ResearchPad - ovaries https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Prevalence of endosalpingiosis and other benign gynecologic lesions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14492 Endosalpingiosis, traditionally regarded as an incidental pathological finding, was recently reported to have an association with gynecologic malignancies. To determine the prevalence of endosalpingiosis, we evaluated all benign appearing adnexal lesions using the Sectioning and Extensively Examining-Fimbria (SEE-Fim) protocol, and queried the pathology database for the presence of endosalpingiosis, gynecologic malignancy, endometriosis, Walthard nests, and paratubal cysts. Using the SEE-Fim protocol, the prevalence of endosalpingiosis, endometriosis, Walthard nests, and paratubal cysts were 22%, 45%, 33%, and 42% respectively, substantially higher than previously reported. All lesions were observed to increase with age except endometriosis which increased until menopause then decreased dramatically. Among specimens including ovarian tissue, the prevalence of implantation of at least one lesion type was ubiquitous in patients age 51 and older (93%). The clinical significance of endosalpingiosis should be a continued area of research with larger trials assessing prevalence, factors affecting incidence, and association with malignancy. Our findings contribute to elucidating the origin of ectopic lesions and gynecologic disease risk.

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<![CDATA[Integrated structural variation and point mutation signatures in cancer genomes using correlated topic models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99020ad5eed0c484b97533

Mutation signatures in cancer genomes reflect endogenous and exogenous mutational processes, offering insights into tumour etiology, features for prognostic and biologic stratification and vulnerabilities to be exploited therapeutically. We present a novel machine learning formalism for improved signature inference, based on multi-modal correlated topic models (MMCTM) which can at once infer signatures from both single nucleotide and structural variation counts derived from cancer genome sequencing data. We exemplify the utility of our approach on two hormone driven, DNA repair deficient cancers: breast and ovary (n = 755 samples total). We show how introducing correlated structure both within and between modes of mutation can increase accuracy of signature discovery, particularly in the context of sparse data. Our study emphasizes the importance of integrating multiple mutation modes for signature discovery and patient stratification, and provides a statistical modeling framework to incorporate additional features of interest for future studies.

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<![CDATA[Molecular and genetic characterization of partial masculinization in embryonic ovaries grafted into male nude mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977afd5eed0c4847d330e

In most of mammalian embryos, gonadal sex differentiation occurs inside the maternal uterus before birth. In several fetal ovarian grafting experiments using male host mice, an experimental switch from the maternal intrauterine to male-host environment gradually induces partial masculinization of the grafted ovaries even under the wild-type genotype. However, either host-derived factors causing or molecular basis underlying this masculinization of the fetal ovaries are not clear. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic appearance of SOX9-positive Sertoli cell-like cells in grafted ovaries was mediated by the testosterone derived from the male host. Neither Sox8 nor Amh activity in the ovarian tissues is essential for such ectopic appearance of SOX9-positive cells. The transcriptome analyses of the grafted ovaries during this masculinization process showed early downregulation of pro-ovarian genes such as Irx3, Nr0b1/Dax1, Emx2, and Fez1/Lzts1 by days 7–10 post-transplantation, and subsequent upregulation of several pro-testis genes, such as Bhlhe40, Egr1/2, Nr4a2, and Zc3h12c by day 20, leading to a partial sex reversal with altered expression profiles in one-third of the total numbers of the sex-dimorphic pre-granulosa and Sertoli cell-specific genes at 12.5 dpc. Our data imply that the paternal testosterone exposure is partially responsible for the sex-reversal expression profiles of certain pro-ovarian and pro-testis genes in the fetal ovaries in a temporally dependent manner.

