ResearchPad - ovarian-cancer https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Prevalence of endosalpingiosis and other benign gynecologic lesions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14492 Endosalpingiosis, traditionally regarded as an incidental pathological finding, was recently reported to have an association with gynecologic malignancies. To determine the prevalence of endosalpingiosis, we evaluated all benign appearing adnexal lesions using the Sectioning and Extensively Examining-Fimbria (SEE-Fim) protocol, and queried the pathology database for the presence of endosalpingiosis, gynecologic malignancy, endometriosis, Walthard nests, and paratubal cysts. Using the SEE-Fim protocol, the prevalence of endosalpingiosis, endometriosis, Walthard nests, and paratubal cysts were 22%, 45%, 33%, and 42% respectively, substantially higher than previously reported. All lesions were observed to increase with age except endometriosis which increased until menopause then decreased dramatically. Among specimens including ovarian tissue, the prevalence of implantation of at least one lesion type was ubiquitous in patients age 51 and older (93%). The clinical significance of endosalpingiosis should be a continued area of research with larger trials assessing prevalence, factors affecting incidence, and association with malignancy. Our findings contribute to elucidating the origin of ectopic lesions and gynecologic disease risk.

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<![CDATA[Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of caveolin-1 and ATG4C expression in the epithelial ovarian cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14473 Altered expression of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and autophagy marker ATG4C is observed in various types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains largely unknown. The present study aims to explore the clinicopathological value and prognostic significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in EOC.MethodsThe expression pattern and prognostic value of CAV1 and ATG4C mRNA in EOC were analyzed using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (N = 373). In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to detect and assay the expression of CAV1 and ATG4C proteins in tissue microarray of EOC.ResultsBased on TCGA data, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with low CAV1 mRNA (p = 0.021) and high ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.018) expression had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of CAV1 (p = 0.023) and ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.040) were independent prognostic factors for OS in EOC. In addition, the Concordance Index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.660. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression levels of stromal CAV1 and cancerous ATG4C proteins, and high expression of both CAV1 and ATG4C protein in the stroma were found to significantly correlate with the histologic subtypes of EOC, especially with serous subtype.ConclusionsDecreased expression of CAV1 mRNA and increased expression of ATG4C mRNA in EOC can predict poor overall survival. The expression levels of CAV1 protein in stromal cells and ATG4C protein in cancer cells are significantly associated with histologic subtypes of EOC. These findings suggest that CAV1 and ATG4C serve as useful prognostic biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets in EOC. ]]> <![CDATA[Integrated structural variation and point mutation signatures in cancer genomes using correlated topic models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99020ad5eed0c484b97533

Mutation signatures in cancer genomes reflect endogenous and exogenous mutational processes, offering insights into tumour etiology, features for prognostic and biologic stratification and vulnerabilities to be exploited therapeutically. We present a novel machine learning formalism for improved signature inference, based on multi-modal correlated topic models (MMCTM) which can at once infer signatures from both single nucleotide and structural variation counts derived from cancer genome sequencing data. We exemplify the utility of our approach on two hormone driven, DNA repair deficient cancers: breast and ovary (n = 755 samples total). We show how introducing correlated structure both within and between modes of mutation can increase accuracy of signature discovery, particularly in the context of sparse data. Our study emphasizes the importance of integrating multiple mutation modes for signature discovery and patient stratification, and provides a statistical modeling framework to incorporate additional features of interest for future studies.

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<![CDATA[Uterine and Tubal Lavage for Earlier Cancer Detection Using an Innovative Catheter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c94e6d1d5eed0c48465336d

Objectives

Poor survival of high-grade serous pelvic cancer is caused by a lack of effective screening measures. The detection of exfoliated cells from high-grade serous pelvic cancer, or precursor lesions, is a promising concept for earlier diagnosis. However, collecting those cells in the most efficient way while fulfilling all requirements for a screening approach is a challenge. We introduce a new catheter for uterine and tubal lavage (UtL) and the clinical evaluation of its performance.

Methods/Materials

In study I, the clinical feasibility of the UtL using the new catheter was examined in 93 patients admitted for gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. In study II, the safety of the UtL procedure was assessed. The pain during and after the UtL performed under local anesthesia was rated on a visual analog scale by 22 healthy women.

