ResearchPad - otology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is postural dysfunction related to sarcopenia? A population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7695 Postural dysfunction is one of the most common community health symptoms and frequent chief complaints in hospitals. Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and muscle strength, and is the main contributor to musculoskeletal impairment in the elderly. Previous studies reported that loss of muscle mass is associated with a loss of diverse functional abilities. Meanwhile, there have been limited studies concerning postural dysfunction among older adults with sarcopenia. Although sarcopenia is primarily a disease of the elderly, its development may be associated with conditions that are not exclusively seen in older persons. Also, recent studies recognize that sarcopenia may begin to develop earlier in life. The objective of this paper was to investigate the association between the prevalence of sarcopenia and postural dysfunction in a wide age range of adults using data from a nationally representative cohort study in Korea. Korean National Health & Nutrition Exhibition Survey V (KNHANES V, 2010–2012) data from the fifth cross-sectional survey of the South Korean population performed by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare were used. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)/height (ht)2 was used to define sarcopenia, and the Modified Romberg test using a foam pad (“foam balance test”) was performed to evaluate postural dysfunction. ASM/ht2 was lower in women and significantly decreased with age in men. Subjects with sarcopenia were significantly more likely to fail the foam balance test, regardless of sex and age. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between sarcopenia and postural dysfunction (OR: 2.544, 95% CI: 1.683–3.846, p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that sarcopenia (OR: 1.747, 95% CI: 1.120–2.720, p = 0.014) and age (OR: 1.131, 95% CI: 1.105–1.158, p<0.001) are independent risk factors for postural instability. In middle age subjects, the adjusted OR for sarcopenia was 3.344 (95% CI: 1.350–8.285) (p = 0.009). The prevalence of postural dysfunction is higher in sarcopenia patients, independent of sex and age.

