ResearchPad - osteosarcoma https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Administration of lower doses of radium-224 to ankylosing spondylitis patients results in no evidence of significant overall detriment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11232 The use of low doses of radium-224 (224Ra) chloride for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis was stopped following the discovery that patients treated with it had a higher than control incidence of leukaemia and other cancers. This was so even though the treatment resulted in decreased pain and increased mobility–both of which are associated with decreased mortality. It was decided to re-analyze the epidemiological data looking at all causes of death. The risk of leukaemia, solid cancer, death from non-cancer causes and from all causes in a study populations of men that received either the typical dose of 5.6 to 11.1 MBq of 224Ra, any dose of 224Ra or no radium were compared using the Cox proportional hazard model. For patients that received the typical dose of 224Ra agreed with the excess cancer was similar to that reported in previous studies. In contrast, these patients were less likely to die from non-cancer diseases and from all causes of death than the control patients. No excess mortality was also found in the population of all males that received the radionuclide. It is concluded that 224Ra treatment administered at low doses to patients with ankylosing spondylitis did not impact mortality from all causes. The study demonstrates the need to consider all causes of death and longevity when assessing health impacts following irradiation.

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<![CDATA[Involvement of C-terminal truncation mutation of kinesin-5 in resistance to kinesin-5 inhibitor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2151bdd5eed0c4843fbad7

Cultured cells easily develop resistance to kinesin-5 inhibitors (K5Is) often by overexpressing a related motor protein, kinesin-12/KIF15, or by acquiring mutations in the N-terminal motor domain of kinesin-5/KIF11 itself. We aimed to identify novel mechanisms responsible for resistance to S-trityl L-cysteine (STLC), one of the K5Is, using human osteosarcoma cell lines. Among six lines examined, U-2OS and HOS survived chronic STLC treatment and gave rise to resistant cells with IC50s at least 10-fold higher than those of the respective parental lines. Depletion of KIF15 largely eliminated the acquired K5I resistance in both cases, consistent with the proposed notion that KIF15 is indispensable for it. In contrast to the KIF11-independent property of the cells derived from HOS, those derived from U-2OS still required KIF11 for their growth and, intriguingly, expressed a C-terminal truncated variant of KIF11 resulting from a frame shift mutation (S1017fs). All of the isolated clones harbored the same mutation, suggesting its clonal expansion in the cell population due to the growth advantage during chronic STLC treatment. Transgenic expression of KIF11S1017fs in the parental U-2OS cells, as well as in HeLa cells, conferred a moderate but reproducible STLC resistance, probably owing to STLC-resistant localization of the mutant KIF11 on mitotic spindle. Our observations indicate that both KIF15 and the C-terminal-truncated KIF11 contributes to the STLC resistance of the U-2OS derived cells.

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<![CDATA[Genome Analysis of Osteosarcoma Progression Samples Identifies FGFR1 Overexpression as a Potential Treatment Target and CHM as a Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da28ab0ee8fa60b8194c

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, showing complex chromosomal rearrangements but with few known consistent changes. Deeper biological understanding is crucial to find new therapies to improve patient survival. We have sequenced the whole exome of two primary tumors (before and after chemotherapy), one metastatic tumor and a matched normal sample from two OS patients, to identify mutations involved in cancer biology. The metastatic samples were also RNA sequenced. By RNA sequencing we identified dysregulated expression levels of drug resistance- and apoptosis-related genes. Two fusion transcripts were identified in one patient (OS111); the first resulted in p53 inactivation by fusing the first exon of TP53 to the fifth exon of FAM45A. The second fusion joined the two first exons of FGFR1 to the second exon of ZNF343. Furthermore, FGFR1 was amplified and highly expressed, representing a potential treatment target in this patient. Whole exome sequencing revealed large intertumor heterogeneity, with surprisingly few shared mutations. Careful evaluation and validation of the data sets revealed a number of artefacts, but one recurrent mutation was validated, a nonsense mutation in CHM (patient OS106), which also was the mutation with the highest expression frequency (53%). The second patient (OS111) had wild-type CHM, but a downregulated expression level. In a panel of 71 clinical samples, we confirmed significant low expression of CHM compared to the controls (p = 0.003). Furthermore, by analyzing public datasets, we identified a significant association between low expression and poor survival in two other cancer types. Together, these results suggest CHM as a candidate tumor suppressor gene that warrants further investigation.