Results

In study I, the UtL was carried out successfully in 92 (98.9%) of 93 cases by 16 different gynecologists. It was rated as easy to perform in 84.8% of patients but as rather difficult in cancer patients (odds ratio, 5.559; 95% confidence interval, 1.434–21.546; P = 0.007). For benign conditions, dilatation before UtL was associated with menopause status (odds ratio, 4.929; 95% confidence interval, 1.439–16.884; P = 0.016). In study II, the pain during UtL was rated with a median visual analog scale score of 1.6. During a period of 4 weeks after UtL, none of the participants had to use medication or developed symptoms requiring medical attention. The UtL took 6.5 minutes on average. The amount of extracted DNA was above the lower limit for a sensitive, deep-sequencing mutation analysis in all cases.

Conclusions

Our studies demonstrate that the UtL, using the new catheter, is a safe, reliable, and well-tolerated procedure, which does not require elaborate training. Therefore, UtL fulfils all prerequisites to be used in a potential screening setting.

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<![CDATA[Synthetic lethality guiding selection of drug combinations in ovarian cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6d4d5eed0c484ef3f0b

Background

Synthetic lethality describes a relationship between two genes where single loss of either gene does not trigger significant impact on cell viability, but simultaneous loss of both gene functions results in lethality. Targeting synthetic lethal interactions with drug combinations promises increased efficacy in tumor therapy.

Materials and methods

We established a set of synthetic lethal interactions using publicly available data from yeast screens which were mapped to their respective human orthologs using information from orthology databases. This set of experimental synthetic lethal interactions was complemented by a set of predicted synthetic lethal interactions based on a set of protein meta-data like e.g. molecular pathway assignment. Based on the combined set, we evaluated drug combinations used in late stage clinical development (clinical phase III and IV trials) or already in clinical use for ovarian cancer with respect to their effect on synthetic lethal interactions. We furthermore identified a set of drug combinations currently not being tested in late stage ovarian cancer clinical trials that however have impact on synthetic lethal interactions thus being worth of further investigations regarding their therapeutic potential in ovarian cancer.

Results

Twelve of the tested drug combinations addressed a synthetic lethal interaction with the anti-VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab in combination with paclitaxel being the most studied drug combination addressing the synthetic lethal pair between VEGFA and BCL2. The set of 84 predicted drug combinations for example holds the combination of the PARP inhibitor olaparib and paclitaxel, which showed efficacy in phase II clinical studies.

Conclusion

A set of drug combinations currently not tested in late stage ovarian cancer clinical trials was identified having impact on synthetic lethal interactions thus being worth of further investigations regarding their therapeutic potential in ovarian cancer.

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<![CDATA[The Syk inhibitor R406 is a modulator of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c48ed5eed0c4845e88f0

In a previously published study, higher levels of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) were observed in recurrent post-chemotherapy ovarian cancers compared to primary tumors. Syk inhibition was found to stabilize microtubules and potentiate paclitaxel activity in cellular models of taxane-resistant ovarian cancers. We further studied the effects of Syk inhibition on paclitaxel activity in Syk(+) ovarian cancer cell models and in variants selected for taxane resistance. Syk inhibition was accomplished using RNAi and by exposure to the small molecule competitive inhibitor R406, the active metabolite of fostamatinib. Exposure to R406 or to a SYK-specific pool of siRNAs did not alter taxane activity in the OVCAR-3 cell line, which has the most Syk content in our panel of nine human ovarian cancer cell lines. However, treatment with R406 sensitised the multidrug resistant (MDR) variants MES-SA/Dx5 and SK-OV-3/TR to paclitaxel in a dose-dependent manner resulting from the inhibition of the ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter. These observations are Syk-independent since both MDR cell models are Syk negative. R406 modulated resistance to other known P-gp substrates, and we observed orthovanadate-sensitive ATPase stimulation resulting from treatment with R406. These data indicate that the chemo-sensitizing effect of R406 in taxane-resistant cells previously reported was not associated with Syk but resulted from the modulation of P-gp-mediated MDR.