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<![CDATA[Mastoid cavity obliteration leads to a clinically significant improvement in health-related quality of life]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9d3c5fcc-feb8-4a92-8a99-4ca8b3dc7cca To assess the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients undergoing mastoid cavity obliteration.MethodsPatients who had undergone canal wall-down mastoidectomy for chronic otitis media with creation of a persistent mastoid cavity and underwent revision tympanomastoid surgery including mastoid cavity obliteration using autologous material were included. Audiological measurements including air conduction (AC) and bone conduction (BC) pure-tone averages (PTA) and the air–bone gap (ABG) were assessed. Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was assessed by the Zurich Chronic Middle Ear Inventory (ZCMEI-21) pre- and postoperatively.ResultsA total of 25 patients (16 females and 9 males; mean age 51.6 years, 14 right and 11 left ears) were included. Patients were reexamined after a mean follow-up period of 9.2 months (SD = 6.5) after obliteration of the mastoid cavity. Compared to the preoperative visit, patients showed a significantly reduced AC PTA at the postoperative visit (mean difference: − 4.1; SD = 10.4, p = 0.045). The mean ZCMEI-21 score changed from 31.7 (SD = 14.5) preoperatively to 17.4 (SD = 15.1) postoperatively (mean difference: − 14.3; SD = 19.1; p = 0.0002). The mean ZCMEI-21 score changes were neither correlated to the AC PTA shift (p = 0.60) nor to the ABG shift (p = 0.66).ConclusionsThis is the first study reporting a highly significant and clinically important improvement in HRQoL after mastoid cavity obliteration in a prospective setting. The improvement in HRQoL was not correlated to the hearing improvement. As a clinical implication, we provide evidence for a substantial subjective benefit of the surgical obliteration of a symptomatic mastoid cavity and, therefore, encourage this surgical procedure. ]]> <![CDATA[Role of personal resources from the perspective of experiencing tinnitus annoyance in adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N147a7677-8174-4182-94fc-2a79f1769fc2 Occurrence of tinnitus can be, for a person who experiences it, a disorder affecting the overall equilibrium of the organism. To cope with it a variety of personal resources, such as positive orientation and basic hope, are mobilized. The aim of this study was to determine whether these resources are associated with the evaluation of the impact of tinnitus on the functioning of the study participants.MethodsStudy involved 176 tinnitus sufferers, including 123 women and 53 men. The results were compiled using: Positivity Scale (P-scale) for measuring positive orientation, Basic Hope Inventory (BHI-R) for measuring basic hope, the questionnaires: Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) evaluating the impact of tinnitus on the daily functioning of the subjects, as well as a survey designed for the study, comprising questions about sociodemographic data and tinnitus history.ResultsResults of regression analysis indicated that positive orientation is the most important for the perceived tinnitus annoyance. However, no significant influence of basic hope on tinnitus annoyance was found. Among other variables taken into account in regression analysis, age and presence of additional diseases proved to be important predictors of tinnitus annoyance.ConclusionsPersonality determinants (positive orientation) are related to the perception of tinnitus annoyance. When working with a tinnitus patient, it is justified to pay attention to the existence of the positive orientation and to work on its development. Research should also be continued to search for other personal resources that affect the perceived tinnitus annoyance. ]]> <![CDATA[Comparison of microscopic and endoscopic views in cadaveric ears]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc3195a12-1ed1-41e5-b5c1-f32cb4532c68 The advent of endoscopic otosurgery provides reduced tissue destruction with theoretically improved views, yet a quantification of the difference of exposure between microscopic and endoscopic approaches has not yet been performed in human specimens. The objective of this study was to assess the difference in views of cadaveric tympanic membranes when inspected with operating microscopes or endoscopes.MethodsA circular graduated disc was inserted into eight cadaveric external ear canals to rest against the tympanic membrane. Three independent observers assessed the maximum possible observable radius of the graduated disc in each ear using a 0° endoscope and a surgical microscope in superior, inferior, posterior, and anterior directions.ResultsThe endoscope was able to view a significantly larger mean maximum visible radius than the microscope in posterior, superior, anterior, and inferior directions. This represented a mean gain in observable distance of 19.18%. There was a smaller variation in mean maximum visible radius than the microscope.ConclusionThe wider field of view in an endoscope compared to a microscope implies reduced surgical tissue damage is needed to provide sufficient operative exposure. Enhanced views of the attic were demonstrated by the endoscope, further indicating utility in cholesteatoma observation and surgery.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s00405-020-05900-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. ]]> <![CDATA[Outcomes for a clinically representative cohort of hearing-impaired adults using the Nucleus® CI532 cochlear implant]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd7afb03e-388e-4aa3-919d-d8f6ad98bc39 Hearing performance data was collected from a large heterogeneous group of subjects implanted with the Cochlear™ Nucleus® CI532 with Slim Modiolar Electrode, for the purposes of postmarket clinical follow-up. Data was analysed for factors which may predict postoperative speech recognition scores.MethodsData was collected retrospectively from five German clinics for 159 subjects from March 2017 to August 2018. Hearing thresholds and recognition scores for monosyllabic words in quiet and sentences in noise were measured preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively.ResultsThere was a mean gain of 44% points (95% CI 39–49%) at 6 months in monosyllable scores in quiet for implanted ears. Preoperative hearing thresholds in implant ears increased systematically with decreasing age; however, younger subjects had better baseline monosyllable scores with hearing aids compared with older subjects. Baseline performance alone explained 14% of the variation in postoperative scores. Residual hearing was preserved on average to within 22 dB at 250 Hz and 30 dB at 500 Hz of preoperative levels.ConclusionsIn a large and varied cohort of routinely treated hearing-impaired adults, speech recognition with the CI532 for German monosyllabic words in quiet at 6 months was equivalent to performance reported at one year or more in other published studies. Although younger subjects had poorer preoperative pure-tone thresholds, they had better preoperative word recognition scores compared with older subjects, and also had higher post implant scores. Further research is required to identify if this phenomenon is just applicable to German health system assessment and referral practices. ]]> <![CDATA[Misophonia: Phenomenology, comorbidity and demographics in a large sample]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4224db8b-e824-4eb2-b1dc-d3c3ccfee32c

Objective

Analyze a large sample with detailed clinical data of misophonia subjects in order to determine the psychiatric, somatic and psychological nature of the condition.

Methods

This observational study of 779 subjects with suspected misophonia was conducted from January 2013 to May 2017 at the outpatient-clinic of the Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC, the Netherlands. We examined DSM-IV diagnoses, results of somatic examination (general screening and hearing tests), and 17 psychological questionnaires (e.g., SCL-90-R, WHOQoL).