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<![CDATA[Effect of ABCB1 and ABCC3 Polymorphisms on Osteosarcoma Survival after Chemotherapy: A Pharmacogenetic Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0bab0ee8fa60bca575

Background

Standard treatment for osteosarcoma patients consists of a combination of cisplatin, adriamycin, and methotrexate before surgical resection of the primary tumour, followed by postoperative chemotherapy including vincristine and cyclophosphamide. Unfortunately, many patients still relapse or suffer adverse events. We examined whether common germline polymorphisms in chemotherapeutic transporter and metabolic pathway genes of the drugs used in standard osteosarcoma treatment may predict treatment response.

Methodology/Principal Findings

In this study we screened 102 osteosarcoma patients for 346 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2 Copy Number Variants (CNVs) in 24 genes involved in the metabolism or transport of cisplatin, adriamycin, methotrexate, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. We studied the association of the genotypes with tumour response and overall survival. We found that four SNPs in two ATP-binding cassette genes were significantly associated with overall survival: rs4148416 in ABCC3 (per-allele HR = 8.14, 95%CI = 2.73-20.2, p-value = 5.1×10−5), and three SNPs in ABCB1, rs4148737 (per-allele HR = 3.66, 95%CI = 1.85–6.11, p-value = 6.9×10−5), rs1128503 and rs10276036 (r2 = 1, per-allele HR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.11–0.47 p-value = 7.9×10−5). Associations with these SNPs remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing (all corrected p-values [permutation test] ≤0.03).

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that these polymorphisms may affect osteosarcoma treatment efficacy. If these associations are independently validated, these variants could be used as genetic predictors of clinical outcome in the treatment of osteosarcoma, helping in the design of individualized therapy.

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<![CDATA[Osteosarcoma cell proliferation and survival requires mGluR5 receptor activity and is blocked by Riluzole]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbcf5

Osteosarcomas are malignant tumors of bone, most commonly seen in children and adolescents. Despite advances in modern medicine, the poor survival rate of metastatic osteosarcoma has not improved in two decades. In the present study we have investigated the effect of Riluzole on a human and mouse metastatic osteosarcoma cells. We show that LM7 cells secrete glutamate in the media and that mGluR5 receptors are required for the proliferation of LM7 cells. Riluzole, which is known to inhibit glutamate release, inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and prevents migration of LM7 cells. This is also seen with Fenobam, a specific blocker of mGluR5. We also show that Riluzole alters the phosphorylation status of AKT/P70 S6 kinase, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Thus Riluzole is an effective drug to inhibit proliferation and survival of osteosarcoma cells and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteosarcoma exhibiting autocrine glutamate signaling.

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<![CDATA[Fluoroquinolone-Mediated Inhibition of Cell Growth, S-G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da38ab0ee8fa60b86f96

Despite significant advancements in osteosarcoma research, the overall survival of canine and human osteosarcoma patients has remained essentially static over the past 2 decades. Post-operative limb-spare infection has been associated with improved survival in both species, yet a mechanism for improved survival has not been clearly established. Given that the majority of canine osteosarcoma patients experiencing post-operative infections were treated with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, we hypothesized that fluoroquinolone antibiotics might directly inhibit the survival and proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells. Ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin were found to inhibit p21WAF1 expression resulting in decreased proliferation and increased S-G2/M accumulation. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone exposure induced apoptosis of canine osteosarcoma cells as demonstrated by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and activation of caspase-3/7. These results support further studies examining the potential impact of quinolones on survival and proliferation of osteosarcoma.

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<![CDATA[Novel siRNA formulation to effectively knockdown mutant p53 in osteosarcoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1174

Objectives

The tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in the development of osteosarcoma. The primary objective of this study is to develop and optimize lipid based nanoparticle formulations that can carry siRNA and effectively silence mutant p53 in 318–1, a murine osteosarcoma cell line.

Methods

The nanoparticles were composed of a mixture of two lipids (cholesterol and DOTAP) and either PLGA or PLGA-PEG and prepared by using an EmulsiFlex-B3 high pressure homogenizer. A series of studies that include using different nanoparticles, different amount of siRNAs, cell numbers, incubation time, transfection media volume, and storage temperature was performed to optimize the gene silencing efficiency.