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<![CDATA[The effect of sodium butyrate and cisplatin on expression of EMT markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a62d5eed0c4847ccf46

Histone modifications play a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription in cancer cells. Histone acetylations are regulated by two classes of enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs are increased in ovarian carcinomas and they are involved in carcinogenesis and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. In our study we investigated anticancer effect of HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) on cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cell lines A2780 and A2780cis. A2780 and A2780cis were treated with NaBu alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP). NaBu inhibited the growth of both cell lines and enhanced cytotoxic effect of CP. Exposure to NaBu for 24 h induced cell cycle arrest. The expressions of EMT-related genes and proteins were further investigated by qPCR and western blot analysis. Loss of E-cadherin has been shown to be crucial in ovarian cancer development. We found that NaBu dramatically induce expression of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) and protein levels in A2780 and A2780cis. We investigated correlation between transcription and methylation of CDH1gene. Methylation level analysis in 32 CpG sites in CDH1 gene (promoter/exon1 regions) was performed using bisulfite NGS (Next Generation Sequencing). We found that cisplatin-resistant cell line A2780cis cells differ from their cisplatin-sensitive counterparts in the CDH1 methylation. Methylation in A2780cis cells is elevated compared to A2780. However, NaBu-induced expression of CDH1 was not accompanied by CDH1 demethylation. NaBu treatment induced changes in expression of EMT-related genes and proteins. Interestingly E-cadherin zinc finger transcriptional repressor SNAIL1 was upregulated in both cell lines. Mesenchymal marker vimentin was downregulated. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are necessary for pericellular proteolysis and facilitate migration and invasion of tumour cells. NaBu induced mRNA expression of MMPs, mild changes in activities of gelatinases MMP2 and MMP9 were detected. Our data demonstrate that NaBu sensitizes cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells, re-established E-cadherin expression, but it was not able to reverse the EMT phenotype completely.

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<![CDATA[TargetClone: A multi-sample approach for reconstructing subclonal evolution of tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993ccd5eed0c4842ad990

Most tumors are composed of a heterogeneous population of subclones. A more detailed insight into the subclonal evolution of these tumors can be helpful to study progression and treatment response. Problematically, tumor samples are typically very heterogeneous, making deconvolving individual tumor subclones a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, reducing heterogeneity, such as by means of microdissections, coupled with targeted sequencing, is a viable approach. However, computational methods that enable reconstruction of the evolutionary relationships require unbiased read depth measurements, which are commonly challenging to obtain in this setting. We introduce TargetClone, a novel method to reconstruct the subclonal evolution tree of tumors from single-nucleotide polymorphism allele frequency and somatic single-nucleotide variant measurements. Furthermore, our method infers copy numbers, alleles and the fraction of the tumor component in each sample. TargetClone was specifically designed for targeted sequencing data obtained from microdissected samples. We demonstrate that our method obtains low error rates on simulated data. Additionally, we show that our method is able to reconstruct expected trees in a testicular germ cell cancer and ovarian cancer dataset. The TargetClone package including tree visualization is written in Python and is publicly available at https://github.com/UMCUGenetics/targetclone.

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<![CDATA[Anti-Tumour Effects of a Specific Anti-ADAM17 Antibody in an Ovarian Cancer Model In Vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5bab0ee8fa60b8fdb8

ADAM 17 (TNF-α converting enzyme, TACE) is a potential target for cancer therapy, but the small molecule inhibitors reported to date are not specific to this ADAM family member. This membrane-bound metalloproteinase is responsible for ectodomain shedding of pathologically significant substrates including TNF-α and EGFR ligands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and anti-tumour efficacy of the first specific inhibitor, an anti-human ADAM17 IgG antibody, clone D1(A12). We used intraperitoneal xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line IGROV1-Luc in Balb/c nude mice, chosen because it was previously reported that growth of these xenografts is inhibited by knock-down of TNF-α. In vitro, 200 nM D1(A12) inhibited shedding of ADAM17 substrates TNF-α, TNFR1-α, TGF-α, amphiregulin (AREG), HB-EGF and IL-6Rα, from IGROV1-Luc cells, (4.7 nM IC50 for TNF-α shedding). In IGROV1-Luc xenografts in vivo, D1(A12) IgG showed pharmacokinetic properties suitable for efficacy studies, with a single i.p. dose of 10 mg/kg D1(A12) sufficient to maintain IgG plasma and ascites fluid concentrations above 100 nM for more than 7 days. The plasma half life was 8.6 days. Next, an efficacy study was performed, dosing D1(A12) or anti-human TNF-α antibody infliximab at 10 mg/kg q7d, quantifying IGROV1-Luc tumour burden by bioluminescence. D1(A12) IgG showed a significant reduction in tumour growth (p = 0.005), 56% of vehicle control. Surprisingly, D1(A12) did not reduce the concentration of circulating human TNF-α, suggesting that another enzyme may compensate for inhibition of ADAM17 in vivo (but not in vitro). However, D1(A12) did show clear pharmacodynamic effects in the mice, with significant inhibition of shedding from tumour of ADAM17 substrates TNFR1-α, AREG, and TGF-α (4–15-fold reductions, p<0.0001 for all three). Thus, D1(A12) has anti-ADAM17 activity in vivo, inhibits shedding of EGFR ligands and has potential for use in EGF ligand-dependent tumours.