Results

The diagnosis of misophonia was confirmed in 575 of 779 referred subjects (74%). In the sample of misophonia subjects (mean age, 34.17 [SD = 12.22] years; 399 women [69%]), 148 (26%) subjects had comorbid traits of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, 58 (10%) mood disorders, 31 (5%) attention-deficit (hyperactivity) disorder, and 14 (3%) autism spectrum conditions. Two percent reported tinnitus and 1% hyperacusis. In a random subgroup of 109 subjects we performed audiometry, and found unilateral hearing loss in 3 of them (3%). Clinical neurological examination and additional blood test showed no abnormalities. Psychological tests revealed perfectionism (97% CPQ>25) and neuroticism (stanine 7 NEO-PI-R). Quality of life was heavily impaired and associated with misophonia severity (rs (184) = -.34 p = < .001, p = < .001).

Limitations

This was a single site study, leading to possible selection–and confirmation bias, since AMC-criteria were used.

Conclusions

This study with 575 subjects is the largest misophonia sample ever described. Based on these results we propose a set of revised criteria useful to diagnose misophonia as a psychiatric disorder.

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<![CDATA[Variants encoding a restricted carboxy-terminal domain of SLC12A2 cause hereditary hearing loss in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd1837fa5-7737-42fc-aa07-ce2092d99c03

Hereditary hearing loss is challenging to diagnose because of the heterogeneity of the causative genes. Further, some genes involved in hereditary hearing loss have yet to be identified. Using whole-exome analysis of three families with congenital, severe-to-profound hearing loss, we identified a missense variant of SLC12A2 in five affected members of one family showing a dominant inheritance mode, along with de novo splice-site and missense variants of SLC12A2 in two sporadic cases, as promising candidates associated with hearing loss. Furthermore, we detected another de novo missense variant of SLC12A2 in a sporadic case. SLC12A2 encodes Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and plays critical roles in the homeostasis of K+-enriched endolymph. Slc12a2-deficient mice have congenital, profound deafness; however, no human variant of SLC12A2 has been reported as associated with hearing loss. All identified SLC12A2 variants mapped to exon 21 or its 3’-splice site. In vitro analysis indicated that the splice-site variant generates an exon 21-skipped SLC12A2 mRNA transcript expressed at much lower levels than the exon 21-included transcript in the cochlea, suggesting a tissue-specific role for the exon 21-encoded region in the carboy-terminal domain. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that Cl influx was significantly decreased in all SLC12A2 variants studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SLC12A2 is located on the plasma membrane of several types of cells in the cochlea, including the strial marginal cells, which are critical for endolymph homeostasis. Overall, this study suggests that variants affecting exon 21 of the SLC12A2 transcript are responsible for hereditary hearing loss in humans.

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<![CDATA[Horizontal semicircular canal jam: Two new cases and possible mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfae359e4-9125-46dd-b27f-8dc173c6126c

Abstract

Introduction

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) of the horizontal semicircular canal (hSCC) can present with otoconia blocking its lumen (canalith jam), with signs and symptoms that make it difficult to distinguish from central nervous system pathology.

Objective

Here we report two cases of canalith jam affecting the hSCC and offer a theoretical mechanism based on known vestibular neurophysiology.

Methods

We use video‐oculography to document the canalith jam and show the moment the otoconia loosen.

Results

Canalith jam is a rare form of BPPV remedied with repositioning maneuvers.

Conclusion

Clinicians should consider canalith jam as a mechanism for BPPV when the nystagmus is (a) Direction fixed with fixation removed and during positional testing; (b) Velocity dependent on supine head position; (c) Converts to geotropic directional changing nystagmus.

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<![CDATA[Inner ear delivery: Challenges and opportunities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N573ebe0f-7fd8-4135-addb-f44da95ed96f

Abstract

Objectives

The treatment of inner ear disorders remains challenging due to anatomic barriers intrinsic to the bony labyrinth. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances and strategies for overcoming these barriers and to discuss promising future avenues for investigation.

Data Sources

The databases used were PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science.