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<![CDATA[Dual role of DMXL2 in olfactory information transmission and the first wave of spermatogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730a1d5eed0c484f37e0e

Gonad differentiation is a crucial step conditioning the future fertility of individuals and most of the master genes involved in this process have been investigated in detail. However, transcriptomic analyses of developing gonads from different animal models have revealed that hundreds of genes present sexually dimorphic expression patterns. DMXL2 was one of these genes and its function in mammalian gonads was unknown. We therefore investigated the phenotypes of total and gonad-specific Dmxl2 knockout mouse lines. The total loss-of-function of Dmxl2 was lethal in neonates, with death occurring within 12 hours of birth. Dmxl2-knockout neonates were weak and did not feed. They also presented defects of olfactory information transmission and severe hypoglycemia, suggesting that their premature death might be due to global neuronal and/or metabolic deficiencies. Dmxl2 expression in the gonads increased after birth, during follicle formation in females and spermatogenesis in males. DMXL2 was detected in both the supporting and germinal cells of both sexes. As Dmxl2 loss-of-function was lethal, only limited investigations of the gonads of Dmxl2 KO pups were possible. They revealed no major defects at birth. The gonadal function of Dmxl2 was then assessed by conditional deletions of the gene in gonadal supporting cells, germinal cells, or both. Conditional Dmxl2 ablation in the gonads did not impair fertility in males or females. By contrast, male mice with Dmxl2 deletions, either throughout the testes or exclusively in germ cells, presented a subtle testicular phenotype during the first wave of spermatogenesis that was clearly detectable at puberty. Indeed, Dmxl2 loss-of-function throughout the testes or in germ cells only, led to sperm counts more than 60% lower than normal and defective seminiferous tubule architecture. Transcriptomic and immunohistochemichal analyses on these abnormal testes revealed a deregulation of Sertoli cell phagocytic activity related to germ cell apoptosis augmentation. In conclusion, we show that Dmxl2 exerts its principal function in the testes at the onset of puberty, although its absence does not compromise male fertility in mice.

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<![CDATA[Optimization of irradiation dose to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in a sterile insect technique program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac86d5eed0c484d0898f

The sterile insect technique (SIT) may offer a means to control the transmission of mosquito borne diseases. SIT involves the release of male insects that have been sterilized by exposure to ionizing radiation. We determined the effects of different doses of radiation on the survival and reproductive capacity of local strains of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in southern Mexico. The survival of irradiated pupae was invariably greater than 90% and did not differ significantly in either sex for either species. Irradiation had no significant adverse effects on the flight ability (capacity to fly out of a test device) of male mosquitoes, which consistently exceeded 91% in Ae. aegypti and 96% in Ae. albopictus. The average number of eggs laid per female was significantly reduced in Ae. aegypti at doses of 15 and 30 Gy and no eggs were laid by females that had been exposed to 50 Gy. Similarly, in Ae. albopictus, egg production was reduced at doses of 15 and 25 Gy and was eliminated at 35 Gy. In Ae. aegypti, fertility in males was eliminated at 70 Gy and was eliminated at 30 Gy in females, whereas in Ae. albopictus, the fertility of males that mated with untreated females was almost zero (0.1%) in the 50 Gy treatment and female fertility was eliminated at 35 Gy. Irradiation treatments resulted in reduced ovary length and fewer follicles in both species. The adult median survival time of both species was reduced by irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, sterilizing doses of 35 Gy and 50 Gy resulted in little reduction in survival times of males of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, indicating that these doses should be suitable for future evaluations of SIT-based control of these species. The results of the present study will be applied to studies of male sexual competitiveness and to stepwise evaluations of the sterile insect technique for population suppression of these vectors in Mexico.

