ResearchPad - orthopedics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Can Masquerade as Acute Postoperative Periprosthetic Joint Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14281 Fever etiology during the first postoperative days following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may be challenging to solve. Early periprosthetic joint infection is the main reason; however, other equally important causes must be excluded such as thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis, and chest or urinary tract infections. We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with high fever reaching 39°C, fatigue, and myalgia lasting for a week after a fully cemented primary TKA. Symptoms were falsely attributed to the surgical procedure, leading to erroneous early management and a complicated postoperative course. In the era of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2) pandemic, a high index of suspicion for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms and viral chest infection must be raised, primarily in vulnerable patients.

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<![CDATA[Primary Rosai-Dorfman Disease of the Proximal Radius Masquerading as Tuberculosis of Elbow]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14237 A 36-year-old female presented with pain and progressive decrease in the range of movements in the left elbow. There was contact with an open case of pulmonary tuberculosis. There were no constitutional symptoms except fever. X-ray showed periarticular osteopenia with destruction of the radial neck and head. MRI scan findings were also consistent with tuberculosis of the elbow. Histopathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease. The patient was treated with glucocorticoid and methotrexate and was asymptomatic after 18 months.

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<![CDATA[Narcotic Prescriptions following Knee and Shoulder Arthroscopy: A Survey of the Arthroscopy Association of Canada]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14201 Purpose

Canada has the second-highest opioid use in the world. Despite knee and shoulder arthroscopy being among the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures, there exists little guidelines for pain management.

Methods

A survey was developed and distributed to members of the Arthroscopy Association of Canada. The objectives were: to understand opioid prescribing patterns after knee and shoulder arthroscopy, to determine if surgeons believe opioid over-prescription is an issue and to identify other pain management strategies surgeons are regularly using.

Results

A total of 38 responses were included (38.3%). Eighty-two percent of surgeons felt opioid over-prescription was an issue in arthroscopic surgery. The average post-operative knee or shoulder arthroscopy prescription included a total of 156 +/- 84.4 (0-400) mg of oral morphine equivalents (OMEs). Less than one-third of respondents (29%) had received formal peri-operative pain management training. Fifty-five percent of respondents felt that non-opioid medications do not provide adequate pain relief after arthroscopic surgery. Nearly all respondents (95%) stated they would change their prescription practice if high-quality evidence were to suggest that they should do so.

Conclusions

The majority of respondents identified opioid over-prescription as a problem after arthroscopic surgery. Surgeons are prescribing five times the amount of OMEs to patients that previous literature suggests the median patient uses after arthroscopic knee surgery. Surgeons generally state they would reduce or eliminate opioid prescriptions to arthroscopy patients if high-level evidence were to emerge suggesting that adequate pain control could be achieved without the use of narcotics.

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<![CDATA[Test of Strength: Figure-of-Eight versus Spiral Wrapping Technique for Fiberglass Casts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14141 Pediatric fractures are a common injury, and treatment often includes cast immobilization. For pediatric patients being treated in a cast, cast damage is among the most common reasons patients return to the emergency room. The figure-of-eight wrapping technique interdigitates layers of fiberglass which may create a stronger cast. The aim of this study was to assess the strength of the figure-of-eight wrapping technique in comparison to the spiral wrapping technique. A total of 10 casts were wrapped with a three-inch fiberglass using the spiral technique and 10 casts were wrapped using the figure-of-eight technique. Each cast was then subjected to a three-point bending test and loaded until failure using an Instron machine. The figure-of-eight technique had an average load to failure of 278.2 + 27.6 N/mm which was similar to the spiral technique’s load to failure of 281.2 + 25.4 N/mm (p=0.795). Prior to normalizing for thickness, the load to failure of the figure-of-eight technique was 949.8 + 109.5 N, which was significantly higher than the spiral technique of 868.2 + 65.1 N (p=0.038). The figure-of-eight casts were slightly thicker than the spiral casts (average 0.3 mm, p=0.004). This suggests that the thickness of the fiberglass cast may improve the strength. The figure-of-eight wrapping technique had similar biomechanical characteristics to spiral wrapping techniques. Providers should wrap in whichever technique they feel most comfortable performing as there is no difference in strength of the cast. If a stronger cast is desired, then thickness of the cast can be increased.

