ResearchPad - otolaryngology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Who should perform the rhinopharyngeal swab in COVID‐19 positive patients?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16636 <![CDATA[What ENT doctors should know about COVID‐19 contagion risks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16619 <![CDATA[The Effect of High Dose Rate Interstitial Implant on Early and Locally Advanced Oral Cavity Cancers: Update and Long-Term Follow-Up Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16502 Introduction

Brachytherapy, with or without external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), can be an alternative to surgery for organ preservation in early and locally advanced oral cavity cancers. This study aims to evaluate the effect of high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy on early and locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity when used alone or as a boost to EBRT.

Methods

A total of 125 patients with histologically proven stage T1-3/N0-1 SCC of the oral cavity were included in the study. A total of 15 patients with stage I disease received an interstitial implant dose of 3,850 cGy at 350 cGy per fraction, two fractions a day. Another 53 patients had stage II, and 57 patients had stage III disease; these patients received EBRT of 50 Gy in 25 fractions along with an HDR brachytherapy boost of 21 Gy in seven fractions of 3 Gy per fraction twice daily. The stage III patients also received concurrent chemotherapy with injections of cisplatin (70 mg/m2) given every three weeks for three days in divided doses. All node-positive patients received a boost to the node of up to 64 Gy by external beam radiation. Disease response rates, five-year disease-free survival rates, and toxicities were analyzed.

Results

The median follow-up was 60 months. Among the patients, 103 (82.4%) had a complete response, while 22 (17.6%) had residual disease and were referred for surgical salvage. The five-year disease-free survival was 100% in stage I, 83% in stage II, and 77.2% in stage III; 4% of patients developed grade 3 acute skin toxicity and 23.2% developed acute grade 3 mucositis. Eleven patients died during the follow-up period. Two patients died due to myocardial infarction but had achieved a complete tumor response. One patient had pulmonary tuberculosis and died due to fulminant infection after three years of disease-free survival period. One patient developed a second primary in the brain stem that presented with quadriplegia and expired. Seven patients died due to the progression of the initial disease.

Conclusions

Proper brachytherapy technique and meticulous planning can minimize the toxicity while providing better tumor control and achieve high local control rates. Brachytherapy, with or without EBRT, can be a surrogate to surgery in early oral cavity cancers as it can achieve organ preservation while providing good functional outcomes.

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<![CDATA[A 10-year Retrospective Review of Botulinum Toxin Injections and Surgical Management of Sialorrhea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16499 Background

Sialorrhea is a common comorbidity among children with neurologic disorders. Botulinum toxin injections and surgical procedures are recommended for the management of pathological sialorrhea in patients who fail conservative management or with concerns for salivary aspiration. The following review evaluates outcomes following botulinum toxin injections and surgical interventions for sialorrhea over a 10-year period with a focus on treatment options and outcomes for patients with anterior and posterior drooling.

Methods

The study included all patients less than 25 years of age who underwent a procedure for drooling (Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 42440, 42450, 42509, 42510, 64611 matched with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 and ICD-10 codes 527.7 and K11.7) from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. A chart review collected demographics, drooling medication use, and type of drooling (anterior, posterior, both). Outcome variables included pre- and post-procedure number of bibs, parent-reported outcomes, post-intervention drooling medication requirement, post-procedure length of stay, and complications.

Results

Seventy-one patients were included in our analysis, with 88 total procedures performed. The average age at first intervention was 8.9 years; 43 patients were male and 40 patients had cerebral palsy. Thirty-one patients experienced posterior drooling or anterior/posterior drooling. These patients were more likely to undergo surgery as the first invasive intervention. The most commonly performed interventions were botulinum toxin injections (28 patients, 39%) and sublingual gland excision (SLGE) with submandibular duct ligation (SMDL) (36 patients, 51%). Improvement following injections was noted in 56% of patients versus 73% of patients following any surgical intervention.

Conclusion

Management of drooling is complex with 18 different procedures performed over 10 years. Surgical interventions, specifically SLGE with SMDL and submandibular gland excision (SMGE), result in substantial improvement; these are commonly performed as the first intervention in patients with posterior drooling. By reviewing our experience, we hope to guide management decisions and help manage patient and caregiver expectations.