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<![CDATA[Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 Targets HIF-1α to Block Hypoxia-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db02ab0ee8fa60bc70a9

The prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer has remained poor mainly because of aggressive cancer progression. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important mechanism mediating invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, targeting the EMT process with more efficacious and less toxic compounds to inhibit metastasis is of great therapeutic value for the treatment of ovarian cancer. We have found for the first time that the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng, potently blocks hypoxia-induced EMT of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies confirm the mode of action of 20(S)-Rg3, which reduces the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) by activating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote HIF-1α degradation. A decrease in HIF-1α in turn leads to up-regulation, via transcriptional suppression of Snail, of the epithelial cell-specific marker E-cadherin and down-regulation of the mesenchymal cell-specific marker vimentin under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, 20(S)-Rg3 effectively inhibits EMT in nude mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer, promising a novel therapeutic agent for anticancer therapy.

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<![CDATA[Inhibition of EGFR-AKT Axis Results in the Suppression of Ovarian Tumors In Vitro and in Preclinical Mouse Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da27ab0ee8fa60b810b1

Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. Genetic alterations including overexpression of EGFR play a crucial role in ovarian carcinogenesis. Here we evaluated the effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in ovarian tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of 12 µmol PEITC resulted in drastically suppressing ovarian tumor growth in a preclinical mouse model. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that PEITC suppress the growth of SKOV-3, OVCAR-3 and TOV-21G human ovarian cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Growth inhibitory effects of PEITC were mediated by inhibition of EGFR and AKT, which are known to be overexpressed in ovarian tumors. PEITC treatment caused significant down regulation of constitutive protein levels as well as phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 in various ovarian cancer cells. In addition, PEITC treatment drastically reduced the phosphorylation of AKT which is downstream to EGFR and disrupted mTOR signaling. PEITC treatment also inhibited the kinase activity of AKT as observed by the down regulation of p-GSK in OVCAR-3 and TOV-21G cells. AKT overexpression or TGF treatment blocked PEITC induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that PEITC targets EGFR/AKT pathway in our model. In conclusion, our study suggests that PEITC could be used alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents to treat ovarian cancer.

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<![CDATA[Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6fab0ee8fa60b94365

Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL) 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL family in individual type of cancers.

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<![CDATA[Estrogen Receptor Beta rs1271572 Polymorphism and Invasive Ovarian Carcinoma Risk: Pooled Analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da62ab0ee8fa60b9129e

The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR = 1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01–1.21; p = 0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99–1.20; p = 0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ≤50 years versus older women (OR = 1.35; CI: 1.12–1.62; p = 0.002; p for interaction = 0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR = 1.34; CI: 1.11–1.61; p = 0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women.

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<![CDATA[Chromosome 3 Anomalies Investigated by Genome Wide SNP Analysis of Benign, Low Malignant Potential and Low Grade Ovarian Serous Tumours]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac1ab0ee8fa60bb0c70

Ovarian carcinomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity, and their etiology remains unknown. Histological and genetic evidence has led to the proposal that low grade ovarian serous carcinomas (LGOSC) have a different etiology than high grade carcinomas (HGOSC), arising from serous tumours of low malignant potential (LMP). Common regions of chromosome (chr) 3 loss have been observed in all types of serous ovarian tumours, including benign, suggesting that these regions contain genes important in the development of all ovarian serous carcinomas. A high-density genome-wide genotyping bead array technology, which assayed >600,000 markers, was applied to a panel of serous benign and LMP tumours and a small set of LGOSC, to characterize somatic events associated with the most indolent forms of ovarian disease. The genomic patterns inferred were related to TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations. An increasing frequency of genomic anomalies was observed with pathology of disease: 3/22 (13.6%) benign cases, 40/53 (75.5%) LMP cases and 10/11 (90.9%) LGOSC cases. Low frequencies of chr3 anomalies occurred in all tumour types. Runs of homozygosity were most commonly observed on chr3, with the 3p12-p11 candidate tumour suppressor region the most frequently homozygous region in the genome. An LMP harboured a homozygous deletion on chr6 which created a GOPC-ROS1 fusion gene, previously reported as oncogenic in other cancer types. Somatic TP53, KRAS and BRAF mutations were not observed in benign tumours. KRAS-mutation positive LMP cases displayed significantly more chromosomal aberrations than BRAF-mutation positive or KRAS and BRAF mutation negative cases. Gain of 12p, which harbours the KRAS gene, was particularly evident. A pathology review reclassified all TP53-mutation positive LGOSC cases, some of which acquired a HGOSC status. Taken together, our results support the view that LGOSC could arise from serous benign and LMP tumours, but does not exclude the possibility that HGOSC may derive from LMP tumours.

