ResearchPad - outpatients https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Managing possible serious bacterial infection of young infants where referral is not possible: Lessons from the early implementation experience in Kushtia District learning laboratory, Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7649 Serious infections account for 25% of global newborn deaths annually, most in low-resource settings where hospital-based treatment is not accessible or feasible. In Bangladesh, one-third of neonatal deaths are attributable to serious infection; in 2014, the government adopted new policy for outpatient management of danger signs indicating possible serious bacterial infections (PSBI) when referral was not possible. We conducted implementation research to understand what it takes for a district health team to implement quality outpatient PSBI management per national guidelines.MethodsPSBI management was introduced as part of the Comprehensive Newborn Care Package in 2015. The study piloted this package through government health systems with limited partner support to inform scale-up efforts. Data collection included facility register reviews for cases seen at primary level facilities; facility readiness and provider knowledge and skills assessments; household surveys capturing caregiver knowledge of newborn danger signs and care-seeking for newborn illness; and follow-up case tracking, capturing treatment adherence and outcomes. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics.ResultsOver the 15-month implementation period, 1432 young infants received care, of which 649 (45%) were classified as PSBI. Estimated coverage of care-seeking increased from 22% to 42% during the implementation period. Although facility readiness and providers’ skills increased, providers’ adherence to guidelines was not optimal. Among locally managed PSBI cases, 75% completed the oral antibiotic course and 15% received the fourth day follow-up. Care-seeking remained high among private providers (95%), predominantly village health doctors (over 80%).ConclusionsFacility readiness, including health care provider knowledge and skills were strengthened; future efforts should focus on improving provider adherence to guidelines. Social and behavior change strategies targeting families and communities should explore shifting care-seeking from private, possibly less-qualified providers. Strategies to improve private sector management of PSBI cases and improved linkages between private and public sector providers could be explored. ]]> <![CDATA[β-blockers after acute myocardial infarction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A nationwide population-based observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823d2d5eed0c4846390b1

Background

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) less often receive β-blockers after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This may influence their outcomes after AMI. This study evaluated the efficacy of β-blockers after AMI in patients with COPD, compared with non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (NDCCBs) and absence of these two kinds of treatment.

Methods and results

We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study using data retrieved from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We collected 28,097 patients with COPD who were hospitalized for AMI between January 2004 and December 2013. After hospital discharge, 24,056 patients returned to outpatient clinics within 14 days (the exposure window). Those who received both β-blockers and NDCCBs (n = 302) were excluded, leaving 23,754 patients for analysis. Patients were classified into the β-blocker group (n = 10,638, 44.8%), the NDCCB group, (n = 1,747, 7.4%) and the control group (n = 11,369, 47.9%) based on their outpatient prescription within the exposure window. The β-blockers group of patients had lower overall mortality risks (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.91 [0.83–0.99] versus the NDCCB group; 0.88 [0.84–0.93] versus the control group), but the risk of major adverse cardiac events within 1 year was not statistically different. β-blockers decreased risks of re-hospitalization for COPD and other respiratory diseases by 12–32%.

Conclusions

The use of β-blockers after AMI was associated with a reduced mortality risk in patients with COPD. β-blockers did not increase the risk of COPD exacerbations.

]]>
<![CDATA[What can we learn by examining variations in the use of urine culture in the management of acute cystitis? A retrospective cohort study with linked administrative data in British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2011]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1954d5eed0c484b4d403

Introduction

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common community-based bacterial infections. Empiric antibiotic recommendations are guided by local resistance rates. Previous research suggests that cultures are overused for uncomplicated cystitis, but practice patterns have not been described in detail. Variations in culturing have implications for the interpretation of antibiotic resistance rates.

Methods

We used a retrospective cohort study to analyze variations in urine culturing among physicians, controlling for patient and physician characteristics. We identified all outpatient physician visits among adults and children for cystitis in British Columbia between 2005 and 2011 using administrative data and linked these to laboratory data on urine cultures. Using hierarchical generalized linear mixed models we explored variations in urine culture submissions for cystitis (ICD code 595) and the associations with patient and physician characteristics, stratified by patient sex.