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<![CDATA[Sexual system, reproductive cycle and embryonic development of the red-striped shrimp Lysmata vittata, an invader in the western Atlantic Ocean]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c82d5eed0c484bd2c2a

Several decapod crustaceans are invaders, but little is known about the biological characteristics that potentiate the success of these decapods in invaded ecosystems. Here, we evaluate and describe some aspects of the reproductive biology and development of Lysmata vittata, an invasive shrimp species in the Atlantic Ocean. In addition, we intend to provide important insights into the biology of invasion by comparing the reproductive traits of this shrimp with some of the predictions about aquatic invasive species. We used experimental and laboratory observations to evaluate the functionality of protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (PSH), the macro and microscopic development of the ovarian portion of the ovotestes, the reproductive cycle, and the embryonic development of L. vittata. We confirm the functionality of PSH in L. vittata. This shrimp has a rapid reproductive cycle; the ovarian portion of the ovotestes develops (mean ± SD) 6.28 ± 1.61 days after spawning. Embryonic development also occurs over a short time, with a mean (± SD) of 8.37 ± 0.85 days. The larvae hatch without macroscopically visible yolk reserves. Our study provides evidence that the invasive shrimp L. vittata has reproductive and embryonic developmental characteristics (i.e., short generation time and high reproductive capacity) that may be favorable to the establishment of populations during invasive processes.

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<![CDATA[The effector of Hippo signaling, Taz, is required for formation of the micropyle and fertilization in zebrafish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390b9fd5eed0c48491d8f1

The mechanisms that ensure fertilization of egg by a sperm are not fully understood. In all teleosts, a channel called the ‘micropyle’ is the only route of entry for sperm to enter and fertilize the egg. The micropyle forms by penetration of the vitelline envelope by a single specialized follicle cell, the micropylar cell. The mechanisms underlying micropylar cell specification and micropyle formation are poorly understood. Here, we show that an effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, the Transcriptional co-activator with a PDZ-binding domain (Taz), plays crucial roles in micropyle formation and fertilization in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Genome editing mutants affecting taz can grow to adults. However, eggs from homozygous taz females are not fertilized even though oocytes in mutant females are histologically normal with intact animal-vegetal polarity, complete meiosis and proper ovulation. We find that taz mutant eggs have no micropyle. Taz protein is specifically enriched in mid-oogenesis in the micropylar cell located at the animal pole of wild type oocyte, where it might regulate the cytoskeleton. Taz protein and micropylar cells are not detected in taz mutant ovaries. Our work identifies a novel role for the Hippo/Taz pathway in micropylar cell specification in zebrafish, and uncovers the molecular basis of micropyle formation in teleosts.

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<![CDATA[Identification and characterization of a mosquito-specific eggshell organizing factor in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4ff5d5eed0c484d7ad7c

Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for several million human deaths annually around the world. One approach to controlling mosquito populations is to disrupt molecular processes or antagonize novel metabolic targets required for the production of viable eggs. To this end, we focused our efforts on identifying proteins required for completion of embryonic development that are mosquito selective and represent potential targets for vector control. We performed bioinformatic analyses to identify putative protein-coding sequences that are specific to mosquito genomes. Systematic RNA interference (RNAi) screening of 40 mosquito-specific genes was performed by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This experimental approach led to the identification of eggshell organizing factor 1 (EOF1, AAEL012336), which plays an essential role in the formation and melanization of the eggshell. Eggs deposited by EOF1-deficient mosquitoes have nonmelanized fragile eggshells, and all embryos are nonviable. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis identified that exochorionic eggshell structures are strongly affected in EOF1-deficient mosquitoes. EOF1 is a potential novel target, to our knowledge, for exploring the identification and development of mosquito-selective and biosafe small-molecule inhibitors.

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<![CDATA[Reproduction and population structure of the sea urchin Heliocidaris crassispina in its newly extended range: The Oga Peninsula in the Sea of Japan, northeastern Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c36680ed5eed0c4841a6fa6

Ocean warming has facilitated the range expansion of commercially important sea urchin species to higher latitudes. Heliocidaris crassispina was recorded to extend northward to Toga Bay along the Oga Peninsula, Japan following an increase in seawater temperatures, and replacement of local sea urchin species Mesocentrotus nudus. In order to identify evidence of adaptation occurring in response to a range extension of H. crassispina to the newly extended environments, we randomly collected 106 H. crassispina in August 2014 in Toga Bay, determined the growth and age composition and examined gonad traits (size, color and development). To confirm the gonad development, 30 H. crassispina with > 30 mm diameter were collected in July, August and September 2017. We found slower growth in the extended range than the central range. More delayed gonad development of males than those of females and a large variety of developmental stages in the acini of testis indicated that the spawning of both sexes of the sea urchins were asynchronous. In terms of gonad color, L* (lightness) values increased with increasing GI, while b* (yellowness) values decreased with increasing age. The population consisted of seven year-classes from 2006 to 2012, suggesting persistent juvenile recruitment. Long-term water temperature data indicated that the range extension of H. crassispina was due to ocean warming, in particular during the summer spawning season.