Key findings

Replacement of lipids by PLGA or PLGA-PEG decreased the particle size and overall cytotoxicity. Among all lipid-polymer nanoformulations, nanoparticles with 10% PLGA showed highest mutant p53 knockdown efficiency while maintaining higher cell viability when a nanoparticle to siRNA ratio equal to 6.8:0.66 and 75 nM siRNA was used. With long term storage the mutant p53 knockdown efficiency decreased to a greater extent.

Conclusions

This study warrants a future evaluation of this formulation for gene silencing efficiency of mutant p53 in tissue culture and animal models for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic significance of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in osteosarcoma patients receiving pasteurized autografts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcaf8

Background

Among various reconstruction methods after wide excision for osteosarcoma, pasteurized autograft is often preferred. While the whole area of the tumor can be assessed for chemotherapy-induced necrosis, one of the important prognostic factors, in other reconstructive techniques, only a portion removed from a wide-resection specimen is available when using pasteurized autograft method. The assessment, therefore, may be unreliable. We analyzed the prognostic significance of the chemotherapy-induced necrosis in osteosarcoma patients who underwent reconstruction with pasteurized autografts.

Patients and methods

We reviewed the records of osteosarcoma patients who underwent treatment in our institution from 1998 to 2013. Cases of reconstruction with pasteurized autografts were defined as the patient group, and the same number of patients who underwent other reconstruction methods served as controls. Chemotherapy-induced necrosis was evaluated for removed extra-osseous and curetted intramedullary tumor tissues.

Results

A total of 22 patients were identified; the median age was 15.5 years, and there were 12 males. The most common tumor location was the distal femur. The most common histological subtype was osteoblastic. Median size was 8.1 cm. Disease status was stage IIB in 13 patients and IIA in 9. Median follow-up was 76 months. No differences between the patient and control groups were observed in potential prognostic factors, overall survival, metastasis-free survival, or recurrence-free survival. Univariate analyses demonstrated that histological response was a significant prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival and also significant for recurrence-free survival.

Conclusion

Chemotherapy-induced necrosis grading, using only available tumor tissues, could be a prognostic factor for osteosarcoma patients receiving pasteurized autografts for reconstructive surgery.

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<![CDATA[Osteopontin Upregulates the Expression of Glucose Transporters in Osteosarcoma Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e1ab0ee8fa60b699c6

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Even after the traditional standard surgical therapy, metastasis still occurs in a high percentage of patients. Glucose is an important source of metabolic energy for tumor proliferation and survival. Tumors usually overexpress glucose transporters, especially hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3. Osteopontin, hypoxia-responsive glucose transporter 1, and glucose transporter 3 are overexpressed in many types of tumors and have been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the regulation of glucose transporters by osteopontin in osteosarcoma. We observed that both glucose transporters and osteopontin were upregulated in hypoxic human osteosarcoma cells. Endogenously released osteopontin regulated the expression of glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3 in osteosarcoma and enhanced glucose uptake into cells via the αvβ3 integrin. Knockdown of osteopontin induced cell death in 20% of osteosarcoma cells. Phloretin, a glucose transporter inhibitor, also caused cell death by treatment alone. The phloretin-induced cell death was significantly enhanced in osteopontin knockdown osteosarcoma cells. Combination of a low dose of phloretin and chemotherapeutic drugs, such as daunomycin, 5-Fu, etoposide, and methotrexate, exhibited synergistic cytotoxic effects in three osteosarcoma cell lines. Inhibition of glucose transporters markedly potentiated the apoptotic sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs in osteosarcoma. These results indicate that the combination of a low dose of a glucose transporter inhibitor with cytotoxic drugs may be beneficial for treating osteosarcoma patients.