Results

Urine cultures were associated with 16% of visits for cystitis among females and 9% among males, and 59% of visits overall were associated with antibiotic treatment. Older patients, patients with a recent antibiotic prescription, and long term care residents were significantly less likely to have a culture associated with a cystitis visit, whether male or female. Female physicians and physicians with 16–35 years’ experience were more likely to culture, while international medical graduates were less likely–particularly for female visits. Notably, there was substantial unexplained variation among physicians after controlling for physician characteristics: we found a 24-fold variation in the odds of culturing a female UTI between physicians who were otherwise similar.

Conclusion

Individual physicians show substantial variation in their propensity to submit cultures for cystitis visits. Reducing such variation and encouraging appropriate levels of culturing would support effective antibiotic use.

]]>
<![CDATA[Accuracy of the SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo for rapid point-of-care diagnosis of dengue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897732d5eed0c4847d268d

Background

Rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) are easy to carry out, provide fast results, and could potentially guide medical treatment decisions. We investigated the performance of a commercially available RDT, which simultaneously detects the non-structural 1 (NS1) dengue virus (DENV) antigen, and IgM and IgG DENV antibodies, using representative serum samples from individuals in a dengue endemic area in Salvador, Brazil.

Methodology/Principal findings

We evaluated the accuracy of the SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo RDT (Abbott, Santa Clara, USA; former Alere Inc, Waltham, USA) in a random collection of sera. Samples included acute-phase sera from 246 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 108 non-dengue febrile patients enrolled in a surveillance study for dengue detection, 73 healthy controls living in the same surveillance community, and 73 blood donors. RDT accuracy was blindly assessed based on the combined results for the NS1 and the IgM test components. The RDT sensitivity was 46.8% (38.6% for the NS1 component and 13.8% for the IgM component). Sensitivity was greater for samples obtained from patients with secondary DENV infections (49.8%) compared to primary infections (31.1%) (P: 0.02) and was also influenced by the result in the confirmatory dengue diagnostic test, ranging from 39.7% for samples of cases confirmed by IgM-ELISA seroconversion between paired samples to 90.4% for samples of cases confirmed by a positive NS1-ELISA. The RDT specificity was 94.4% for non-dengue febrile patients, 87.7% for the community healthy controls, and 95.9% for the blood donors.

Conclusions/Significance

The SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo RDT showed good specificities, but low sensitivity, suggesting that it may be more useful to rule in than to rule out a dengue diagnosis in dengue endemic regions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Hospitalisations and outpatient visits for undifferentiated fever attributable to scrub typhus in rural South India: Retrospective cohort and nested case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95f2d5eed0c48473500b

Background

The burden of scrub typhus in endemic areas is poorly understood. This study aimed at estimating the proportion of hospitalisations and outpatient visits for undifferentiated fever in the community that may be attributable to scrub typhus.

Methodology and principal findings

The study was a retrospective cohort with a nested case-control study conducted in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. We conducted house-to-house screening in 48 villages (42965 people, 11964 households) to identify hospitalised or outpatient cases due to undifferentiated fever during the preceding scrub typhus season. We used scrub typhus IgG to determine past infection. We calculated adjusted odds ratios for the association between IgG positivity and case status. Odds ratios were used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF) indicating the proportion of hospitalised and outpatient fever cases attributable to scrub typhus. We identified 58 cases of hospitalisation and 236 outpatient treatments. 562 people were enrolled as control group to estimate the background IgG sero-prevalence. IgG prevalence was 20.3% in controls, 26.3% in outpatient cases and 43.1% in hospitalised cases. The PAFs suggested that 29.5% of hospitalisations and 6.1% of outpatient cases may have been due to scrub typhus. In villages with a high IgG prevalence (defined as ≥15% among controls), the corresponding PAFs were 43.4% for hospitalisations and 5.6% for outpatients. The estimated annual incidence of scrub typhus was 0.8/1000 people (0.3/1000 in low, and 1.3/1000 in high prevalence villages). Evidence for recall error suggested that the true incidences may be about twice as high as these figures.

Conclusions

The study suggests scrub typhus as an important cause for febrile hospitalisations in the community. The results confirm the adequacy of empirical treatment for scrub typhus in hospitalised cases with undifferentiated fever. Since scrub typhus may be rare among stable outpatients, the use of empirical treatment remains doubtful in these.