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<![CDATA[Case Report of Customized Distal Radius Prosthesis Replacement: An Alternative Treatment for Post-traumatic Unreconstructable Intraarticular Distal Radius Malunion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14121 Severely comminuted intraarticular distal radius malunion can significantly affect a patient's quality of life. To date, there is no ideal solution. We propose customized distal radius prosthesis replacement as a treatment option. A 33-year-old policeman presented with left wrist deformity and loss of motion for five months following a distal radius fracture AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) type-C3 which had been fixed with a volar locking plate incorporate with external fixation and Kirschner wire (K-wire) augmentation for two months. He needed to rely on wrist motion for work. Therefore, we fabricated a customized distal radius prosthesis based on his contralateral normal anatomy to replace the malunion site. The patient was satisfied and able to return to work two months after the operation. Thirty months later, the range of motion had improved from fixed 40° flexion and fixed 70° pronation deformity to 73° flexion, 79° extension, 75° supination, and 85° pronation. His DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) score had improved from 80 to 14.2. His pain score, as measured by the visual analog scale, improved from eight preoperatively to two. Unreconstructable intraarticular malunion of the distal radius is a challenging problem with no treatment consensus. Customized distal radius prosthesis may provide a successful treatment option. Future research should elucidate long-term outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Paediatric Long Bone Fractures Managed with Elastic Intramedullary Nails: A Retrospective Study of 30 Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14003 Elastic intramedullary nailing or titanium elastic nail (TEN) is an alternative method for the treatment of various pediatric long bone fractures. Titanium nails are preferred over plaster cast and stainless steel nails for children older than six years. Our series included 30 paediatric long bone fractures who were managed with TEN. The mean age was 9.3 years and the mean follow-up period was 28 months. A mean time of 10 weeks was recorded for the union of all fractures. The occurrence of superficial infection in three cases healed with antibiotics and minor debridement. Limb length discrepancy was seen in three cases of femur fracture, which was functionally insignificant, but it may be a potential problem needing close follow-up until skeletal maturity is attained. An elastic intramedullary nail or TEN in long bone fractures in children is a safe and minimally invasive technique that achieves stable reduction, especially in long spiral fractures till union. We attained successful union and good results in all our 30 cases with long bone fractures in children. A few complications of hardware prominence were resolved with implant removal. Long-term studies with a comparison to casting techniques in paediatric long bone fractures are required.

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<![CDATA[Clinico-radiological Outcomes of Using Modified Stoppa Approach for Treating Acetabular Fractures: An Institutional Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10538 Introduction

Acetabular fractures are complex intra-articular fractures. The extra-pelvic ilioinguinal (IL) has been the workhorse for the anterior approach and remains the gold standard. The major difference between the IL and the Stoppa approaches is that Stoppa allows for the avoidance of the middle window of the IL approach. Hence, the modified Stoppa approach (MSA) can be adopted by a comparatively less experienced surgeon with minimal complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological and functional outcomes of patients operated on using the MSA.

Materials and methods

Patients operated on by the MSA for acetabular fractures with a minimum of one year of clinical and radiographic follow-ups were reviewed. CT scans and radiographs were evaluated for the fracture pattern, time to surgery, operative time, blood loss, quality of reduction (Matta criterion), FO [Harris hip score (HHS) and Nach Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score (NMAPS)] and complications (perioperative and follow-up). Twenty-three of 26 patients with 45 acetabular fractures operated between January 2016 and November 2018 were included. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic data, and Pearson’s chi-squared statistic was calculated for the association between radiological and functional outcomes.