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<![CDATA[FOXM1 Is an Oncogenic Mediator in Ewing Sarcoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1aab0ee8fa60b7ca47

Ewing Family Tumors (Ewing Sarcoma and peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor) are common bone and soft tissue malignancies of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Chromosomal translocation in these tumors produces fusion oncogenes of the EWS/ETS class, with EWS/FLI1 being by far the most common. EWS/ETS chimera are the only well established driver mutations in these tumors and they function as aberrant transcription factors. Understanding the downstream genes whose expression is modified has been a central approach to the study of these tumors. FOXM1 is a proliferation associated transcription factor which has increasingly been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FOXM1 is expressed in Ewing primary tumors and cell lines. Reduction in FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines results in diminished potential for anchorage independent growth. FOXM1 expression is enhanced by EWS/FLI1, though, unlike other tumor systems, it is not driven by expression of the EWS/FLI1 target GLI1. Thiostrepton is a compound known to inhibit FOXM1 by direct binding. We show that Thiostrepton diminishes FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines and this reduction reduces cell viability through an apoptotic mechanism. FOXM1 is involved in Ewing tumor pathogenesis and may prove to be a useful therapeutic target in Ewing tumors.

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<![CDATA[Trophic Activity of Human P2X7 Receptor Isoforms A and B in Osteosarcoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacdab0ee8fa60bb500a

The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is attracting increasing attention for its involvement in cancer. Several recent studies have shown a crucial role of P2X7R in tumour cell growth, angiogenesis and invasiveness. In this study, we investigated the role of the two known human P2X7R functional splice variants, the full length P2X7RA and the truncated P2X7RB, in osteosarcoma cell growth. Immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue array of human osteosarcomas showed that forty-four, of a total fifty-four tumours (81.4%), stained positive for both P2X7RA and B, thirty-one (57.4%) were positive using an anti-P2X7RA antibody, whereas fifteen of the total number (27.7%) expressed only P2X7RB. P2X7RB positive tumours showed increased cell density, at the expense of extracellular matrix. The human osteosarcoma cell line Te85, which lacks endogenous P2X7R expression, was stably transfected with either P2X7RA, P2X7RB, or both. Receptor expression was a powerful stimulus for cell growth, the most efficient growth-promoting isoform being P2X7RB alone. Growth stimulation was matched by increased Ca2+ mobilization and enhanced NFATc1 activity. Te85 P2X7RA+B cells presented pore formation as well as spontaneous extracellular ATP release. The ATP release was sustained in all clones by P2X7R agonist (BzATP) and reduced following P2X7R antagonist (A740003) application. BzATP also increased cell growth and activated NFATc1 levels. On the other hand cyclosporin A (CSA) affected both NFATc1 activation and cell growth, definitively linking P2X7R stimulation to NFATc1 and cell proliferation. All transfected clones also showed reduced RANK-L expression, and an overall decreased RANK-L/OPG ratio. Mineralization was increased in Te85 P2X7RA+B cells while it was significantly diminished in Te85 P2X7RB clones, in agreement with immunohistochemical results. In summary, our data show that the majority of human osteosarcomas express P2X7RA and B and suggest that expression of either isoform is differently coupled to cell growth or activity.

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<![CDATA[The ARF Tumor Suppressor Regulates Bone Remodeling and Osteosarcoma Development in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaeab0ee8fa60baa4f5

The ARF tumor suppressor regulates p53 as well as basic developmental processes independent of p53, including osteoclast activation, by controlling ribosomal biogenesis. Here we provide evidence that ARF is a master regulator of bone remodeling and osteosarcoma (OS) development in mice. Arf-/- mice displayed increased osteoblast (OB) and osteoclast (OC) activity with a significant net increase in trabecular bone volume. The long bones of Arf-/- mice had increased expression of OB genes while Arf-/- OB showed enhanced differentiation in vitro. Mice transgenic for the Tax oncogene develop lymphocytic tumors with associated osteolytic lesions, while Tax+Arf-/- mice uniformly developed spontaneous OS by 7 months of age. Tax+Arf-/- tumors were well differentiated OS characterized by an abundance of new bone with OC recruitment, expressed OB markers and displayed intact levels of p53 mRNA and reduced Rb transcript levels. Cell lines established from OS recapitulated characteristics of the primary tumor, including the expression of mature OB markers and ability to form mineralized tumors when transplanted. Loss of heterozygosity in OS tumors arising in Tax+Arf+/- mice emphasized the necessity of ARF-loss in OS development. Hypothesizing that inhibition of ARF-regulated bone remodeling would repress development of OS, we demonstrated that treatment of Tax+Arf-/- mice with zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate inhibitor of OC activity and repressor of bone turnover, prevented or delayed the onset of OS. These data describe a novel role for ARF as a regulator of bone remodeling through effects on both OB and OC. Finally, these data underscore the potential of targeting bone remodeling as adjuvant therapy or in patients with genetic predispositions to prevent the development of OS.