Results

Although some studies aimed to improve systemic delivery using nanoparticle systems, the majority enhanced local delivery using hydrogels, nanoparticles, and microneedles. Developments in direct intracochlear delivery include intracochlear injection and intracochlear implants.

Conclusions

In the absence of a systemic drug that targets only the inner ear, the best alternative is local delivery that harnesses a combination of new strategies to overcome anatomic barriers. The combination of microneedle technology with hydrogel and nanoparticle delivery is a promising area for future investigation.

Level of Evidence

NA

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<![CDATA[Optimization of tissue sampling for Borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nff220985-8630-4822-8507-6b577103a931

Peromyscus leucopus (the white-footed mouse) is a known reservoir of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Sampling of white-footed mice allows for year-round B. burgdorferi surveillance as well as opportunities to establish the diversity of the different variants in a geographic region. This study explores the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections in the tissues of white-footed mice, investigates the correlations between B. burgdorferi infected tissues, and determines the optimum field methods for surveillance of B. burgdorferi in P. leucopus. A total of 90 mice and 573 tissues (spleen, liver, ear, tongue, tail, heart, and kidney) were screened via nested PCR for B. burgdorferi infections. A large number of infections were found in the 90 mice as well as multiple infections within individual mice. Infections in a single mouse tissue (spleen, liver, ear, tongue and tail) were predictive of concurrent infection in other tissues of the same mouse at a statistically significant level. Ear tissue accounted for 68.4% of detected infections, which increased to 78.9% of the infected mice with the inclusion of tail samples. The use of ear punch or tail snip samples (used individually or in tandem) have multiple advantages over current Lyme disease ecological studies and surveillance methodologies, including lower associated costs, minimization of delays, year-round B. burgdorferi testing opportunities, as well as longitudinal monitoring of B. burgdorferi in defined geographic regions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, personal prevention measures are currently the most effective way to reduce Lyme disease transmission to humans. Thus, the identification and monitoring of environmental reservoirs to inform at-risk populations remains a priority. The sampling methods proposed in this study provide a reasonable estimate of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice in a timely and cost-effective manner.

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<![CDATA[Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implant surgery with slim modiolar electrode]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N104ec177-97eb-4d93-94a2-795a11008ca5

Purpose

To evaluate the insertion results and hearing preservation of a novel slim modiolar electrode (SME) in patients with residual hearing.

Methods

We retrospectively collected the data from the medical files of 17 patients (18 ears) implanted with a SME. All patients had functional low frequency hearing (PTA (0.125–0.5 kHz) ≤ 80 dB HL). The insertion results were re-examined from the postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Postoperative thresholds were obtained at the time of switch-on of the sound processors (mean 43 days) and at latest follow-up (mean 582 days). The speech recognition in noise was measured with the Finnish matrix sentence test preoperatively and at follow-up.

Results

The mean insertion depth angle (IDA) was 395°. Neither scala dislocations nor tip fold over were detected. There were no total hearing losses. Functional low-frequency hearing was preserved in 15/18 (83%) ears at switch-on and in 14/17 (82%) ears at follow-up. According to HEARRING classification, 55% (10/18) had complete HP at switch-on and 41% (7/17) still at follow-up. Thirteen patients (14 ears) were initially fitted with electric–acoustic stimulation and seven patients (8 ears) continued to use it after follow-up.

Conclusions

The preliminary hearing preservation results with the SME were more favorable than reported for other perimodiolar electrodes. The results show that the array may also be feasible for electro-acoustic stimulation; it is beneficial in that it provides adequate cochlear coverage for pure electrical stimulation in the event of postoperative or progressive hearing loss.

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<![CDATA[The evaluation of a slim perimodiolar electrode: surgical technique in relation to intracochlear position and cochlear implant outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ff706da-50e4-49c8-83e4-f0e25bea7c4f

Purpose

In cochlear implantation (CI), the two factors that are determined by the surgeon with a potential significant impact on the position of the electrode within the cochlea and the potential outcome, are the surgical technique and electrode type. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the position of the slim, perimodiolar electrode (SPE), and to study the influence of the SPE position on CI outcome.