Results 

Among the 23 patients, the mean age was 38.5 years (range: 15-65) with a male-to-female ratio of 18:5. The average time to surgery was 11.5 days (range: 2-32), operating time was 155 minutes (range: 90-243), and average blood loss was 650 ml (range: 500-1,250). A supplemental lateral window was used in 20 patients (87%), and three underwent the combined anterior and posterior [Kocher Langenbacks (KL)] approach. All cases were unilateral. The transverse fracture was the most common pattern (eight patients) followed by the associated both-column fracture in six and T-type, isolated anterior column fracture, and anterior column and posterior hemi-transverse fractures seen in three patients each. Iliac blade (high anterior column) fracture was seen in 14 cases and one patient had associated sacral type II fracture. Road traffic accidents accounted for 61% of the injuries and injury severity score (ISS) of >15 (polytrauma) was seen in more than 50% of the cases (associated with other organ injuries). The radiological outcome was anatomical in 52% of the cases, imperfect in 39%, and poor in 9%. The functional outcomes were good to excellent in 74% (HHS) and 79% (NMAPS) of the cases. The association and correlation between them were nonsignificant (p-value: >0.5). Two patients developed a superficial infection and three had iatrogenic obturator nerve palsy. One patient had a direct inguinal hernia, one had grade 3 bedsores, and two patients developed grade 2 arthritic changes during the follow-up. No case of vessel injury was encountered.

Conclusion

Adoption of the MSA for the treatment of acetabular fractures leads to a good-to-excellent anatomical reduction in most cases while providing direct visualization of the quadrilateral plate and posterior column. The learning curve is smaller for less-experienced surgeons in terms of complications and results. We recommend this technique as a viable alternative to the IL approach for anterior acetabular fixation.

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<![CDATA[Arthroscopic Technique for the Treatment of Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Knee]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10523 Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is caused by a proliferation of the synovial membrane and can be a rare cause of pain and locking of the knee. In its localized form, it can be removed arthroscopically. We describe in detail a step-by-step arthroscopic technique applied to treat a 27-year-old patient who had been suffering from pain and episodes of locking for a year and whose left knee MRI revealed an intra-articular mass. The formation was completely enucleated arthroscopically and histological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of localized PVNS. There were no complications, and the patient was symptom-free at the six-month follow-up with no clinical or radiological evidence of recurrence.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Irrigation Fluid on Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10501 Introduction

Rates of osteoarthritis and total joint arthroplasty (TJA) are on the rise globally. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most devastating complication of TJA. A number of different intraoperative interventions have been proposed in an effort to reduce infection rates, including antibiotic cements, local antibiotic powder, and various irrigation solutions. The evidence on the importance of irrigation solutions is limited but has gained prominence recently, including the publication of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT). Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various irrigation solutions and pressures at reducing the rates of PJI.

Methods

A systematic review was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science. All records were screened in duplicate. Data collected included basic study characteristics, the details of the intervention and comparison solutions, if applicable, and rates of superficial and deep infection. A meta-analysis of comparative studies was performed to assess for consistency and potential direction of effect. 

Results

A total of ten studies were included, of which one was an RCT, eight were retrospective cohorts, and one was a case series. In total, there were 29,630 TJAs in 29,596 patients. The mean age ranged from 61 to 80 years. Six studies compared povidone-iodine (Betadine®) to normal saline, two studies compared chlorhexidine to saline, one study compared “triple prophylaxis” to standard practice, and one study used gentamicin but had no comparison group. The pooled risk ratio for deep infection in studies using Betadine® compared to saline was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33-1.19), while for chlorhexidine it was 0.74 (95%CI: 0.33-1.65).

Discussion

Current evidence on the relative efficacy of irrigating solutions as prophylaxis for infection following TJA remains inconclusive. Imprecision of estimates vindicates the need for a definitive trial to further inform their use in surgical practice. 

Conclusion

Antiseptic irrigation during TJA with solutions (Betadine®, chlorhexidine) may decrease PJI risk in patients undergoing primary and revision total hip and knee arthroplasties. Wide confidence intervals and heterogeneity among studies, however, render conclusions untrustworthy. Well-conducted RCTs are very much needed to help further investigate this issue.

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<![CDATA[Acute Calcific Retropharyngeal Tendinitis with Eggshell-like Calcification: Case Report and Literature Review on Time-course Changes in Imaging Findings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9454 Acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis is a rare disease, and few studies have reported the radiological findings of its time-course in detail. These radiological findings vary according to the calcific stage. We report a case of acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis with eggshell-like calcification detected on follow-up computed tomography (CT). We also review pertinent literature on calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis, with a focus on time-course changes in imaging findings.

