patients with cervical SLVSF.

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<![CDATA[Increasing Capacity for the Treatment of Common Musculoskeletal Problems: A Non-Inferiority RCT and Economic Analysis of Corticosteroid Injection for Shoulder Pain Comparing a Physiotherapist and Orthopaedic Surgeon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadfab0ee8fa60bbb412

Background

Role substitution is a strategy employed to assist health services manage the growing demand for musculoskeletal care. Corticosteroid injection is a common treatment in this population but the efficacy of its prescription and delivery by physiotherapists has not been established against orthopaedic standards. This paper investigates whether corticosteroid injection given by a physiotherapist for shoulder pain is as clinically and cost effective as that from an orthopaedic surgeon.

Methods

A double blind non-inferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted in an Australian public hospital orthopaedic outpatient service, from January 2013 to June 2014. Adults with a General Practitioner referral to Orthopaedics for shoulder pain received subacromial corticosteroid and local anaesthetic injection prescribed and delivered independently by a physiotherapist or a consultant orthopaedic surgeon. The main outcome measure was total Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score at baseline, six and 12 weeks, applying a non-inferiority margin of 15 points. Secondary outcomes tested for superiority included pain, shoulder movement, perceived improvement, adverse events, satisfaction, quality of life and costs.

Results

278 participants were independently assessed by the physiotherapist and the orthopaedic surgeon, with 64 randomised (physiotherapist 33, orthopaedic surgeon 31). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups. Non-inferiority of injection by the physiotherapist was declared from total SPADI scores at 6 and 12 weeks (upper limit of the 95% one-sided confidence interval 13.34 and 7.17 at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between groups on any outcome measures at 6 or 12 weeks. From the perspective of the health funder, the physiotherapist was less expensive.

Conclusions

Corticosteroid injection for shoulder pain, provided by a suitably qualified physiotherapist is at least as clinically effective, and less expensive, compared with similar care delivered by an orthopaedic surgeon. Policy makers and service providers should consider implementing this model of care.

Trial Registration

Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12612000532808

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<![CDATA[Coating with a Modular Bone Morphogenetic Peptide Promotes Healing of a Bone-Implant Gap in an Ovine Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daddab0ee8fa60bbaa64

Despite the potential for growth factor delivery strategies to promote orthopedic implant healing, there is a need for growth factor delivery methods that are controllable and amenable to clinical translation. We have developed a modular bone growth factor, herein termed “modular bone morphogenetic peptide (mBMP)”, which was designed to efficiently bind to the surface of orthopedic implants and also stimulate new bone formation. The purpose of this study was to coat a hydroxyapatite-titanium implant with mBMP and evaluate bone healing across a bone-implant gap in the sheep femoral condyle. The mBMP molecules efficiently bound to a hydroxyapatite-titanium implant and 64% of the initially bound mBMP molecules were released in a sustained manner over 28 days. The results demonstrated that the mBMP-coated implant group had significantly more mineralized bone filling in the implant-bone gap than the control group in C-arm computed tomography (DynaCT) scanning (25% more), histological (35% more) and microradiographic images (50% more). Push-out stiffness of the mBMP group was nearly 40% greater than that of control group whereas peak force did not show a significant difference. The results of this study demonstrated that mBMP coated on a hydroxyapatite-titanium implant stimulates new bone formation and may be useful to improve implant fixation in total joint arthroplasty applications.

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<![CDATA[Troublesome Heterotopic Ossification after Central Nervous System Damage: A Survey of 570 Surgeries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db17ab0ee8fa60bcd719

Background

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication after central nervous system (CNS) damage but has seldom been studied. We aimed to investigate features of HO for the first time in a large sample and the rate of early recurrence of HO in terms of the time of surgery.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We retrospectively analyzed data from an anonymous prospective survey of patients undergoing surgery between May 1993 and November 2009 in our institution for troublesome HO related to acquired neurological disease. Demographic and HO characteristics and neurological etiologies were recorded. For 357 consecutive patients, we collected data on 539 first surgeries for HO (129 surgeries for multiple sites). During the follow-up, recurrences requiring another surgery appeared in 31 cases (5.8% [31/539]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8%–7.8%; 27 patients). Most HO requiring surgery occurred after traumatic brain injury (199 patients [55.7%]), then spinal cord injury (86 [24.0%]), stroke (42 [11.8%]) and cerebral anoxia (30 [8.6%]). The hip was the primary site of HO (328 [60.9%]), then the elbow (115 [21.3%]), knee (77 [14.3%]) and shoulder (19 [3.5%]). For all patients, 181 of the surgeries were performed within the first year after the CNS damage, without recurrence of HO. Recurrence was not associated with etiology (p = 0.46), sex (p = 1.00), age at CNS damage (p = 0.2), multisite localization (p = 0.34), or delay to surgery (p = 0.7).

Conclusions/Significance

In patients with CNS damage, troublesome HO and recurrence occurs most frequently after traumatic brain injury and appears frequently in the hip and elbow. Early surgery for HO is not a factor of recurrence.