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<![CDATA[Immunoglobulin G Locus Events in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cell Lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da76ab0ee8fa60b969f2

Recently immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found to be expressed by cells other than B lymphocytes, including various human carcinoma cells. Sarcomas are derived from mesenchyme, and the knowledge about the occurrence of Ig production in sarcoma cells is very limited. Here we investigated the phenomenon of immunoglobulin G (IgG) expression and its molecular basis in 3 sarcoma cell lines. The mRNA transcripts of IgG heavy chain and kappa light chain were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, the expression of IgG proteins was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Immuno-electron microscopy localized IgG to the cell membrane and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The essential enzymes required for gene rearrangement and class switch recombination, and IgG germ-line transcripts were also identified in these sarcoma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results demonstrated histone H3 acetylation of both the recombination activating gene and Ig heavy chain regulatory elements. Collectively, these results confirmed IgG expression in sarcoma cells, the mechanism of which is very similar to that regulating IgG expression in B lymphocytes.

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<![CDATA[Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e0ab0ee8fa60b69497

In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA-221 Induces Cell Survival and Cisplatin Resistance through PI3K/Akt Pathway in Human Osteosarcoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbaf3b

Background

MicroRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that negatively modulate protein expression at a post-transcriptional and/or translational level and are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers. Specifically, microRNA-221 (miR-221) is overexpressed in many human cancers, wherein accumulating evidence indicates that it functions as an oncogene. However, the function of miR-221 in human osteosarcoma has not been totally elucidated. In the present study, the effects of miR-221 on osteosarcoma and the possible mechanism by which miR-221 affected the survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance of osteosarcoma were investigated.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed miR-221 was significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines than in osteoblasts. Both human osteosarcoma cell lines SOSP-9607 and MG63 were transfected with miR-221 mimic or inhibitor to regulate miR-221 expression. The effects of miR-221 were then assessed by cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assay, and cisplatin resistance assay. In both cells, upregulation of miR-221 induced cell survival and cisplatin resistance and reduced cell apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of miR-221 inhibited cell growth and cisplatin resistance and induced cell apoptosis. Potential target genes of miR-221 were predicted using bioinformatics. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay and western blot confirmed that PTEN was a direct target of miR-221. Furthermore, introduction of PTEN cDNA lacking 3′-UTR or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abrogated miR-221-induced cisplatin resistance. Finally, both miR-221 and PTEN expression levels in osteosarcoma samples were examined by using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. High miR-221 expression level and inverse correlation between miR-221 and PTEN levels were revealed in osteosarcoma tissues.

Conclusions/Significance

These results for the first time demonstrate that upregulation of miR-221 induces the malignant phenotype of human osteosarcoma whereas knockdown of miR-221 reverses this phenotype, suggesting that miR-221 could be a potential target for osteosarcoma treatment.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA-21 Increases Proliferation and Cisplatin Sensitivity of Osteosarcoma-Derived Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b6a081

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor and poor prognosis for osteosarcoma patients is mainly due to chemotherapy resistance. MicroRNAs are important to maintain pathophysiological mechanisms of cancer and influence cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we tested the functions of microRNA-21 for malignant features as well as for drug resistance of osteosarcoma. We used Northern blot to measure microRNA-21 levels in osteosarcoma-derived cell lines. MicroRNA-21 activity was modulated by either expressing a sponge to decrease its activity in an osteosarcoma-derived cell line expressing high levels of microRNA-21 or by introducing pri-microRNA-21 in a cell line with low endogenous levels. Cell migration was determined in a scratch assay and cell proliferation was measured by performing growth curve analysis. Sensitivity of the cells towards chemotherapeutics was investigated by performing cell viability assays and calculating the IC50 values. While cell migration was unaffected by modulated microRNA-21 levels, microRNA-21 inhibition slowed proliferation and exogenously expressed microRNA-21 promoted this process. Modulated microRNA-21 activity failed to effect sensitivity of osteosarcoma-derived cell lines to doxorubicin or methotrexate. Contrarily, reduction of microRNA-21 activity resulted in enhanced resistance towards cisplatin while ectopic expression of microRNA-21 showed the opposite effect. Increased microRNA-21 levels repressed the expression of Sprouty2 and ectopic expression of Sprouty2 was able to largely rescue the observed effects of microRNA-21 in osteosarcoma. In summary, our data indicate that in osteosarcoma microRNA-21 expression is an important component for regulation of cell proliferation and for determining sensitivity to cisplatin.