]]>
<![CDATA[A decade of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A single center experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a1d5eed0c4843cff40

Background

The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) resulted in the recommended use of clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for suspected S. aureus infections. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance to methicillin, clindamycin, and TMP-SMX in S. aureus isolates during a 10-year period.

Methods

Retrospective review of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of all S. aureus isolates in the outpatient and inpatient settings at Nationwide Children’s Hospital from 1/1/2005 to 12/31/2014. Duplicate isolates from the same site and year and those obtained for MRSA surveillance or from patients with cystic fibrosis were excluded.

Results

Of the 57,788 S. aureus isolates from 2005–2014, 40,795 (71%) were included. In the outpatient setting, methicillin resistance decreased from 54% to 44% (p<0.001) while among inpatient isolates, no significant change was observed. From 2009–2014, resistance to clindamycin among outpatient isolates increased from 16% to 17% (p = 0.002) but no significant trend was observed among inpatient isolates (18% to 22%). Similarly, TMP-SMX resistance increased in outpatient S. aureus isolates from 2005–2014 (0.9% to 4%, p<0.001) but not among inpatient isolates. Among both inpatient and outpatient isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) exhibited higher resistance to both clindamycin and TMP-SMX than MRSA. In addition, resistance to methicillin, clindamycin and TMP-SMX varied widely according to the site of specimen collection.

Conclusion

In a decade where >40,000 S. aureus isolates were identified at a large pediatric hospital, substantial changes in methicillin, clindamycin, and TMP-SMX resistance occurred. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance of the local antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus in order to guide empiric antimicrobial therapy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Changes in the healthcare utilization after establishment of emergency centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon: A before and after cross-sectional survey analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730d4d5eed0c484f381d4

In effort to address the shortage of emergency medical care in Cameroon, the Yaoundé Emergency Center (CURY) was established in June, 2015 in Yaoundé, Cameroon. To evaluate its impact on the communities of Yaoundé, we assessed the changes in utilizations of emergency medical care since the establishment of the CURY. In 2014 the first survey was conducted on randomly selected 619 households (3,201 individuals) living in six health districts of Yaoundé. In 2017 the second quantitative survey was conducted on 622 households (3,472 individuals) using the same survey methods as the first survey. In both surveys, data on demographic information, socioeconomic status, and utilization of healthcare, including emergency care in the past year were collected on every member of the households via face-to-face interview. Data on two surveys were compared. Participants in the both surveys had similar age and gender distribution with mean age of 21–22 and 46% being male. In 2014 survey, healthcare utilization rates for emergency unit, outpatient, and hospitalization were 4.8%, 36.7%, and 10.0%, respectively. In 2017 survey, corresponding rates were 5.8%, 32.5%, and 9.2%%, respectively. The increase in the utilization of emergency unit between two surveys showed a marginal statistical significance (p = 0.08), while outpatient utilization showed statistically significant decrease from 2014 to 2017 survey (from 36.7% to 32.5%; p <0.001). After the establishment of a dedicated emergency medical center in Yaoundé, Cameroon, the utilization of emergency care was increased in the Yaoundé community. Further studies are warranted to examine the direct effect of the establishment of the CURY on healthcare utilization in Yaoundé.

]]>
<![CDATA[Identifying Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism cases using routinely collected healthcare data: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca30bd5eed0c48441f045

Background

Population-based, prospective studies can provide important insights into Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Participant follow-up in such studies is often achieved through linkage to routinely collected healthcare datasets. We systematically reviewed the published literature on the accuracy of these datasets for this purpose.

Methods

We searched four electronic databases for published studies that compared PD and parkinsonism cases identified using routinely collected data to a reference standard. We extracted study characteristics and two accuracy measures: positive predictive value (PPV) and/or sensitivity.

Results

We identified 18 articles, resulting in 27 measures of PPV and 14 of sensitivity. For PD, PPV ranged from 56–90% in hospital datasets, 53–87% in prescription datasets, 81–90% in primary care datasets and was 67% in mortality datasets. Combining diagnostic and medication codes increased PPV. For parkinsonism, PPV ranged from 36–88% in hospital datasets, 40–74% in prescription datasets, and was 94% in mortality datasets. Sensitivity ranged from 15–73% in single datasets for PD and 43–63% in single datasets for parkinsonism.