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<![CDATA[Titanium-Tethered Vancomycin Prevents Resistance to Rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3eab0ee8fa60bd5c07

Rifampicin is currently recognized as the most potent drug against Gram positive implant related infections. The use of rifampicin is limited by the emergence of bacterial resistance, which is often managed by coadministration of a second antibiotic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of soluble rifampicin in combination with vancomycin tethered to titanium metal as a means to control bacterial growth and resistance in vitro. Bacterial growth was inhibited when the vancomycin-tethered titanium discs were treated with Staphylococcus aureus inocula of ≤2×106 CFU, however inocula greater than 2×106 CFU/disc adhered and survived. The combination of surface-tethered vancomycin with soluble rifampicin enhanced the inhibitory effect of rifampicin for an inoculum of 106 CFU/cm2 by one dilution (combination MIC of 0.008 mg/L versus 0.015 mg/L for rifampicin alone). Moreover, surface tethered vancomycin prevented the emergence of a rifampicin resistant population in an inoculum of 2×108 CFU.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Prosthesis Alignment after Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty Using EOS 2D and 3D Imaging: A Reliability Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da84ab0ee8fa60b9bb02

Introduction

A new low-dose X-ray device, called EOS, has been introduced for determining lower-limb alignment in 2D and 3D. Reliability has not yet been assessed when using EOS on lower limbs containing a knee prosthesis. Therefore purpose of this study was to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliability of EOS 2D and 3D knee prosthesis alignment measurements after revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA).

Methods

Forty anteroposterior and lateral images of 37 rTKA patients were included. Two observers independently performed measurements on these images twice. Varus/valgus angles were measured in 2D (VV2D) and 3D (VV3D). Intraclass correlation coefficients and the Bland and Altman method were used to determine reliability. T-tests were used to test potential differences.

Results

Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were excellent for VV2D and VV3D. No significant difference or bias between the first and second measurements or the two observers was found. A significant mean and absolute difference of respectively 1.00° and 1.61° existed between 2D and 3D measurements.

Conclusions

EOS provides reliable varus/valgus measurements in 2D and 3D for the alignment of the knee joint with a knee prosthesis. However, significant differences exist between varus/valgus measurements in 2D and 3D.

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<![CDATA[Before the bombing: High burden of traumatic injuries in Kunduz Trauma Center, Kunduz, Afghanistan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbebe

Background

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing healthcare in Afghanistan since 1981 including specialized health services for trauma patients in Kunduz Trauma Center (KTC) from 2011. On October 3rd, 2015, a US airstrike hit the KTC, killing 42 people including 14 MSF staff. This study aims to demonstrate the impact on healthcare provision, after hospital destruction, by assessing the extent of care provided for trauma and injuries by the MSF KTC and to report on treatment outcomes from January 2014 to June 2015, three months prior to the bombing.

Methods

This is a descriptive, retrospective review of hospital records. All patients with traumatic injuries registered in the Emergency Department (ED) or hospitalized in In-Patients Department (IPD) and/or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of KTC between January 2014 and June 2015 were included in the study.

Results

A total of 35647 patients were registered in KTC during the study period. 3199 patients registered in the ED were children aged <5 years and 310 of them were admitted including 47 to the ICU. 77.5% patients were from Kunduz province and the remaining were from other provinces. The average length of stay was 7.3 days and 3.3 days while the bed occupancy rate was an average 91.1% and 75.8% in IPD and ICU, respectively. Of 4605 IPD patients, 105 (2.3%) developed complications. Among those admitted to the ICU, 12.6% patients died. About one-third surgical interventions were carried out on an urgent basis and the major proportion (45.8%) of surgical procedures was wound surgery followed by orthopedic surgery (27.0%).

Conclusions

This study highlights the high burden of traumatic injuries in Kunduz province and MSF Trauma Center’s contribution to saving lives, preventing disabilities and alleviating suffering among adults and children within the region. The bombing and destruction of KTC has resulted in a specific gap in critical healthcare services for the local communities in the health system of this war-ravaged region. This suggests the urgent need for reconstruction and re-opening of the center.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Pressure Support Ventilation Mode on Emergence Time and Intra-Operative Ventilatory Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6ca64

We tested the hypothesis that pressure-support ventilation (PSV) allows a reduction in emergence time and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) removal time after general anesthesia compared to volume-controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV). Because spontaneous breathing (SB) is often used with LMA under general anesthesia, patients were allocated randomly to three groups (CMV, SB and PSV). Thirty-six consecutive ASA I–II patients scheduled for knee arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia with a LMA and breathing throughout the ventilator circuit were included. Hemodynamic and ventilatory variables were recorded before and 10-min after general anesthesia-induction, at the surgical incision, at the end of anaesthetic drugs infusion and when the patient was totally awake (which defines emergence time). LMA removal time, drug consumption were recorded at the end of the surgical procedure. Leak fraction around the LMA was also evaluated. LMA removal time was significantly higher in the CMV-group (18±6 min) compared to both SB (8±4 min) and PSV (7±4 min, P<0.05) groups as well as for emergence time: CMV-group (32±12 min), SB (17±7 min) and PSV (13±6 min, P<0.05) groups. Total propofol consumption was significantly lower in the PSV-group (610±180 mg) than in both CMV (852±330 mg) and SB (734±246 mg, P<0.05) groups. Air leaks around the LMA was significantly higher in the CMV-group than in the SB and PSV groups (16% vs 3% and 7%, all P<0.05). In conclusion, in knee arthroscopic surgery, in comparison to CMV, PSV use during general anesthesia in unparalyzed patients decreases LMA removal time, propofol consumption and leaks around LMA while improving ventilatory variables without adverse effects.

Trial Registration

Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN17382426

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