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<![CDATA[Supplementation of in vitro culture medium with FSH to grow follicles and mature oocytes can be replaced by extracts of Justicia insularis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eb3d5eed0c484d27d69

The present study evaluated the effect of supplementing in vitro culture medium with J. insularis compared to FSH on isolated secondary follicles and in vitro maturation of oocytes from those follicles. Secondary follicles were isolated from sheep ovaries and individually cultured for 18 days in α-MEM+ (Control), α-MEM+ supplemented with 100 ng/mL recombinant bovine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or with 0.3, 1.25, or 2.5 mg/mL of J. insularis extract (JI0.3, JI1.25, and JI2.5, respectively). Culture medium collected every 2 days was used to measure ROS levels. At the end of the culture period, cumulus oocytes complex (COCs) were collected and matured in vitro. Follicular walls were used for mRNA quantitation. JI0.3 led to a higher (P < 0.05) percentages of intact follicles than other groups after 18 days of culture. While follicular diameter remained unchanged from Day 6 onwards with JI0.3 and FSH, percentages of antral cavity formation were higher (P < 0.05) with JI0.3 at Day 6 than in all other treatments. No differences were observed between controls and treatment groups regarding ROS levels and mRNA expression of genes. Viability of resulting oocytes was higher (P < 0.05) in JI0.3 compared to FSH. Interestingly, in control experiment, supplementation of maturation medium with JI0.3 led to higher (P < 0.05) percentages of metaphase II compared to controls. Although more validations will be needed, it seems that this natural extract could be used as a cheap and easily available alternative to commercial FSH.

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<![CDATA[Developmental and tissue specific changes of ubiquitin forms in Drosophila melanogaster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ac9d5eed0c484426ab2

In most Eukaryotes, ubiquitin either exists as free monoubiquitin or as a molecule that is covalently linked to other proteins. These two forms cycle between each other and due to the concerted antagonistic activity of ubiquitylating and deubiquitylating enzymes, an intracellular ubiquitin equilibrium is maintained that is essential for normal biological function. However, measuring the level and ratio of these forms of ubiquitin has been difficult and time consuming. In this paper, we have adapted a simple immunoblotting technique to monitor ubiquitin content and equilibrium dynamics in different developmental stages and tissues of Drosophila. Our data show that the level of total ubiquitin is distinct in different developmental stages, lowest at the larval-pupal transition and in three days old adult males, and highest in first instar larvae. Interestingly, the ratio of free mono-ubiquitin remains within 30–50% range of the total throughout larval development, but peaks to 70–80% at the larval-pupal and the pupal-adult transitions. It stays within the 70–80% range in adults. In developmentally and physiologically active tissues, the ratio of free ubiquitin is similarly high, most likely reflecting a high demand for ubiquitin availability. We also used this method to demonstrate the disruption of the finely tuned ubiquitin equilibrium by the abolition of proteasome function or the housekeeping deubiquitylase, Usp5. Our data support the notion that the ubiquitin equilibrium is regulated by tissue- and developmental stage-specific mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[Ovarian reserve after uterine artery embolization in women with morbidly adherent placenta: A cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993cbd5eed0c4842ad977

Objective

To evaluate ovarian reserve in women after preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization due to morbidly adherent placenta.