Conclusions

In many settings, routinely collected datasets generate good PPVs and reasonable sensitivities for identifying PD and parkinsonism cases. However, given the wide range of identified accuracy estimates, we recommend cohorts conduct their own context-specific validation studies if existing evidence is lacking. Further research is warranted to investigate primary care and medication datasets, and to develop algorithms that balance a high PPV with acceptable sensitivity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of direct costs associated with alveolar and cystic echinococcosis in Austria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2d2d5eed0c48441eb7a

Background

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally occurring zoonosis, whereas alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is endemic only in certain parts of the Northern Hemisphere. The socioeconomic impact of human echinococcosis has been shown to be considerable in highly endemic regions. However, detailed data on direct healthcare-related costs associated with CE and AE are scarce for high income countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate direct costs of human disease caused by CE and AE in Austria.

Methods

Clinical data from a registry maintained at a national reference center for echinococcosis at the Medical University of Vienna were obtained for the years 2012–2014. These data were used in conjunction with epidemiological data from Austria’s national disease reporting system and diagnostic reference laboratory for echinococcosis to assess nationwide costs attributable to CE and AE.

Results

In Austria, total modelled direct costs were 486,598€ (95%CI 341,825€ – 631,372€) per year for CE, and 683,824€ (95%CI 469,161€ - 898,486€) for AE. Median costs per patient with AE from diagnosis until the end of a 10-year follow-up period were 30,832€ (25th– 75th percentile: 23,197€ - 31,220€) and 62,777€ (25th– 75th percentile: 60,806€ - 67,867€) for inoperable and operable patients, respectively. Median costs per patients with CE from diagnosis until end of follow-up after 10 years were 16,253€ (25th– 75th percentile: 8,555€ - 24,832€) and 1,786€ (25th– 75th percentile: 736€ - 2,146€) for patients with active and inactive cyst stages, respectively. The first year after inclusion was the most cost-intense year in the observed period, with hospitalizations and albendazole therapy the main contributors to direct costs.

Conclusions

This study provides detailed information on direct healthcare-related costs associated with CE and AE in Austria, which may reflect trends for other high-income countries. Surgery and albendazole therapy, due to surprisingly high drug prices, were identified as important cost-drivers. These data will be important for cost-effectiveness analyses of possible prevention programs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Long-term outcomes of an educational intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: Follow-up of a cluster-randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63396dd5eed0c484ae66e1

Background

Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing causes widespread serious health problems. To reduce prescribing of antibiotics in Chinese primary care to children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), we developed an intervention comprising clinical guidelines, monthly prescribing review meetings, doctor–patient communication skills training, and education materials for caregivers. We previously evaluated our intervention using an unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) in 25 primary care facilities across two rural counties. When our trial ended at the 6-month follow-up period, we found that the intervention had reduced antibiotic prescribing for childhood URTIs by 29 percentage points (pp) (95% CI −42 to −16).

Methods and findings

In this long-term follow-up study, we collected our trial outcomes from the one county (14 facilities and 1:1 cluster randomisation ratio) that had electronic records available 12 months after the trial ended, at the 18-month follow-up period. Our primary outcome was the antibiotic prescription rate (APR)—the percentage of outpatient prescriptions containing any antibiotic(s) for children aged 2 to 14 years who had a primary diagnosis of a URTI and had no other illness requiring antibiotics. We also conducted 15 in-depth interviews to understand how interventions were sustained.

In intervention facilities, the APR was 84% (1,171 out of 1,400) at baseline, 37% (515 out of 1,380) at 6 months, and 54% (2,748 out of 5,084) at 18 months, and in control facilities, it was 76% (1,063 out of 1,400), 77% (1,084 out of 1,400), and 75% (2,772 out of 3,685), respectively. After adjusting for patient and prescribing doctor covariates, compared to the baseline intervention-control difference, the difference at 6 months represented a 6-month intervention-arm reduction in the APR of −49 pp (95% CI −63 to −35; P < 0.0001), and compared to the baseline difference, the difference at 18 months represented an 18-month intervention-arm reduction in the APR of −36 pp (95% CI −55 to −17; P < 0.0001). Compared to the 6-month intervention-control difference, the difference at 18 months represented no change in the APR: 13 pp (95% CI −7 to 33; P = 0.21). Factors reported to sustain reductions in antibiotic prescribing included doctors’ improved knowledge and communication skills and focused prescription review meetings, whereas lack of supervision and monitoring may be associated with relapse. Key limitations were not including all clusters from the trial and not collecting returned visits or sepsis cases.