Methods

Twenty-three consecutively implanted, adult SPE candidates were included in this prospective cohort study conducted between December 2016 and April 2019. Mean age at surgery was 59.5 years. Mean preoperative residual hearing was 92.2 dB. Intra-operative fluoroscopy and high-resolution computed tomography scans were performed to evaluate electrode position after insertion using a cochleostomy (CS) approach. Follow-up was 12 months after implantation; residual hearing (6–8 weeks) and speech perception (6–8 weeks and 12 months) were evaluated in relation to the intracochlear SPE position.

Results

In most patients in whom the SPE was positioned in the scala tympani residual hearing was preserved [mean absolute increase in PTA of 4.4 dB and 77.2% relative hearing preservation (RHP%)]. Translocation into the scala vestibuli occurred in 36% of the insertions, resulting in a mean absolute increase in PTA of 17.9 dB, and a RHP% of 19.2%. Participants with a translocation had poorer speech perception scores at 12-month follow-up.

Conclusion

Given the incidence of CS-associated translocations with the SPE and the negative effect on outcome, it is advised to insert the SPE using the (extended) round window approach.

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<![CDATA[The evaluation of canal wall up cholesteatoma surgery with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne0b8f968-84c0-4802-b588-57c9ce0c5702

Purpose

The aim of the study was to investigate the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after canal wall up cholesteatoma surgery, using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI).

Methods

Data from a consecutive group of 47 adults scheduled for primary cholesteatoma surgery using canal wall up (CWU) with obliteration, from January 2005 to December 2009, were analysed. Information was extracted from a medical database, and complementary data from patient files and audiograms were collected and recorded retrospectively. The GBI questionnaire was used for the assessment of HRQoL after surgery.

Results

There was no finding of residual or recurrent cholesteatomas in the study group. Hearing was improved at 1 and 3 years postoperatively. No patient suffered a total hearing loss. The overall GBI scores showed an improved HRQoL after surgery. Twenty-nine (85%) patients benefitted from surgery, 1 (3%) had no change, and 4 (12%) expressed deterioration.

Conclusions

Cholesteatoma surgery using CWU with obliteration gives an improved HRQoL for the majority of patients. The GBI questionnaire provides complementary information to hearing and healing results after cholesteatoma surgery.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of acute vertigo diagnosis and treatment practices between otolaryngologists and non-otolaryngologists: A multicenter scenario-based survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902a2d5eed0c484b982b9

Acute vertigo is a common problem in emergency departments. However, clinical strategies of acute vertigo care vary among care providers. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in diagnosis [Dix-Hallpike test, the head impulse, nystagmus, and the test of skew (HINTS) procedure, and imaging modalities] and treatment (pharmacological treatments and the Epley maneuver) by otolaryngologists and non-otolaryngologists in emergency medicine settings. We used a multicenter case-based survey for the study. Four clinical vignettes of acute vertigo (posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere disease, and nonspecific vertigo) were used. Total 151 physicians from all study sites participated in the study. There were 84 non-otolaryngologists (48 emergency physicians and 36 internists) and 67 otolaryngologists. The multivariate analysis indicated that otolaryngologists ordered fewer CT scans (odds ratio (OR), 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07–0.53) and performed fewer HINTS procedures (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06–0.46), but used the Dix-Hallpike method more often (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.01–5.52) for diagnosis compared to non-otolaryngologists. For treatment, otolaryngologists were less likely to use the Epley method (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07–0.53) and metoclopramide (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01–0.97) and more likely to use sodium bicarbonate (OR, 20.50; 95% CI, 6.85–61.40) compared to non-otolaryngologists. We found significant differences in the acute vertigo care provided by non-otolaryngologists and otolaryngologists from a vignette-based research. To improve acute vertigo care, educational systems focusing on acute vertigo are needed.

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<![CDATA[Speech perception in noise: Impact of directional microphones in users of combined electric-acoustic stimulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977a1d5eed0c4847d31f3

Objectives

Combined electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is a well-accepted therapeutic treatment for cochlear implant (CI) users with residual hearing in the low frequencies but severe to profound hearing loss in the high frequencies. The recently introduced SONNETeas audio processor offers different microphone directionality (MD) settings and wind noise reduction (WNR) as front-end processing. The aim of this study was to compare speech perception in quiet and noise between two EAS audio processors DUET 2 and SONNETeas, to assess the impact of MD and WNR on speech perception in EAS users in the absence of wind. Furthermore, subjective rating of hearing performance was registered.