A 54-year-old Japanese woman presented with acute severe neck pain. She also had a limited range of motion in the rotation of her neck and moderate pain and discomfort during swallowing. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed no apparent abnormality. CT revealed massive retropharyngeal calcification in front of the C1-C2 vertebrae. The patient was diagnosed with acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis and treated with a soft collar and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two weeks later, the neck pain and dysphagia improved. At the one-month follow-up, CT showed residual marginal calcification, which was diminishing in size, suggesting eggshell-like calcification.

We believe that although the eggshell calcification appearance is extremely rare, it is important to note this atypical presentation of acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis.

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<![CDATA[Traumatic Floating Clavicle: Is This a Rare Injury?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N455e4467-c2ff-4af7-94cd-e02b48ea843f Bipolar clavicle dislocation is thought to be a rare injury pattern. Even experienced orthopaedic surgeons may have not come across this entity during their careers. We report a misdiagnosed case of a 65-year-old male who underwent a motorcycle accident and was surgically treated six months post-injury. This case has been the ground for research since then. We have come to the conclusion that this type of injury is probably not so uncommon as previously thought. Careful evaluation is of immense importance during diagnosis protocol, and practitioners should be aware of this injury pattern in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

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<![CDATA[An Unusual Complex Posterolateral Osteoligamentous Injury of the Knee in an Adolescent]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N753c9c7b-99f1-4125-85bb-79298ed6e4b0 We present an unusual and complex case of a 16-year-old adolescent male who injured his right knee and sustained combined avulsion injuries of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) at the tibial insertion site, iliotibial band at lateral tibial condyle, and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) at femoral insertion site akin to osteoligamentous posterolateral corner injury. Anatomical reduction of the femoral LCL avulsion fragment was performed and fixed with a two 4-mm partially threaded cancellous screw. Iliotibial band avulsion was buttressed using Ellis t-plate and fixed with two 4-mm partially threaded cancellous screws. PCL avulsion fracture was conservatively treated owing to minimal displacement. At one-year follow-up, the patient was pain free with a range of motion of 0 to 150 degrees of flexion and had a pain free knee with no instability. Posterolateral corner injury in the patient was very significant as it involved LCL avulsion and iliotibial band avulsion, both of which are part of the posterolateral structures of the knee and also involve the growth plate. Fixation of the avulsion of Gerdy's tubercle with the buttress plate helps to provide additional stability to counteract the deforming forces of the iliotibial band. LCL is also the major stabilizer against varus forces, and hence fixation is required for stability while preventing growth disturbance. PCL avulsion can be treated conservatively in those patients where the fragment is undisplaced or minimally displaced. A good outcome can be achieved in skeletally immature patients who have osteoligamentous posterolateral corner injuries with associated avulsion fractures by using appropriate anatomical reduction and surgical fixation.

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<![CDATA[Idiopathic Carpal Spasm (Trousseau’s Sign) After Intraoperative Arm Tourniquet Inflation in an Intubated Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na7d605f6-b641-406b-b131-264643d519a8 We present a case of a 38-year-old male who sustained a laceration from a knife to the volar aspect of his left index and middle fingers. He had clinical injury to his flexor digitorum profundus tendons to both digits. He underwent operative exploration and repair of the tendons under general anaesthetic. An arm tourniquet was inflated to allow for haemostasis in the operative field. A few minutes after inflation, the patient’s hand went into carpal spasm. The tourniquet was deflated and the spasm resolved. Intraoperative serum calcium and carbon dioxide levels were normal. The operation proceeded with the tourniquet deflated. Postoperatively serum calcium and magnesium levels were within normal limits, as was serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels. It has been reported that carpal spasm can occur with tourniquet use in the anxious patient due to hyperventilation and resultant metabolic alkalosis. This however is the first reported case of carpal spasm in the setting of tourniquet use and normal serum electrolytes and respiratory parameters in an intubated patient.