Study design

A historical cohort study including all women admitted to a single tertiary care center, with morbidly adherent placenta that had preservative cesarean delivery with bilateral uterine artery embolization. Inclusion criteria included gestational age >24 weeks, singleton pregnancy and placenta increta / percreta. Exclusion criteria included maternal age > 43 years old and cesarean hysterectomy. Control group included women attending the infertility clinic due to male factor or single women conceiving via sperm donation, matched by age. Blood samples were collected on day 2–5 of menstruations for hormonal profile and Anti Mullarian Hormone (AMH) levels. Primary outcome was ovarian reserve evaluated by the levels of AMH.

Results

59 women underwent preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization during the study period. 21 women met inclusion criteria (33.9%) and were matched controls (n = 40). Circulating levels of E2 and FSH did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.665, p = 0.396, respectively). AMH was lower in the study group (median 0.8 IQR 0.44–1.80) compared to the controls (median 2.08 IQR 1.68–3.71) (p = 0.001). This finding was consistent in linear multivariate regression analysis where the group of cesarean delivery using bilateral artery embolization due to placenta accrete was significantly predictive for the levels of AMH (B = -1.308, p = 0.012).

Conclusion

Women post preservative cesarean delivery using uterine artery embolization due to placenta accrete have lower ovarian reserve compare to controls matched by age.

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<![CDATA[The role of AKT and FOXO3 in preventing ovarian toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6da1aa463d7e4dccc5fae8

Cyclophosphamide (CTX) has immunosuppressive effects and has been wildly used as one anti-cancer drug in clinical. Significant toxicity has been noticed particularly in the reproductive system. CTX promotes the maturation of ovarian follicles, decreases follicular reserve, and ultimately lead to ovarian failure or even premature ovarian failure (POF). The placental extract (HPE) has been shown to have some beneficial impact on reproductive system; however, little is known regarding to the effect of HPE on protecting CTX-induced ovarian injury and the mechanism involved. Whether human placental extracts (HPE) has a protective effect on CTX-induced toxicity on ovarian was studied by using a CTX-induced ovarian injury animal model. The effects of HEP on histopathology, the number of atretic follicles, the weight of the ovary, serum hormone levels, and apoptosis in granulosa cells were studied in mice with CTX or control vehicle. Our results have demonstrated that HPE inhibited p-Rictor, reduced the expression of Bad, Bax and PPAR, and activated Akt and Foxo3a (increased their phosphorylation). Mice treated with HPE showed higher ovarian weight, lower number of atretic follicles, higher serum levels of the hormones E2 and progesterone, and lower apoptosis and serum levels of LH and FSH in granulosa cells, than that in the control animal group. Our data show that ovarian injury can be attenuated by HPE. HPE likely protects follicular granulosa cells from undergoing significant apoptosis and reduce atresia follicle formation, therefore, alleviates CTX-induced ovarian injury.

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<![CDATA[Requirement of the 3′-UTR-dependent suppression of DAZL in oocytes for pre-implantation mouse development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b933463d7e146ff345d1

Functional oocytes are produced through complex molecular and cellular processes. In particular, the contribution of post-transcriptional gene regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is crucial for controlling proper gene expression during this process. DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) is one of the RBPs required for the sexual differentiation of primordial germ cells and for the progression of meiosis in ovulated oocytes. However, the involvement of DAZL in the development of follicular oocytes is still unknown. Here, we show that Dazl is translationally suppressed in a 3′-UTR-dependent manner in follicular oocytes, and this suppression is required for normal pre-implantation development. We found that suppression of DAZL occurred in postnatal oocytes concomitant with the formation of primordial follicles, whereas Dazl mRNA was continuously expressed throughout oocyte development, raising the possibility that DAZL is dispensable for the survival and growth of follicular oocytes. Indeed, follicular oocyte-specific knockout of Dazl resulted in the production of normal number of pups. On the other hand, genetically modified female mice that overexpress DAZL produced fewer numbers of pups than the control due to defective pre-implantation development. Our data suggest that post-transcriptional suppression of DAZL in oocytes is an important mechanism controlling gene expression in the development of functional oocytes.

