ResearchPad - pain-management https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Lumbar Puncture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N186d9125-0c1e-470d-bfc5-9fec941039f6 We hereby present a case of iatrogenic dissection of the superior mesenteric artery dissection in a 63-year-old female undergoing a lumbar puncture (LP). She presented with severe diffused abdominal pain accompanied by lower back pain, nausea and vomiting a few hours after undergoing an LP due to ongoing headaches. Abdominal CT showed evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was then transferred to another facility and while in route received one unit of packed red blood cellsdue to drop in hemoglobin levels from 15 to 11 gm/dl. Physicians should consider the possibility of arterial variations and the level at which spinal tap is performed during interventions. Acute abdominal pain is a significant, common complaint that should be appropriately investigated.

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<![CDATA[A Patient with an Intradural Tumor: An Unexpected Finding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7302211e-e8f3-469d-8e36-48bd56d4a954

Chronic back pain patients may require escalating doses of systemic opioids. In refractory cases, implantation of an intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS) may provide effective relief of pain and improve overall function. This system infuses opioid directly into the cerebrospinal fluid via a catheter. While efficacious, it can be associated with complications, one of the most severe being the formation of a catheter-tip granuloma that can lead to permanent neurological deficits. We present a case of a 38-year-old male with an IDDS for pain related to retroperitoneal fibrosis, who began developing worsening back pain along with new-onset lower extremity weakness. A catheter-tip granuloma was suspected, and the patient was advised to obtain emergent spine imaging. He was non-compliant until the point of becoming wheelchair bound, whereupon imaging was finally obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural mass causing spinal cord compression. After emergent surgical resection, pathology revealed a malignant tumor. Any patient with IDDS and escalating pain levels or new neurological deficits needs urgent neuroimaging to rule out catheter-tip granuloma. However, as this case demonstrates, the differential diagnosis should remain broad and always include neoplasm or abscess. 

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<![CDATA[Demystifying the Complexity: A Case Report on the Management of Mandibular Canine with Two Roots]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N18e73c87-f851-498a-ab03-1962342b4172

Mandibular canine often presents with only one root and one root canal in most of the cases. However, approximately 15% of the mandibular canines have two root canals and even less frequently two distinct roots. This article presents a case of root canal treatment in mandibular canine with two roots and two root canals. Meticulous cleaning and shaping followed by three-dimensional filling help in the successful treatment of such anatomical aberrations. Failure to do so may lead to post-treatment disease and further complications.

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<![CDATA[Oxycodone versus morphine for cancer pain titration: A systematic review and pharmacoeconomic evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5c0f7a4c-4090-42ec-ba95-57e120b0c99c

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of Oxycodone Hydrochloride Controlled-release Tablets (CR oxycodone) and Morphine Sulfate Sustained-release Tablets (SR morphine) for moderate to severe cancer pain titration.

Methods

Randomized controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria were searched through Medline, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, EMbase, CNKI,VIP and WanFang database from the data of their establishment to June 2019. The efficacy and safety data were extracted from the included literature. The pain control rate was calculated to eatimate efficacy. Meta-analysis was conducted by Revman5.1.4. A decision tree model was built to simulate cancer pain titration process. The initial dose of CR oxycodone and SR morphine group were 20mg and 30mg respectively. Oral immediate-release morphine was administered to treat break-out pain. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was performed with TreeAge Pro 2019.

Results

19 studies (1680 patients)were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that the pain control rate of CR oxycodone and SR morphine were 86% and 82.98% respectively. The costs of CR oxycodone and SR morphine were $23.27 and $13.31. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per unit was approximate $329.76. At the willingness-to-pay threshold of $8836, CR oxycodone was cost-effective, while the corresponding probability of being cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold of $300 was 31.6%. One-way sensitivity analysis confirmed robustness of results.

Conclusions

CR oxycodone could be a cost-effective option compared with SR morphine for moderate to severe cancer pain titration in China, according to the threshold defined by the WHO.

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<![CDATA[Clinical applicability of the Feline Grimace Scale: real-time versus image scoring and the influence of sedation and surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2856c4d5-d500-4a4f-95c9-9bc743f8a422

Background

The Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) is a facial expression-based scoring system for acute pain assessment in cats with reported validity using image assessment. The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical applicability of the FGS in real-time when compared with image assessment, and to evaluate the influence of sedation and surgery on FGS scores in cats.

Methods

Sixty-five female cats (age: 1.37 ± 0.9 years and body weight: 2.85 ± 0.76 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Cats were sedated with intramuscular acepromazine and buprenorphine. Following induction with propofol, anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and cats underwent ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Pain was evaluated at baseline, 15 min after sedation, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after extubation using the FGS in real-time (FGS-RT). Cats were video-recorded simultaneously at baseline, 15 min after sedation, and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after extubation for subsequent image assessment (FGS-IMG), which was performed six months later by the same observer. The agreement between FGS-RT and FGS-IMG scores was calculated using the Bland & Altman method for repeated measures. The effects of sedation (baseline versus 15 min) and OVH (baseline versus 24 h) were assessed using linear mixed models. Responsiveness to the administration of rescue analgesia (FGS scores before versus one hour after) was assessed using paired t-tests.

Results

Minimal bias (−0.057) and narrow limits of agreement (−0.351 to 0.237) were observed between the FGS-IMG and FGS-RT. Scores at baseline (FGS-RT: 0.16 ± 0.13 and FGS-IMG: 0.14 ± 0.13) were not different after sedation (FGS-RT: 0.2 ± 0.15, p = 0.39 and FGS-IMG: 0.16 ± 0.15, p = 0.99) nor at 24 h after extubation (FGS-RT: 0.16 ± 0.12, p = 0.99 and FGS-IMG: 0.12 ± 0.12, p = 0.96). Thirteen cats required rescue analgesia; their FGS scores were lower one hour after analgesic administration (FGS-RT: 0.21 ± 0.18 and FGS-IMG: 0.18 ± 0.17) than before (FGS-RT: 0.47 ± 0.24, p = 0.0005 and FGS-IMG: 0.45 ± 0.19, p = 0.015).