Conclusions

Our intervention was associated with sustained and substantial reductions in antibiotic prescribing at the end of the intervention period and 12 months later. Our intervention may be adapted to similar resource-poor settings.

Trial registration

ISRCTN registry ISRCTN14340536.

]]>
<![CDATA[The burden of hypertension in the emergency department and linkage to care: A prospective cohort study in Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644917d5eed0c484c2f5de

Objectives

Globally, hypertension affects one billion people and disproportionately burdens low-and middle-income countries. Despite the high disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa, optimal care models for diagnosing and treating hypertension have not been established. Emergency departments (EDs) are frequently the first biomedical healthcare contact for many people in the region. ED encounters may offer a unique opportunity for identifying high risk patients and linking them to care.

Methods

Between July 2017 and March 2018, we conducted a prospective cohort study among patients presenting to a tertiary care ED in northern Tanzania. We recruited adult patients with a triage blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg in order to screen for hypertension. We explored knowledge, attitudes and practices for hypertension using a questionnaire, and assessed factors associated with successful follow-up. Hypertension was defined as a single blood pressure measurement ≥ 160/100 mmHg or a three-time average of ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as a three-time average measurement of ≥ 160/100 mmHg. Successful follow-up was defined as seeing an outpatient provider within one month of the ED visit.

Results

We enrolled 598 adults (mean age 59.6 years), of whom 539 (90.1%) completed the study. The majority (78.6%) of participants were aware of having hypertension. Many (223; 37.2%) had uncontrolled hypertension. Overall, only 236 (43.8%) of participants successfully followed-up within one month. Successful follow-up was associated with a greater understanding that hypertension requires lifelong treatment (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.03,1.21) and inversely associated with greater anxiety about the future (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.64,0.99).

Conclusion

In a northern Tanzanian tertiary care ED, the burden of hypertension is high, with few patients receiving optimal outpatient care follow-up. Multi-disciplinary strategies are needed to improve linkage to care for high-risk patients from ED settings.

]]>
<![CDATA[Real-world utilization patterns of systemic immunosuppressants among US adult patients with atopic dermatitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644930d5eed0c484c2f855

At the time of this study, prior to the introduction of biologics in the US, systemic therapies used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis included off-label immunosuppressants and corticosteroids. Immunosuppressant therapy is associated with a substantial risk of side-effects, therefore needing clinical monitoring, and is likely to incur a significant healthcare burden for patients and payers. This retrospective cohort study based on claims data measured immunosuppressant use and its associated burden among US adult patients with atopic dermatitis covered under commercial or Medicare Supplemental insurance from January 01, 2010, to September 30, 2015. Overall, based on age, gender, region, and index year, 4201 control patients with atopic dermatitis without immunosuppressant use were matched with 4204 patients treated with immunosuppressants. The majority (68.5%) of patients using immunosuppressants were non-persistent with immunosuppressant treatment during the 12-month follow-up period after a mean (standard deviation) of 88.1 (70.7) days of immunosuppressant use; 72.3% required systemic steroid rescue treatment. Immunosuppressant users had higher incidence of immunosuppressant-related clinical events than controls; in addition, a larger proportion of immunosuppressant users versus controls developed cancer (0.28% vs 0.14%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Healthcare utilization and costs associated with clinical events and monitoring were also higher for immunosuppressant users compared with controls (total costs, $9516 vs $1630, respectively; P < 0.0001; monitoring costs, $363 vs $54, respectively; P < 0.0001). This study revealed that patients treated with systemic immunosuppressants often require systemic steroids or changes to treatment. The increase in immunosuppressant-related clinical events, including the need for increased monitoring with immunosuppressant treatment, compared with controls demonstrates a substantial treatment burden and highlights the unmet need for more effective long-term therapies for atopic dermatitis with improved safety profiles and reduced monitoring requirements.