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<![CDATA[Silencing of RpATG6 impaired the yolk accumulation and the biogenesis of the yolk organelles in the insect vector R. prolixus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b079d4c463d7e75962e790e

In oviparous animals, the egg yolk is synthesized by the mother in a major metabolic challenge, where the different yolk components are secreted to the hemolymph and delivered to the oocytes mostly by endocytosis. The yolk macromolecules are then stored in a wide range of endocytic-originated vesicles which are collectively referred to as yolk organelles and occupy most of the mature oocytes cytoplasm. After fertilization, the contents of these organelles are degraded in a regulated manner to supply the embryo cells with fundamental molecules for de novo synthesis. Yolk accumulation and its regulated degradation are therefore crucial for successful development, however, most of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biogenesis, sorting and degradation of targeted yolk organelles are still poorly understood. ATG6 is part of two PI3P-kinase complexes that can regulate the recruitment of the endocytic or the autophagy machineries. Here, we investigate the role of RpATG6 in the endocytosis of the yolk macromolecules and in the biogenesis of the yolk organelles in the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus. We found that vitellogenic females express high levels of RpATG6 in the ovaries, when compared to the levels detected in the midgut and fat body. RNAi silencing of RpATG6 resulted in yolk proteins accumulated in the vitellogenic hemolymph, as a consequence of poor uptake by the oocytes. Accordingly, the silenced oocytes are unviable, white (contrasting to the control pink oocytes), smaller (62% of the control oocyte volume) and accumulate only 40% of the yolk proteins, 80% of the TAG and 50% of the polymer polyphosphate quantified in control oocytes. The cortex of silenced oocytes present atypical smaller vesicles indicating that the yolk organelles were not properly formed and/or sorted, which was supported by the lack of endocytic vesicles near the plasma membrane of silenced oocytes as seen by TEM. Altogether, we found that RpATG6 is central for the mechanisms of yolk accumulation, emerging as an important target for further investigations on oogenesis and, therefore, reproduction of this vector.

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<![CDATA[PLoS Genetics Issue Image | Vol. 14(7) July 2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6d8c4f463d7e2ccdcccfed

Fruit flies trigger oocyte apoptosis after exposure to predatory wasp.

A light microscope image of dissected Drosophila ovary where DNA (white) reveals perfectly round nurse and follicle cell nuclei of intact egg chambers in addition to bright-staining, condensed fragmented DNA from apoptotic nurse cells expressing activated caspases (red). The outline of egg surfaces is labelled by wheatgerm agglutinin (green). Predatory wasps inject their eggs into Drosophila larvae, but adult female flies can see the predator, or simply be informed by other flies exposed to wasps, and flies deprive this predator of larvae by triggering death of its own oocytes and halting egg production. See Kacsoh et al.

Download July's cover page.

Image Credit: Balint Z. Kacsoh, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth

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<![CDATA[Genomic structure, expression pattern, and functional characterization of transcription factor E2F-2 from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be00d0

Transcription factor E2F-2 is a regulator of cell cycle. Researchers identified E2F-2 genes from yeasts to humans, but few reports investigated E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp. In the present study, we cloned E2F-2 gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Full-length PmE2F-2 complementary DNA sequence measures 3,189 bp with an open reading frame of 1,371 bp. Complete PmE2F-2 genomic sequence (17,305 bp) of P. monodon contains nine exons, which are separated by eight introns. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmE2F-2 is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and ovaries of P. monodon. Highest PmE2F-2 expression levels were observed in stage III ovarian development of P. monodon. PmE2F-2 expression levels were significantly augmented in ovaries of P. monodon after 5-hydroxytryptamine injection and eyestalk ablation. RNA interference experiments were conducted to examine PmE2F-2, PmCDK2, and PmCyclin E expression profiles. PmE2F-2 was successfully knocked down in ovaries and hepatopancreas via double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)–E2F-2 injection. In the same organs, PmE2F-2 expression localization and level were investigated through in situ hybridization, which revealed consistent results with those of qRT-PCR. After dsRNA—E2F-2 injection, gonadosomatic index of shrimp was significantly lower than those following dsRNA—GFP and phosphate-buffered solution injections. Therefore, PmE2F-2 may be involved in ovarian maturation in P. monodon.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptional Differences between Diapausing and Non-Diapausing D. montana Females Reared under the Same Photoperiod and Temperature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f4ab0ee8fa60b6f6e1