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<![CDATA[Complex Multiplanar Fracture of the Distal Femur with an Undescribed Pattern: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6edbfb56-d1a1-4710-bf23-e0a8b7f6fcd3 Distal femur fractures in younger age groups are associated with high-impact injury leading to severe comminution and soft tissue injuries. Most of the intra-articular distal femur fractures occur as a result of axial loading accompanied by a variable amount of flexion. An 18-year-old male patient who had met with a road traffic accident was brought to the trauma center. Radiographic examination revealed a fracture of the distal femur, predominantly involving the lateral condyle without any evidence of metaphyseal comminution, and lateral view showed a complete separation of both the condyles from the proximal shaft. This type of fracture pattern did not fit into any of the current classification systems of distal femoral fractures. The medial and lateral approaches were carried out simultaneously instead of the anterior midline approach, owing to the poor skin condition over the anterior aspect of the knee. These fractures are difficult to treat due to high articular involvement and present a tedious task for the surgeon. Anatomical reduction with preserved articular cartilage is the key to a good outcome in such complex fractures. Atypical fracture types are not uncommon, and they can be incorporated into existing or future classification systems, which may contribute to a better understanding and management of these fractures.

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<![CDATA[Recurrent Shoulder Posteroinferior Subluxation Status Post Reverse Remplissage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nae12f32d-e831-4fbf-9588-cdb236735122 Posterior shoulder dislocation is an uncommon injury that typically follows intense contraction of the external rotator muscles, such as from seizure activity, high-velocity trauma, or intense electrical shock. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, leading to complications such as functional deficits or osteonecrosis of the humeral head. Closed reduction can be utilized following an initial occurrence, however, repeated insult to the glenohumeral joint may lead to posterior instability. A reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, a vertical impacted fracture of the anteromedial aspect of the humeral head, can occur. Surgical treatment options for posterior instability include the modified McLaughlin procedure also known as the reverse remplissage procedure. Unfortunately, the success rates of this procedure are controversial.

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<![CDATA[Complete Revascularization of Reimplanted Talus After Isolated Total Talar Extrusion: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6c7ab12a-2551-475c-a049-7224380db3ea Total traumatic extrusion of the talus is a rare and disabling ankle injury. Treatment may include talar reimplantation or talar body removal, but an optimal treatment protocol has not yet been established. Several case reports showed that disruption of the vascular supply and contamination could lead to major complications, such as infection and avascular necrosis, with the high risk of these complications being associated with both the traumatic ankle injury itself and subsequent talar reimplantation. No report to date has described the revascularization of a completely extruded talus, as shown by serial MRI, a less invasive surgical strategy consisting of immediate reimplantation, early administration of antibiotics, and a short period of cast immobilization followed by early motion exercises. The present study describes complete revascularization and good clinical outcomes in a 30-year-old man who underwent talus reimplantation after isolated total talar extrusion.

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<![CDATA[Orthopaedic Trainee Opinion on the Current Procedure-based Assessment Compared to its Predecessor: A UK Trauma Centre Perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6b87b54f-1326-4404-9628-9c3b5d816b7a Background

Procedure-based assessments (PBAs) were introduced as a formative assessment of surgical performance. UK trainees are currently expected to complete at least 20 PBAs each training year. A new PBA tool was introduced in August 2016 in order to address several criticisms with its predecessor. These included mandatory written feedback and increasing the number of global levels of assessment.

Objectives

Our study sought to identify the impact of these modifications to the PBA tool on its perceived utility as a formative assessment of surgical skill.

Study design & methods

Orthopaedic trainee registrars (ST3-ST8) holding a UK National Training Number (NTN) at a major UK trauma centre were invited to take part in the study. Each trainee completed an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to elicit the view of trainees towards the old and new PBA.

Results

Twelve trainees took part in the study. Most of them admitted receiving good quality feedback from their trainer using both tools (75% old PBA; 83% ew PBA). Most trainees (58%) felt that written feedback did not encourage verbal feedback from their trainer. Overall, trainees felt the new PBA global rating scale levels had made it a more accurate measure of surgical performance and allowed them to better appreciate the gradual improvement in their surgical skills throughout their training.

Conclusions

Fifty per cent of the trainees believed that the new PBA overall was a better formative assessment of surgical skill than its predecessor. A significant factor has been the introduction of a new global rating score rather than efforts to improve feedback. Further work should look to identify whether these views match those of other UK-based trainees on a larger scale.