]]>
<![CDATA[Can diabetes patients seeking a second hospital get better care? Results from nested case–control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c495d5eed0c4845e8986

This study investigates the effects of the number of medical institutions visited on risk of death. This study conducted a nested case-control design using the National Health Insurance Service–Senior database from 2002 to 2013. Cases were defined as those with death among outpatients who had first diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (E10-E14) after entry into the base cohort and controls were selected by incidence density sampling and matched to cases based on age, and sex. Our main results were presented by conditional logistic regression for nested case-controls design. Of total 55,558 final study samples, there were 9,313 (16.8%) cases and 46,245 (83.2%) controls. With an increase by one point in the number of hospitals per medical utilization, risk of death significantly increased by 4.1% (odds ratio (OR): 1.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.039–1.043). In both medical utilization and number of hospitals, those with high medical utilization (OR: 1.065, 95% CI: 1.059–1.070) and number of hospitals (OR: 1.049, 95% CI: 1.041–1.058) for risk of death were significantly higher than those with low medical utilization (OR: 1.040, 95% CI: 1.037–1.043) and number of hospitals (OR: 1.029, 95% CI: 1.027–1.032), respectively. The number of medical institution visited was significantly associated with risk of death. Therefore, diabetics should be warned about the potential of risk of death incurred from excessive access to medical utilizations.

]]>
<![CDATA[Economic burden of dengue in Indonesia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f786d5eed0c484386302

Background

Dengue is associated with significant economic expenditure and it is estimated that the Asia Pacific region accounts for >50% of the global cost. Indonesia has one of the world’s highest dengue burdens; Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the primary and secondary vectors. In the absence of local data on disease cost, this study estimated the annual economic burden during 2015 of both hospitalized and ambulatory dengue cases in Indonesia.

Methods

Total 2015 dengue costs were calculated using both prospective and retrospective methods using data from public and private hospitals and health centres in three provinces: Yogyakarta, Bali and Jakarta. Direct costs were extracted from billing systems and claims; a patient survey captured indirect and out-of-pocket costs at discharge and 2 weeks later. Adjustments across sites based on similar clinical practices and healthcare landscapes were performed to fill gaps in cost estimates. The national burden of dengue was extrapolated from provincial data using data from the three sites and applying an empirically-derived epidemiological expansion factor.

Results

Total direct and indirect costs per dengue case assessed at Yogyakarta, Bali and Jakarta were US$791, US$1,241 and US$1,250, respectively. Total 2015 economic burden of dengue in Indonesia was estimated at US$381.15 million which comprised US$355.2 million for hospitalized and US$26.2 million for ambulatory care cases.

Conclusion

Dengue imposes a substantial economic burden for Indonesian public payers and society. Complemented with an appropriate weighting method and by accounting for local specificities and practices, these data may support national level public health decision making for prevention/control of dengue in public health priority lists.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of psychometric properties of needs assessment tools in cancer patients: A systematic literature review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f5bd5eed0c484d7473c

Background

Although a wide range of needs assessment tools for cancer patients have been developed, no standardized and commonly accepted instruments were recommended to use in clinical care. This systematic review was conducted to assess the quality of psychometric properties of needs assessment tools among cancer patients in order to help oncology healthcare professionals select the most appropriate needs assessment tools in routine clinical practice.

Methods

Searches were conducted in the electronic databases of PUBMED from 1966, CINAHL from 1960, EMBASE from 1980 and PsychINFO from 1967 as well as additional sources. The quality of psychometric properties of the recruited needs assessment tools was evaluated using the agreed quality criteria for measurement properties of health status questionnaires.