Background

A wide range of insects living at higher latitudes enter diapause at the end of the warm season, which increases their chances of survival through harsh winter conditions. In this study we used RNA sequencing to identify genes involved in adult reproductive diapause in a northern fly species, Drosophila montana. Both diapausing and non-diapausing flies were reared under a critical day length and temperature, where about half of the emerging females enter diapause enabling us to eliminate the effects of varying environmental conditions on gene expression patterns of the two types of female flies.

Results

RNA sequencing revealed large differences between gene expression patterns of diapausing and non-diapausing females, especially in genes involved with metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and metal and nucleotide binding. Differently expressed genes included several gene groups, including myosin, actin and cytochromeP450 genes, which have been previously associated with diapause. This study also identified new candidate genes, including some involved in cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis or regulation (desat1 and desat2), and acyl-CoA Δ11-desaturase activity (CG9747), and few odorant-binding protein genes (e.g. Obp44A). Also, several transposable elements (TEs) showed differential expression between the two female groups motivating future research on their roles in diapause.

Conclusions

Our results demonstrate that the adult reproductive diapause in D. montana involves changes in the expression level of a variety of genes involved in key processes (e.g. metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis) which help diapausing females to cope with overwintering. This is consistent with the view that diapause is a complex adaptive phenotype where not only sexual maturation is arrested, but also changes in adult physiology are required in order to survive over the winter.

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<![CDATA[Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Induced by Fanconi Anemia E Mutation in a Mouse Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7eab0ee8fa60b998bb

In most cases of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), the cause of the depletion of ovarian follicles is unknown. Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins are known to play important roles in follicular development. Using random insertional mutagenesis with a lentiviral transgene, we identified a family with reduced fertility in the homozygous transgenic mice. We identified the integration site and found that the lentivirus had integrated into intron 8 of the Fanconi E gene (Fance). By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, we found that Fance transcript levels were significantly reduced. The Fance homozygous mutant mice were assayed for changes in ovarian development, follicle numbers and estrous cycle. Ovarian dysplasias and a severe lack of follicles were seen in the mutant mice. In addition, the estrous cycle was disrupted in adult females. Our results suggest that POI has been induced by the Fance mutation in this new mouse model.

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<![CDATA[A Novel igf3 Gene in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Evidence for Its Role in Regulating Gonadal Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7bab0ee8fa60b9888b

Since the insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3) gene was recently discovered in fish ovary, its function in the gonads has received much attention. In this study, we isolated two igf3 subtypes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which comprised full-length cDNA of 707 and 1153 nucleotides encoding 205 and 198 amino acids (aa), respectively. The Igf3 aa sequence had the highest gene homology of 72% with the corresponding sequence in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Phylogenetic tree construction revealed that the C. carpio igf3 gene was first clustered with D. rerio and then with other teleost species. Igf3 mRNA was widely expressed, with expression being highest in the gonads and blood. In the gonad development stage, igf3a mRNA expression was highest in the maturity and recession stage of the ovary, and decline phase of the testis, while igf3b was highest in the recession and fully mature periods of the ovaries and testes, respectively. Western blotting of testis protein samples showed two bands of approximately 21 kDa and 34 kDa corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of the two Igf3 subtypes; no signal was detected in the ovary. The Igf3 protein was localized in the ovary granulosa cells and testis spermatogonium and spermatids. 17β-Ethinylestradiol treatment increased both ovary and testis igf3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that Igf3 may play an important role in C. carpio gonadal development.

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