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<![CDATA[Extraosseus Ewing's Sarcoma in Pancreas: A Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf4d799ea-09d8-4f1c-a5d9-c5025b55bb1e Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET, previously referred to as peripheral neuroepithelioma) are rare malignant tumors with various degrees of differentiation belonging to the Ewing’s family of sarcomas. They are classified as round cell tumors arising from soft tissues. In rare instances, PNETs may arise from solid organs containing neuroendocrine cells of kidney, bladder, heart, lungs, parotid glands and pancreas. Most cases occur in the second decade of life with a slight preponderance in males. PNET of the pancreas is an aggressive tumor with multiple recurrences and a relatively poor prognosis. These tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in a diagnosed pancreatic tumor in individuals less than 35 years of age. Due to the nature of the tumor, surgery with subsequent chemoradiation are widely accepted modalities despite the poor prognosis. In this article, we review 25 cases of extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) of the pancreas which to the best of our knowledge, enlists most cases reported in the literature thus far. 

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Footprint Sagittal Diameter and Orientation of the Ligament in the Intercondylar Notch in Indian Population: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N80580759-5b1a-468f-b3b6-c801799c2352 Aim: To study the relevant anatomy of anterior cruciate ligament tibial footprint and orientation of the ligament in the intercondylar roof in Indian population the using MRI.

Methods: A total of 70 knee MRI with intact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was assessed for intercondylar roof angle, ACL inclination angle, ACL-bluemensaat angle, ACL sagittal center, and tibial insertion size.

Results: The ACL tibial sagittal center was found to be at 43.5% of the anteroposterior tibial length. Tibial insertion size averaged 15.40 (±1.29) mm with no significant difference in males and females (p > 0.05). The roof angle was 36.29 (± 4.02) ˚ and the ACL inclination angle and ACL-bluemensaat angle were 51.22 (± 3.39) ˚ and 4.70 (±3.35) ˚ respectively with no significant sex difference (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The ACL tibial insertion size averaged 15.40 mm and its center was at 43.51% along the Staubli and Rauschning line. The mean roof angle was 36.29 degrees and the ACL-bluemensaat angle was 4.70 degrees. Understanding of the tibial footprint morphology and the relation of the ligament to the roof of the intercondylar notch helps in anatomical graft placement during reconstruction.

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<![CDATA[Surgical Treatment of Solitary Enchondromas of the Hand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N706c0e55-20d3-4959-9ae5-18784aa0486d Objective: The present retrospective study evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of patients who underwent complete curettage and autologous bone grafting for hand-located isolated enchondromas with a minimum follow-up period of one year.

Patients and Methods: Thirty-two patients with a follow-up period of at least 12 months who underwent operation between August 2010 and October 2018 due to the presence of solitary enchondroma of the hand were included in the study. All patients underwent complete curettage and filling of the defect via autologous bone grafting. Autologous bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest and distal radius in 24 and eight patients, respectively. The patients underwent radiography on the first postoperative visit and at six weeks, 12 weeks, and annually. The range of movement of the finger joint was evaluated by comparing it with the healthy contralateral side. Functional outcomes and radiologic outcomes were evaluated. The frequency of complications and recurrences were established.

Results: Twelve patients were male and 20 were female. The average age was 34 (range: 16-56) years. The most common digit involved was the little finger (nine cases, 28.125%); the proximal phalanx was the most common location (17 cases, 53.125%). Control radiography in the sixth week revealed graft consolidation in all patients. No case of nonunion or recurrence was detected clinically or radiologically, with a mean follow-up period of 54 (range: 12-96) months. Functional outcomes were classified as excellent in 28 patients and as good in four patients. The final radiographic appearances included Tordai’s group 1 in 28 bones and group 2 in four bones. 

Conclusion: Curettage and autologous bone grafting are safe, costless, and effective treatment options for hand enchondroma, with satisfactory functional and radiographic outcomes. Harvesting bone graft from the distal radius provides a shorter length of hospital stay and lower complication rates compared to obtaining the graft from the iliac crest.

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