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<![CDATA[The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteosarcoma metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd6e

Purpose

Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) may offer the potential to enhance allograft-host osseous union in limb-salvage surgery following osteosarcoma resection. However, there is concern regarding the effect of locally applied BMP-2 on tumor recurrence and metastasis. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of exogenous BMP-2 on osteosarcoma migration and invasion across a panel of tumor cell lines in vitro and to characterize the effect of BMP-2 on pulmonary osteosarcoma metastasis within a xenograft model.

Experimental design

The effect of BMP-2 on in vitro tumor growth and development was assessed across multiple standard and patient-derived xenograft osteosarcoma cell lines. Tumor migration capacity, invasion, and cell proliferation were characterized. In addition, the effect on metastasis was measured using a xenograft model following tail-vein injection. The effect of exogenous BMP-2 on the development of metastases was measured following both single and multiple BMP-2 administrations.

Results

There was no significant difference in migration capacity, invasion, or cell proliferation between the BMP-2 treated and the untreated osteosarcoma cell lines. There was no significant difference in pulmonary metastases between either the single-dose or multi-dose BMP-2 treated animals and the untreated control animals.

Conclusions

In the model systems tested, the addition of BMP-2 does not increase osteosarcoma proliferation, migration, invasion, or metastasis to the lungs.

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<![CDATA[Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db01ab0ee8fa60bc6a1a

Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9%) were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14–74). Thirty-nine patients (41.9%) had synchronous lung metastases (Group A) and 54 patients (58.1%) had metachronous lung metastases (Group B). The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS) was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010), number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020), presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007) and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst.

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<![CDATA[Wnt/β-Catenin Expression Does Not Correlate with Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Concentration in Canine Osteosarcoma Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db27ab0ee8fa60bd08d2

Osteosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of the bone and an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase concentration has clinical prognostic value in both humans and canines. Increased serum alkaline phosphatase concentration at the time of diagnosis has been associated with poorer outcomes for osteosarcoma patients. The biology underlying this negative prognostic factor is poorly understood. Given that activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblasts, we hypothesized that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway would be differentially activated in osteosarcoma tissue based on serum ALP status. Archived canine osteosarcoma samples and primary canine osteosarcoma cell lines were used to evaluate the status of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activity through immunohistochemical staining, western immunoblot analyses, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and a Wnt-responsive promoter activity assay. We found no significant difference in β-catenin expression or activation between OSA populations differing in serum ALP concentration. Pathway activity was mildly increased in the primary OSA cell line generated from a patient with increased serum ALP compared to the normal serum ALP OSA cell line. Further investigation into the mechanisms underlying differences in serum ALP concentration is necessary to improve our understanding of the biological implications of this negative prognostic indicator.

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<![CDATA[Up-Regulation of Imp3 Confers In Vivo Tumorigenicity on Murine Osteosarcoma Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2fab0ee8fa60b83cc4

Osteosarcoma is a high-grade malignant bone tumor that manifests ingravescent clinical behavior. The intrinsic events that confer malignant properties on osteosarcoma cells have remained unclear, however. We previously established two lines of mouse osteosarcoma cells: AX cells, which are able to form tumors in syngeneic mice, and AXT cells, which were derived from such tumors and acquired an increased tumorigenic capacity during tumor development. We have now identified Igf2 mRNA-binding protein3 (Imp3) as a key molecule responsible for this increased tumorigenicity of AXT cells in vivo. Imp3 is consistently up-regulated in tumors formed by AX cells, and its expression in these cells was found to confer malignant properties such as anchorage-independent growth, loss of contact inhibition, and escape from anoikis in vitro. The expression level of Imp3 also appeared directly related to tumorigenic ability in vivo which is the critical determination for tumor-initiating cells. The effect of Imp3 on tumorigenicity of osteosarcoma cells did not appear to be mediated through Igf2-dependent mechanism. Our results implicate Imp3 as a key regulator of stem-like tumorigenic characteristics in osteosarcoma cells and as a potential therapeutic target for this malignancy.

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