Results

Thirty-seven studies which evaluated the psychometric properties of 20 needs assessment tools were identified. Internal consistency was tested in 32 studies with 9 studies indicating negative rating and 4 studies intermediate rating. Less than half of the studies (13 studies) assessed test-retest reliability, and only 4 studies reported positive rating. Content validity was the most tested psychometric property appraised in 33 studies and indicated positive rating in all the evaluated studies. Structural validity was adequately evaluated in 28 studies with 23 studies reporting intermediate rating. More than half of the studies (29 studies) tested hypothesis testing and 13 studies were rated positive. Cross-cultural validity results were obtained in 13 studies with 7 studies showing negative rating. No data was available on measurement error and criterion validity. Only one study appraised responsiveness and showed intermediate rating. The Supportive Care Needs Survey-Short Form (SCNS-SF) is the most widely used instrument for needs assessment in cancer patients. It had strong evidence for internal consistency, content validity, structural validity and hypothesis testing, and moderate evidence for reliability and cross-cultural validity. Cancer Survivors’ Unmet Needs Measure (CaSUN) reported strong or moderate evidence for internal consistency, reliability, content and structural validity, and hypothesis testing. Furthermore, Supportive Cancer Care Needs Assessment Tool for Indigenous People (SCNAT-IP) had strong evidence for content validity, and moderate evidence for internal consistency, structural validity and hypothesis testing.

Conclusions

Despite several needs assessment tools exist to assess care needs in cancer patients, further improvement of already existing and promising instruments is recommended.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are expensive and associated with prolonged hospitalisation: UK Retrospective Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667b4d5eed0c4841a612f

Background

There are limited reports outlining the financial cost of treating cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection outside the United States. This study aimed to determine the average treatment cost of CIED infection in a large UK tertiary referral centre and compared costs of different treatment pathways that are recognised in the management of CIED infection (early versus delayed re-implantation).

Methods

We retrospectively analysed cost and length of stay (LOS) data for consecutive patients undergoing infected CIED extraction with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D [with defibrillator], CRT-P [with pacemaker]), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and permanent pacemakers (PPMs).

Results

Between January 2013 and March 2015, complete data was available for 84 patients (18 [21.4%] CRT-D, 24 [28.6%] ICDs and 42 [50.0%] PPMs). When all cases were considered the cost of infection ranged from £5,139 (PPM) to £24,318 (CRT-D). Considering different treatment strategies; 41 (48.8%) underwent CIED extraction and re-implantation during the same admission (early re-implant strategy (ER). 43 (51.2%) underwent extraction, but were then discharged home to be re-admitted for day-case re-implantation (delayed re-implant strategy (DR)). Median LOS was significantly shorter in DR compared to ER (5.0 vs. 18.0 days, p<0.001). The total cost of CIED infection episode was similar for both treatment strategies (median £14,241.48 vs. £14,741.70 including wearable defibrillator (Lifevest) and outpatient antibiotics costs, ER vs. DR; p = 0.491).

Conclusion

CIED infections are expensive and associated with significant health-economic burden. When all device types were considered, a DR strategy is associated with reduced LOS without an increased cost penalty.

]]>
<![CDATA[The incremental economic burden of heart failure: A population-based investigation from South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c269772d5eed0c48470f8d6

Background

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) and its economic burden are increasing with age of the South Korean population. This study aimed to assess the economic impact of HF from the societal perspective.

Methods

A prevalence-based, incremental cost-of-patient study was performed to estimate the cost ratio between patients with HF and those without HF based on the claims database of the national health insurance in South Korea. We defined adult HF patients as those aged ≥19 years who had at least one insurance claim record with a primary or secondary diagnosis of HF. Age- and gender-matched controls were defined using a 1:4 greedy matching method. Costs were estimated by including medical costs for insurance-covered and non-covered services, transportation costs, caregiver’s cost, and time costs of patients. The ratio of costs between patients with HF and those without HF was adjusted for age, gender, and type of universal health security program in the multivariate regression model.

Results

The average annual per-capita cost was estimated to be $6,601 for patients with HF (n = 14,252), which is about 3.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.31–3.46) times higher than that for patients without HF (n = 1,116,882) and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.59–1.70) times higher than that for the age- and gender-matched patients without HF (n = 57,008). In the multivariate regression model, the annual per-capita total costs were 1.98-fold (95% CI: 1.94–2.02) statistically higher for patients with HF than for patients without HF after adjustment for age, gender, and type of universal health security program.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates a significant incremental burden of HF. Given that the prevalence of HF is expected to increase with an increase in the aging population, the national economic burden is expected to be substantial in the future. Thus, greater emphasis on the prevention and treatment of HF is warranted.