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<![CDATA[Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion Presaging Bilateral Vocal Cord Paresis in an Infant]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14227 Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM) is a condition characterized by inappropriate adduction of the vocal cords during respiration. Usually seen in children and adolescents, PVCM presentation in infants is uncommon. Once thought to be a product of psychiatric disease, there are now several other proposed etiologies including irritant-induced and secondary to neurologic disease. Previous studies showed that the treatment of gastric reflux in this age group leads to a resolution of symptoms. We present a case of PVCM in an infant with hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. She received reflux therapy and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting with two revisions. Despite these interventions, she continued with symptoms and eventually progressed to bilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP). There is a paucity of literature describing PVCM as a precursor to VCP. Clinicians should be aware that in this population, refractory PVCM may serve as a warning sign for further vocal cord function decline.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Low-dose Propofol or Ketamine on Coughing at Emergence from Anesthesia in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13944 Introduction

Coughing is commonly observed during emergence from general anesthesia. In children, smooth emergence from anesthesia, especially after tonsillectomy, is crucial. In this study, we compared the effect of low-dose ketamine or propofol on emergence coughing in children undergoing tonsillectomy.

Methods

In this randomized clinical trial, 90 children undergoing tonsillectomy were randomly allocated into two groups: children in group A received 0.5-mg/kg propofol and children in group B received 0.5-mg/kg ketamine, at the end of anesthesia. The incidence and severity of cough, postoperative sedation, nausea, and vomiting, and pain score were recorded and compared.

Results

The incidence of no cough at emergence from anesthesia was 82.2% in the propofol group and 15.5% in the ketamine group (P = 0.00). Children in the ketamine group exhibited postoperative pain but were more sedated compared with those in the propofol group (P > 0.05). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was lower in the propofol group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

At the end of general anesthesia with isoflurane in children undergoing tonsillectomy, 0.5-mg/kg propofol is more effective than 0.5-mg/kg ketamine in reducing cough response upon emergence from anesthesia, with a lower incidence of nausea and vomiting, as well as lower sedation in children.

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<![CDATA[Twelve‐month outcomes of a bioabsorbable implant for in‐office treatment of dynamic nasal valve collapse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7093 To examine 12‐month outcomes for in‐office treatment of dynamic nasal valve collapse (NVC) with a bioabsorbable implant.Study DesignProspective, multicenter, nonrandomized study.MethodsOne hundred sixty‐six patients with severe‐to‐extreme class of Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores were enrolled at 16 U.S. clinics (November 2016–July 2017). Patients were treated with a bioabsorbable implant (Latera, Spirox Inc., Redwood City, CA) to support the lateral wall, with or without concurrent inferior turbinate reduction (ITR), in an office setting. NOSE scores and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The Lateral Wall Insufficiency (LWI) score was determined by independent physicians observing the lateral wall motion video.ResultsOne hundred five patients were treated with implant alone, whereas 61 had implant + ITR. Thirty‐one patients reported 41 adverse events, all of which resolved with no clinical sequelae. Patients showed significant reduction in NOSE scores throughout 12 months postoperatively (77.4 ± 13.4 baseline vs. 36.2 ± 22.7 at 1 month postoperatively, 33.0 ± 23.4 at 3 months, 32.1 ± 24.6 at 6 months, and 30.3 ± 24.3 at 12 months; P < 0.001). They also showed significant reduction in VAS scores postoperatively (69.7 ± 18.1 baseline vs. 31.3 ± 27.1 at 12 months postoperatively, P < 0.001). These results were similar in patients treated with implant alone and those treated with the implant + ITR. Consistent with patient‐reported outcomes, postoperative LWI scores were demonstrably lower (1.42 ± 0.09 and 0.93 ± 0.08 pre‐ and postoperatively, P < 0.001).ConclusionIn‐office treatment of dynamic NVC with a bioabsorbable implant improves clinical evidence of LWI at 6 months and improves nasal obstructive symptoms in a majority of patients up to 12 months.Level of Evidence2b Laryngoscope, 130:1132–1137, 2020 ]]> <![CDATA[Applications of qualitative grounded theory methodology to investigate hearing loss: protocol for a qualitative systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N106a0bc7-0ba0-4f74-927c-346b56279f87 Hearing loss is a chronic condition affecting 12 million individuals in the UK. People with hearing loss regularly experience difficulties interacting in everyday conversations. These difficulties in communication can result in a person with hearing loss withdrawing from social situations and becoming isolated. While hearing loss research has largely deployed quantitative methods to investigate various aspects of the condition, qualitative research is becoming more widespread. Grounded theory is a specific qualitative methodology that has been used to establish novel theories on the experiences of living with hearing loss.Method and analysisThe aim of this systematic review is to establish how grounded theory has been applied to investigate the psychosocial aspects of hearing loss. Methods are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 checklist. Studies included in this review will have applied grounded theory as an overarching methodology or have grounded theory embedded among other methodologies. Studies included will have adult participants (≥18 years) who are either people with an acquired hearing loss, their family and friends (communication partners), or healthcare practitioners including audiologists, general practitioners, ear, nose and throat specialists and hearing therapists. The quality of application of grounded theory in each study will be assessed using the Guideline for Reporting and Evaluating Grounded Theory Research Studies.Ethics and disseminationAs only secondary data will be used in this systematic review, ethical approval is not required. No other ethical issues are foreseen. This review is registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO). Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and at relevant academic conferences. Findings may also be published in relevant professional and third sector newsletters and magazines as appropriate. Data will inform future research and guideline development.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42019134197. ]]> <![CDATA[Integrating Cupping Therapy in the Management of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N639c0ff9-cd2b-4087-812b-9f5c94c4730b