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<![CDATA[BRCA1 Regulates Follistatin Function in Ovarian Cancer and Human Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da17ab0ee8fa60b7b87a

Follistatin (FST), a folliculogenesis regulating protein, is found in relatively high concentrations in female ovarian tissues. FST acts as an antagonist to Activin, which is often elevated in human ovarian carcinoma, and thus may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention against ovarian cancer. The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) is a known tumor suppressor gene in human breast cancer; however its role in ovarian cancer is not well understood. We performed microarray analysis on human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3 that stably overexpress wild-type BRCA1 and compared with the corresponding empty vector-transfected clones. We found that stable expression of BRCA1 not only stimulates FST secretion but also simultaneously inhibits Activin expression. To determine the physiological importance of this phenomenon, we further investigated the effect of cellular BRCA1 on the FST secretion in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cells derived from either normal human ovaries or ovaries of an ovarian cancer patient carrying a mutation in BRCA1 gene. Knock-down of BRCA1 in normal IOSE cells demonstrates down-regulation of FST secretion along with the simultaneous up-regulation of Activin expression. Furthermore, knock-down of FST in IOSE cell lines as well as SKOV3 cell line showed significantly reduced cell proliferation and decreased cell migration when compared with the respective controls. Thus, these findings suggest a novel function for BRCA1 as a regulator of FST expression and function in human ovarian cells.

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<![CDATA[Identification of the Chemokine CX3CL1 as a New Regulator of Malignant Cell Proliferation in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b77e8b

Background

Little is known about the molecules that contribute to the growth of epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC), which remain the most lethal gynecological cancer in women. The chemokine Fractalkine/CX3CL1 has been widely reported to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread. We report here the first investigation of the expression and role of CX3CL1 in EOC.

Results

Epithelial cells from the surface of the ovary and the Fallopian tubes and from benign, borderline and malignant tumors all stained positive for CX3CL1. In tumor specimens from 54 women who underwent surgical treatment for EOC diagnosis, CX3CL1 immunoreactivity was unevenly distributed in epithelial tumor cells, and ranged from strong (33%) to absent (17%). This uneven distribution of CX3CL1 did not reflect the morphological heterogeneity of EOC. It was positively correlated with the proliferation index Ki-67 and with GILZ (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper), previously identified as an activator of the proliferation of malignant EOC cells. Hierarchical clustering analysis, including age at diagnosis, tumor grade, FIGO stage, Ki-67 index, CX3CL1, SDF-1/CXCL12 and GILZ immunostaining scores, distinguished two major clusters corresponding to low and high levels of proliferation and differing in terms of GILZ and CX3CL1 expression. GILZ overexpression in the carcinoma-derived BG1 cell line resulted in parallel changes in CX3CL1 products. Conversely, CX3CL1 promoted through its binding to CX3CR1 AKT activation and proliferation in BG1 cells. In a mouse subcutaneous xenograft model, the overexpression of GILZ was associated with higher expression of CX3CL1 and faster tumor growth.

Conclusion

Our findings highlight the previously unappreciated constitutive expression of CX3CL1 preceding tumorigenesis in ovarian epithelial cells. Together with GILZ, this chemokine emerges as a regulator of cell proliferation, which may be of potential clinical relevance for the selection of the most appropriate treatment for EOC patients.