Method

Speech perception and subjective rating with SONNETeas or DUET 2 audio processor were assessed in 10 experienced EAS users. Speech perception was measured in quiet and in a diffuse noise setup (MSNF). The SONNETeas processor was tested with three MD settings omnidirectional/natural/adaptive and with different intensities of WNR. Subjective rating of auditory benefit and sound quality was rated using two questionnaires.

Results

There was no significant difference between DUET 2 and SONNETeas processor using the omnidirectional microphone in quiet and in noise. There was a significant improvement in SRT with MD settings natural (2.2 dB) and adaptive (3.6 dB). No detrimental effect of the WNR algorithm on speech perception was found in the absence of wind. Sound quality was rated as “moderate” for both audio processors.

Conclusions

The different MD settings of the SONNETeas can provide EAS users with better speech perception compared to an omnidirectional microphone. Concerning speech perception in quiet and quality of life, the performance of the DUET 2 and SONNETeas audio processors was comparable.

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<![CDATA[The Bos taurus maternal microbiome: Role in determining the progeny early-life upper respiratory tract microbiome and health]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89770cd5eed0c4847d233e

Natural transference of maternal microbes to the neonate, especially at birth via the vaginal canal, has recently been recognized in humans and cows; however, its microbial influence on calf health has not yet been documented. We compared the bacterial communities in vaginal and fecal samples from 81 pregnant dairy cows versus those in nasopharyngeal and fecal samples collected at 3, 14 and 35 days of life from their respective progeny. The microbiota of the calf upper respiratory tract (URT), regardless of calf age, was found to be highly similar to the maternal vaginal microbiota. Calf fecal microbiota clustered closely to the maternal fecal microbiota, progressing toward an adult-like state over the first 35 days when relative abundances of taxa were considered. Sixty-four, 65 and 87% of the detected OTUs were shared between cow and calf fecal microbiota at days 3, 14 and 35 respectively, whereas 73, 76 and 87% were shared between maternal vaginal microbiome and calf URT microbiota at days 3, 14 and 35, respectively. Bacteroidetes, Ruminococcus, Clostridium, and Blautia were the top four genera identified in maternal and calf fecal samples. Mannheimia, Moraxella, Bacteroides, Streptococcus and Pseudomonas were the top five genera identified in maternal vaginal and calf URT samples. Mannheimia was relatively more abundant in the vaginal microbiota of cows whose progeny were diagnosed with respiratory and middle ear disease. Our results indicate that maternal vaginal microbiota potentially influences the initial bacterial colonization of the calf URT, and that might have an important impact on the health of the calf respiratory tract and middle ear.

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<![CDATA[Effects of frontal-executive dysfunction on self-perceived hearing handicap in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897757d5eed0c4847d2a69

It is increasingly agreed upon that cognitive and audiological factors are associated with self-perceived hearing handicap in old adults. This study aimed to compare self-perceived hearing handicap among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subgroups and a cognitively normal elderly (CNE) group and determine which factors (i.e., demographic, audiometric, or neuropsychological factors) are correlated with self-perceived hearing handicap in each group. A total of 46 MCI patients and 39 hearing threshold-matched CNE subjects participated in this study, and their age ranged from 55 to 80 years. The MCI patients were reclassified into two groups: 16 with frontal-executive dysfunction (FED) and 30 without FED. All subjects underwent audiometric, neuropsychological, and self-perceived hearing handicap assessments. The Korean version of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (K-HHIE) was administered to obtain the hearing handicap scores for each subject. After controlling for age, years of education, and depression levels, we found no significant differences in the K-HHIE scores between the MCI and the CNE groups. However, after we classified the MCI patients into the MCI with FED and MCI without FED groups, the MCI with FED group scored significantly higher than did both the MCI without FED and the CNE groups. In addition, after controlling for depression levels, significant partial correlations of hearing handicap scores with frontal-executive function scores and speech-in-noise perception performance were found in the MCI groups. In the CNE group, the hearing handicap scores were related to peripheral hearing sensitivity and years of education. In summary, MCI patients with FED are more likely to experience everyday hearing handicap than those without FED and cognitively normal old adults. Although educational level and peripheral hearing function are related to self-perceived hearing handicap in cognitively normal old adults, speech-in-noise perception and frontal-executive function are mainly associated with hearing handicap in patients with MCI.