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is most often defined as a rapid hearing loss of ≥ 30 decibels across at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies over a time of ≤ 72 hours. Cupping therapy has been practiced across the world for thousands of years. Cupping therapy is practiced by creating suction inside cups that are placed on predefined skin areas. Our case is a 48-year-old female with a four-year history of Meniere’s disease, recurrent tinnitus, episodes of dizziness attacks, and fullness of the right ear. The patient developed sudden sensorineural hearing loss. She received conventional treatment and wet cupping therapy as a complementary integrative treatment. After the integrative management protocol was completed, pure tone audiometry tests revealed significant hearing improvement across almost all frequencies. To the best of our knowledge, this case presentation is the first reported case of this type. A positive effect of cupping was reported in our case as an integrative complementary treatment. Large, well-designed quality clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of wet cupping therapy (WCT) as a complementary treatment of SSNHL is highly recommended.

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<![CDATA[Adenoidectomy in Children: What Is the Evidence and What Is its Role?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N119af840-2fbb-40a4-8ed2-c3bcf3e77741

Purpose of Review

Review the current state of the adenoidectomy procedure in the pediatric population with up-to-date indications for surgery, operative techniques, adverse events, non-surgical management of adenoid hypertrophy, and future directions.

Recent Findings

Adenoidectomy is indicated in children for the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing, nasal airway obstruction, recurrent acute otitis media, and chronic rhinosinusitis. A new recommendation was released in 2016, not supporting adenoidectomy for a primary indication of otitis media in children under 4 years old, including those with prior tympanostomy tubes, unless a distinct indication exists such as nasal obstruction or chronic adenoiditis. Although adenotonsillectomy is the mainstay of treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recent studies have identified that non-obese patients with moderate OSA and small tonsils have comparable benefits with adenoidectomy alone with less complications. While conventional approaches such as indirect mirror-assisted curette and suction coagulation are still utilized, direct transnasal endoscope-assisted removal of the adenoids has proven to be a safe technique, with good short- and long-term outcomes. Novel non-surgical therapies including immunotherapy have been evaluated.

Summary

Adenoidectomy is a safe procedure in the pediatric population and leads to excellent outcomes. Adverse events are rare, and hospitalization is uncommon. Children with sleep disturbance from nasal airway obstruction, ear disease, or chronic rhinosinusitis are the best operative candidates for this procedure.

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<![CDATA[Triple Head and Neck Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0aeae69f-d117-46dd-b556-8bf697d2d539

Synchronous cancers are multiple cancers that develop within six months of the initial diagnosis while metachronous cancers are those that develop more than six months after the initial diagnosis. A combination of three cancers is seen with several patients, which leads to a bad prognosis, and that of synchronous cancers is worse than that of metachronous cancers. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multiple metachronous head and neck cancers.

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<![CDATA[Inverted Papilloma of the Lacrimal Sac and Nasolacrimal Duct: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc56fa161-3231-428d-a86d-7e659033b480

Inverted papillomas of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct are exceedingly rare. Though histologically benign, these tumors are locally aggressive, have propensity for recurrence and are associated with a chance of malignant transformation. These tumors can present in an innocuous manner, masquerading as more common conditions such as primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We present our experience with one such case and a review of the literature to emphasize the importance of pre-operative assessment and intra-operative vigilance, so as to aid in accurate diagnosis and early treatment.