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<![CDATA[MicroRNA Genes and Their Target 3′-Untranslated Regions Are Infrequently Somatically Mutated in Ovarian Cancers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e2ab0ee8fa60b69eb2

MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression and have been shown to have altered expression in a variety of cancer types, including epithelial ovarian cancer. MiRNA function is most often achieved through binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the target protein coding gene. Mutation screening using massively-parallel sequencing of 712 miRNA genes in 86 ovarian cancer cases identified only 5 mutated miRNA genes, each in a different case. One mutation was located in the mature miRNA, and three mutations were predicted to alter the secondary structure of the miRNA transcript. Screening of the 3′-untranslated region of 18 candidate cancer genes identified one mutation in each of AKT2, EGFR, ERRB2 and CTNNB1. The functional effect of these mutations is unclear, as expression data available for AKT2 and EGFR showed no increase in gene transcript. Mutations in miRNA genes and 3′-untranslated regions are thus uncommon in ovarian cancer.

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<![CDATA[The Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Is Highly Expressed in Ovarian Cancer and Induces Cell Growth and Migration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da00ab0ee8fa60b73f07

Background

Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1) is overexpressed during cancer progression and promotes cell migration and invasion in many solid tumors. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains poorly understood.

Methods

Expressions of MALAT-1 were detected in 37 normal ovarian tissues and 45 ovarian cancer tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was observed by CCK-8 assay; Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and apoptosis; Cell migration was detected by transwell migration and invasion assay. In order to evaluate the function of MALAT-1, shRNA combined with DNA microarray and Functional enrichment analysis were performed to determine the transcriptional effects of MALAT-1 silencing in OVCAR3 cells. RNA and protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.

Results

We found that upregulation of MALAT-1 mRNA in ovarian cancer tissues and enhanced MALAT-1 expression was associated with FIGO stage. Knockdown of MALAT-1 expression in OVCAR3 cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, leading to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overexpressed MALAT-1 expression in SKOV3 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Downregulation of MALAT-1 resulted in significant change of gene expression (at least 2-fold) in 449 genes, which regulate proliferation, cell cycle, and adhesion. As a consequence of MALAT-1 knockdown, MMP13 protein expression decreased, while the expression of MMP19 and ADAMTS1 was increased.

Conclusions

The present study found that MALAT-1 is highly expressed in ovarian tumors. MALAT-1 promotes the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that MALAT-1 may be an important contributor to ovarian cancer development.

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<![CDATA[SPARC Regulates Transforming Growth Factor Beta Induced (TGFBI) Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Paclitaxel Response in Ovarian Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f4ab0ee8fa60b6fb15

TGFBI has been shown to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel via an integrin receptor-mediated mechanism that modulates microtubule stability. Herein, we determine that TGFBI localizes within organized fibrillar structures in mesothelial-derived ECM. We determined that suppression of SPARC expression by shRNA decreased the deposition of TGFBI in mesothelial-derived ECM, without affecting its overall protein expression or secretion. Conversely, overexpression of SPARC increased TGFBI deposition. A SPARC-YFP fusion construct expressed by the Met5a cell line co-localized with TGFBI in the cell-derived ECM. Interestingly, in vitro produced SPARC was capable of precipitating TGFBI from cell lysates dependent on an intact SPARC carboxy-terminus with in vitro binding assays verifying a direct interaction. The last 37 amino acids of SPARC were shown to be required for the TGFBI interaction while expression of a SPARC-YFP construct lacking this region (aa 1–256) did not interact and co-localize with TGFBI in the ECM. Furthermore, ovarian cancer cells have a reduced motility and decreased response to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel when plated on ECM derived from mesothelial cells lacking SPARC compared to control mesothelial-derived ECM. In conclusion, SPARC regulates the fibrillar ECM deposition of TGFBI through a novel interaction, subsequently influencing cancer cell behavior.

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<![CDATA[BRCA2 Mutations and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad5ab0ee8fa60bb7d45

Recently, BRCA1 germline mutations were found in a high proportion (14–34%) of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). BRCA2 was either not analyzed or showed much lower mutation frequencies. Therefore, we screened a group of TNBC patients (n = 30) of white European descent for mutations in BRCA2 as well as in BRCA1. Cases were unselected for age of disease-onset (median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 58 years, ranging from 37 to 74 years), family history of cancer and BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. Half of the patients (15/30) showed a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. A high frequency of deleterious germline mutations was observed in BRCA2 (5/30; 16.7%), and only one case showed a BRCA1 mutation (3.3%). Although the study group was small, these results point to BRCA2 mutations being important in TNBC.

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