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<![CDATA[Subunits of the mechano-electrical transduction channel, Tmc1/2b, require Tmie to localize in zebrafish sensory hair cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d15d5eed0c484c81f40

Mutations in transmembrane inner ear (TMIE) cause deafness in humans; previous studies suggest involvement in the mechano-electrical transduction (MET) complex in sensory hair cells, but TMIE’s precise role is unclear. In tmie zebrafish mutants, we observed that GFP-tagged Tmc1 and Tmc2b, which are subunits of the MET channel, fail to target to the hair bundle. In contrast, overexpression of Tmie strongly enhances the targeting of Tmc1-GFP and Tmc2b-GFP to stereocilia. To identify the motifs of Tmie underlying the regulation of the Tmcs, we systematically deleted or replaced peptide segments. We then assessed localization and functional rescue of each mutated/chimeric form of Tmie in tmie mutants. We determined that the first putative helix was dispensable and identified a novel critical region of Tmie, the extracellular region and transmembrane domain, which is required for both mechanosensitivity and Tmc2b-GFP expression in bundles. Collectively, our results suggest that Tmie’s role in sensory hair cells is to target and stabilize Tmc channel subunits to the site of MET.

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<![CDATA[A comparison of the Muenster, SIOP Boston, Brock, Chang and CTCAEv4.03 ototoxicity grading scales applied to 3,799 audiograms of childhood cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1527d5eed0c48467ae60

Childhood cancer patients treated with platinums often develop hearing loss and the degree is classified according to different scales globally. Our objective was to compare concordance between five well-known ototoxicity scales used for childhood cancer patients. Audiometric test results (n = 654) were evaluated longitudinally and graded according Brock, Chang, International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) Boston, Muenster scales and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Technology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.03. Adverse effects of grade 2, 3 and 4 are considered to reflect a degree of hearing loss sufficient to interfere with day-to-day communication (> = Chang grade 2a; > = Muenster grade 2b). We term this “deleterious hearing loss”. A total number of 3,799 audiograms were evaluated. The prevalence of deleterious hearing loss according to the last available audiogram of each patient was 59.3% (388/654) according to Muenster, 48.2% (315/653) according to SIOP, 40.5% (265/652) according to Brock, 40.3% (263/652) according to Chang, and 57.5% (300/522) according to CTCAEv4.03. Overall concordance between the scales ranged from ĸ = 0.636 (Muenster vs. Chang) to ĸ = 0.975 (Brock vs. Chang). Muenster detected hearing loss the earliest in time, followed by Chang, SIOP and Brock. Generally good concordance between the scales was observed but there is still diversity in definitions of functional outcomes, such as differences in distribution levels of severity of hearing loss, and additional intermediate scales taking into account losses <40 dB as well. Regardless of the scale used, hearing function decreases over time and therefore, close monitoring of hearing function at baseline and with each cycle of platinum therapy should be conducted.

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<![CDATA[Visual habituation in deaf and hearing infants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d4bd5eed0c484c824a4

Early cognitive development relies on the sensory experiences that infants acquire as they explore their environment. Atypical experience in one sensory modality from birth may result in fundamental differences in general cognitive abilities. The primary aim of the current study was to compare visual habituation in infants with profound hearing loss, prior to receiving cochlear implants (CIs), and age-matched peers with typical hearing. Two complementary measures of cognitive function and attention maintenance were assessed: the length of time to habituate to a visual stimulus, and look-away rate during habituation. Findings revealed that deaf infants were slower to habituate to a visual stimulus and demonstrated a lower look-away rate than hearing infants. For deaf infants, habituation measures correlated with language outcomes on standardized assessments before cochlear implantation. These findings are consistent with prior evidence suggesting that habituation and look-away rates reflect efficiency of information processing and may suggest that deaf infants take longer to process visual stimuli relative to the hearing infants. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that hearing loss early in infancy influences aspects of general cognitive functioning.

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