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<![CDATA[Papillary Microcarcinoma of Sublingual Thyroid Gland: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N898ecea0-4ab6-4c59-ad83-d26a8c8a51b9

Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare condition where the thyroid is not placed in the pre-tracheal region. Majority of cases are commonly located at the lingual portion. The malignant shift of ectopic thyroid is considered a rare manifestation with a challenging surgical approach. Here we report our management and surgical approach of a patient with papillary microcarcinoma of sublingual thyroid gland presented to our facility.

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<![CDATA[Endoscopic Surgical Repair of a Giant, Postoperative, Neglected Meningoencephalocele]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N587cf473-1713-4a02-95a4-7c1dedab7e2d

Meningoencephalocele is a rare and potentially lethal disease, requiring early diagnosis and treatment. A 30-year-old male patient was diagnosed with a massive meningoencephalocele. His medical history included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea since the age of 7 years, which was attributed to right eye mining during infancy due to Coats disease. Following failed attempts of open surgical repair and CSF diversion during childhood, no further attempts of surgical management were made. He presented a long history of recurrent episodes of meningitis, resulting in long-lasting hospitalization in the intensive care unit. Eventually, he underwent surgical repair through an endoscopic multilayer approach. Subsequent endoscopic and radiological assessment demonstrated no recurrence during a follow-up period of one year. Endoscopic treatment is highly successful. An effective and definite surgical repair is of paramount importance in order to avoid life-threatening complications, improve patient’s and caregiver’s quality of life, and avoid unnecessary health-system costs.

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<![CDATA[Cautionary High-resolution Computed Tomography Findings for the Presence of Facial Canal Dehiscence in Patients with Cholesteatoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8320c127-c0f3-4b68-bb37-8f5f168d0c53

Objective

This study aimed to investigate the abnormal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media (CCOM) patients preoperatively and the coexistence of abnormal HRCT findings with facial canal dehiscence (FCD) observed intraoperatively to identify the predictive factors associated with FCD.

Methods

The medical records of 151 CCOM patients who had undergone tympanomastoidectomy at our center were retrospectively examined in terms of the patients’ age and gender, preoperative HRCT findings [scutum defect, posterior wall of external auditory canal (PWEAC) defect, lateral semicircular canal (LSSC) defect, tegmen defect, and sigmoid plate erosion]. Operation records containing information about FCD were also analyzed.

Results

The prevalence of FCD was found to be 33.8% (51/151). There was a significant correlation between the presence of scutum, PWEAC, LSSC, and tegmen defects and the presence of FCD. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of sigmoid plate erosion and the presence of FCD. The results of regression analysis of the coexisting pathologic findings for FCD showed that the risk of FCD was highest in patients with LSSC + scutum defects (34.3-fold increase), followed by LSSC + PWEAC defects (31.6-fold increase).

Conclusion

Our study revealed that the presence of scutum, PWEAC, LSSC, and tegmen defects on HRCT indicates a higher risk of FCD preoperatively. This risk is even greater when multiple abnormal findings coexist.

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<![CDATA[Unusual Manifestation of Benign Squamous Papilloma of the Uvula: A Case Report and Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N007f1aae-cce6-4d5a-b4fb-9c69f228580a

Squamous papilloma is an exophytic overgrowth of the soft tissue that is associated with human papillomavirus infection. It is rarely reported in the literature and uncommonly located on the uvula. We report a rare case of a squamous papilloma located in the uvula. Despite the small size of the tumor, the patient complaints were significant to mass-related symptoms. In addition, related literature was reviewed and results were discussed. 

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<![CDATA[Multimodal strategy for the management of sphenoid osteoradionecrosis: Preliminary results]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N349879f2-174c-4ed9-8932-0b853808b1b5

Abstract

Objective

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the sphenoid is a rare but potentially lethal complication that can occur after irradiation of nasopharyngeal and clival malignancies. The objective of this study was to describe a multimodal treatment strategy tailored to the clinical signs and to the radiological extent of the disease, and to report on its preliminary results.

Methods

Retrospective monocentric study at a tertiary skull base center. Patients treated for a sphenoid ORN from January 2014 to August 2018 were identified and charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, histologic tumor type, previous treatments of the tumor, clinical signs at presentation, radiological data, treatment, and outcomes. Sphenoid ORN was treated by a combination of medical therapy, endovascular treatment, and/or surgery. The use of each of these therapeutic modalities was based on the extent of ORN and on the presenting signs.