]]>
<![CDATA[HIV screening among patients seeking care at Xuanwu Hospital: A cross-sectional study in Beijing, China, 2011–2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2151c6d5eed0c4843fbdc5

Objectives

One-third of people living with HIV in China are still unaware of their status, so we sought to better understand HIV testing in the general hospital setting in China.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted using the electronic medical records of all patients who attended Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2016. HIV screening and detection rates and characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV were assessed.

Results

Overall, 235,961 patients were screened, for a screening rate of 1.4%. Although most were outpatients (98.4%), screening rate was higher among inpatients (70.0% versus 0.4%), and highest in internal medicine (36.1%) and surgery (33.3%) departments. A total of 140 patients were diagnosed with HIV, for a detection rate of 5.93 per 10,000. Detection rates were highest among outpatients (9.34 per 10,000), and patients attending the dermatology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) department (153.85 per 10,000). Most diagnoses were made among males (91.4%), aged 20–39 (67.1%), who reported becoming infected through homosexual contact (70.0%).

Conclusions

HIV screening in China’s general hospitals needs to be improved. More focus should be placed on screening outpatients, especially in the dermatology and STI department, and young men.

]]>
<![CDATA[Factors associated with healthcare utilization among community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed796d5eed0c484f14463

Objective

The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with the health status of older Chinese people living in the community, in order to inform strategies to expand access to healthcare.

Methods

Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied; 2000 older people participated in this study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in Shanghai between June and August, 2011. Descriptive analysis was used to examine the respondents’ characteristics. Based on Andersen’s healthcare utilization model, a chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression were performed to examine the influences of predisposing, enabling, need, and contextual factors on healthcare utilization.

Results

We found that 44.5% of the older people in the sample had good self-reported health status, while 12.8% were poor, 14.5% had visited hospitals or clinics as outpatients in the previous two weeks, and 16.5% had been hospitalized in the previous year. Logistic regression analysis revealed that outpatient health services were more likely to be used by women and those whose income was from friends or social relief, who had poor to good self-reported health status, who were experiencing declining health, who engaged in volunteer activities, and who had chronic diseases. Meanwhile, hospitalization was more likely among those in the older age groups, those with pension income, living in outer suburbs, with poor self-reported health status, experiencing difficulty with activities of daily living and outdoor activities, or having a chronic disease.

Conclusions

The results showed the impact of economic status, health status, demographic and social characteristics, and other factors on the health service utilization of elderly people living in the community in Shanghai. Need variables were the strongest predictors of health service use, although contextual factors also contributed.

]]>
<![CDATA[A cross-sectional study of national outpatient gastric acid suppressant prescribing in the United States between 2009 and 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae47bd5eed0c484589cbc

Purpose

Gastric acid suppressants are commonly used in the United States, and while generally well-tolerated, long-term use has been associated with infection, bone fractures, and nutrient malabsorption. The purpose of this study was to describe national trends in gastric acid suppressant use over a 7-year period.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2009 to 2015. Gastric acid suppressant use was defined as any outpatient visit with a documented prescription for a proton pump inhibitor or histamine-2 receptor antagonist documented during the outpatient visit. Sample data weights were used to extrapolate to national estimates. Use was calculated as the number of prescriptions per total outpatient visits per year. Appropriateness of prescribing was assessed using FDA-approved indications listed in each visit.

Results

These data represent 6.8 billion patient outpatient visits between 2009 and 2015, of which nearly 600 million (8.8%) had documented gastric acid suppressant use. The median (IQR) age of gastric acid suppressant users and non-gastric acid suppressant users was 62 (50–73) and 49 (25–65), respectively. Gastric acid suppressant use decreased from 9.0% in 2009 to 7.7% in 2012, and then increased to 9.7% in 2015. Proton pump inhibitor use was slightly higher in the Midwest (8.3%). Only 15.8% of gastric acid suppressant users had a documented indication.

Conclusions

Proton pump inhibitor use increased after 2012, and the majority of gastric acid suppressant users did not have a documented indication. Judicious gastric acid suppressant prescribing needs to be exercised, especially in the context of new safety data regarding long-term proton pump inhibitor use.

]]>