Results

Seven patients were included: four patients underwent endovascular treatment with occlusion of the internal carotid artery, five patients underwent surgical debridement, and covering of the exposed bone by a local flap, seven patients received antibiotics (in combination with pentoxyphilline, tocopherol, and clodronate in one case). Three patients died after progression of the ORN. The global survival rate was 57% (4/7) with a mean follow‐up of 24 months. In one case, ORN was treated successfully by medical treatment only, with a combination of antibiotics, pentoxyphilline, tocopherol, and clodronate.

Conclusion

This retrospective study describes the results of a management strategy adapted to the extent of the disease in sphenoid ORN and based on medical therapy only, or on a combination of medical therapy, interventional radiology, and/or surgery.

Level of evidence

4

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<![CDATA[Facing Facts: Facial Injuries from Stand-up Electric Scooters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfcd744a5-b504-4cd0-9a48-0503fe603d6b

Background

Stand-up electric scooters (SES) are a popular public transportation method. Numerous safety concerns have arisen since their recent introduction.

Methods

A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients presenting to the emergency departments in Indianapolis, who sustained SES-related injuries.

Results

A total of 89 patients were included in our study. The average patient age was 29 ± 12.9 years in a predominantly male cohort (65.2%). No patient was documented as wearing a helmet during the event of injury. Alcohol intoxication was noted in 14.6% of accidents. Falling constituted the leading trauma mechanism (46.1%). Injuries were most common on Saturday (24.7%) from 14h00 to 21h59 (55.1%). Injury types included: abrasions/contusions (33.7%), fractures (31.5%), lacerations (27.0%), or joint injuries (18.0%). The head and neck region (H&N) was the most frequently affected site (42.7%). Operative management under general anesthesia was necessary for 13.5% of injuries. Nonoperative management primarily included conservative orthopedic care (34.8%), pain management with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (34.8%) and/or opioids (4.5%), bedside laceration repairs (27.0%), and wound dressing (10.1%). Individuals sustaining head and neck injuries were more likely to be older (33.8 vs. 25.7 years, p=0.003), intoxicated by alcohol (29.0% vs. 3.9%, p=0.002), and requiring CT imaging (60.5% vs. 9.8%, p <0.001).

Conclusion

Although SESs provide a convenient transportation modality, unregulated use raises significant safety concerns. More data need to be collected to guide future safety regulations.

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<![CDATA[Is Salvage Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Effective for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Patients with Non-response to Corticostreoid Treatment?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4efd252b-81db-4891-9559-2a96d2df12a9

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salvage hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL); HBOT is performed after three weeks of the onset of the disease.

Methods: This retrospective clinical study included patients with unilateral idiopathic SSNHL. All patients admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of SSNHL were given standard steroid treatment within the 14 days of the onset of the SSNHL. We compared the two study groups - Group A: patients receiving steroid treatment within the first 14 days; Group B: patients receiving corticosteroid treatment within the first 14 days, but unresponsive to this treatment, and began to receive HBOT after three weeks of the onset of SSNHL for the purpose of salvage therapy.

Results: A total of 50 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 50.6 ± 14.1 years. There was not a significant difference in the degree of hearing loss between the groups based on the findings from audiometric examinations performed at the time of diagnosis. It was observed that salvage HBOT was not effective when the initial and post-treatment audiometric tests were compared.

Conclusion: According to our results, salvage HBOT was not efficient when performed three weeks after the onset of the SSNHL for patients who did not respond to corticosteroid treatment.

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<![CDATA[Risk Factors of Incidental Parathyroidecomy in Thyroid Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N68d33974-907c-4e70-9a16-0759a5447729

Background: Incidental parathyroidectomy with subsequent hypoparathyroidism and postoperative hypocalcemia is thought to be one of the common complications of thyroidectomy. Current literature reports wide discrepancy in incidence and risk factors.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of incidental parathyroidectomy in thyroid surgery.

Methods: A retrospective study included 270 patients who had thyroid surgery that was performed over two years from January 2017 to December 2018 in two tertiary care hospitals. Preoperative and postoperative records were assessed. Factors such as gender, diagnosis, type of surgery, and usage of surgical loupes during the procedure were evaluated and were compared to find the association with incidental parathyroidectomy in thyroid surgery.

Results: Incidental parathyroidectomy was noticed in 62 (23%) surgical specimens during histopathologic examination. There was no significant association between incidental parathyroidectomy and sex of patient, use of surgical loupes, pathology of thyroid disease, or neck dissection.

Conclusion: Although the risk of incidental parathyroidectomy is inevitable, careful dissection and meticulous intraoperative identification of parathyroid gland during thyroidectomy can reduce the incidence of incidental parathyroidectomy, thereby minimizing the risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia.

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