Conclusions

Real-time assessment slightly overestimates image scoring; however, with minimal clinical impact. Sedation with acepromazine-buprenorphine and ovariohysterectomy using a balanced anesthetic protocol did not influence the FGS scores. Responsiveness to analgesic administration was observed with both the FGS-RT and FGS-IMG.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of protein composition of rat hippocampus exposed to morphine for 10 days; comparison with animals after 20 days of morphine withdrawal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2838fdc6-dc33-429a-ba0d-e2e831e6a950

Opioid addiction is recognized as a chronic relapsing brain disease resulting from repeated exposure to opioid drugs. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of organism to return back to the physiological norm after cessation of drug supply are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to extend our previous studies of morphine-induced alteration of rat forebrain cortex protein composition to the hippocampus. Rats were exposed to morphine for 10 days and sacrificed 24 h (groups +M10 and −M10) or 20 days after the last dose of morphine (groups +M10/−M20 and −M10/−M20). The six altered proteins (≥2-fold) were identified in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10) by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The number of differentially expressed proteins was increased to thirteen after 20 days of the drug withdrawal. Noticeably, the altered level of α-synuclein, β-synuclein, α-enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was also determined in both (±M10) and (±M10/−M20) samples of hippocampus. Immunoblot analysis of 2D gels by specific antibodies oriented against α/β-synucleins and GAPDH confirmed the data obtained by 2D-DIGE analysis. Label-free quantification identified nineteen differentially expressed proteins in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10). After 20 days of morphine withdrawal (±M10/−M20), the number of altered proteins was increased to twenty. We conclude that the morphine-induced alteration of protein composition in rat hippocampus after cessation of drug supply proceeds in a different manner when compared with the forebrain cortex. In forebrain cortex, the total number of altered proteins was decreased after 20 days without morphine, whilst in hippocampus, it was increased.

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<![CDATA[Multiple criteria decision analysis approach to consider therapeutic innovations in the emergency department: The methoxyflurane organizational impact in acute trauma pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N48fe9543-bf7a-4bb3-b7f3-098351efee5f

Background

Acute trauma pain is poorly managed in the emergency department (ED). The reasons are partly organizational: ED crowding and rare trauma care pathways contribute to oligoanalgesia. Anticipating the organizational impact of an innovative care procedure might facilitate the decision-making process and help to optimize pain management.

Methods

We used a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach to consider the organizational impact of methoxyflurane (self-administered) in the ED, introduced alone or supported by a trauma care pathway. A MCDA experiment was designed for this specific context, 8 experts in emergency trauma care pathways (leading physicians and pharmacists working in French urban tertiary hospitals) were recruited. The study involved four steps: (i) Selection of organizational criteria for evaluating the innovation’s impact; (ii) assessment of the relative weight of each criterion; (iii) choice of appropriate scenarios for exploring the organizational impact of MEOX under various contexts; and (iv) software-assisted simulation based on pairwise comparisons of the scenarios. The final outcome measure was the expected overall organizational impact of methoxyflurane on a 0-to-100 scale (score >50: positive impact).

Results

Nine organizational criteria were selected. "Mean length of stay in the ED" was the most weighted. Methoxyflurane alone obtained 59 as a total score, with a putative positive impact for eight criteria, and a neutral effect on one. When a trauma care pathway was introduced concomitantly, the impact of methoxyflurane was greater overall (score: 75) and for each individual criterion.

Conclusions

Our model highlighted the putative positive organizational impact of methoxyflurane in the ED—particularly when supported by a trauma care pathway—and the relevance of expert consensus in this particular pharmacoeconomic context. The MCDA approach could be extended to other research fields and healthcare challenges in emergency medicine.

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<![CDATA[Severe hyperbilirubinemia is associated with higher risk of contrast-related acute kidney injury following contrast-enhanced computed tomography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N624c57d4-8983-4ece-aecc-e0e7860066cf

Introduction

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. Hyperbilirubinemia might have some renal protection but with no clear cutoff value for protection. Related studies are typically on limited numbers of patients and only in conditions of vascular intervention.

Methods

We performed this study to elucidate CI-AKI in patients after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CCT). The outcomes were CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality. Patients were divided to three groups based on their serum levels of total bilirubin: ≤1.2 mg/dl, 1.3–2.0 mg/dl, and >2.0 mg/dl.

Results

We enrolled a total of 9,496 patients who had received CCT. Patients with serum total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI. Those undergoing dialysis had the highest incidence of PC-AKI (p<0.001). No difference was found between the two groups of total bilirubin ≤1.2 and 1.3–2.0 mg/dl. Patients with total bilirubin >2mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI (OR = 1.89, 1.53–2.33 of 95% CI), dialysis (OR = 1.40, 1.01–1.95 of 95% CI) and mortality (OR = 1.63, 1.38–1.93 of 95% CI) after adjusting for laboratory data and all comorbidities (i.e., cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and acute myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding, cirrhosis, peritonitis, ascites, hepatoma, shock lung and colon cancer). We concluded that total bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after CCT. These patients also had high risks for cirrhosis or hepatoma.

Conclusion

This is the first study providing evidence that hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl) being an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after receiving CCT. Most patients with total bilirubin >2.0mg/dl had cirrhosis or hepatoma.

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<![CDATA[Lumbar Radicular Pain Response to First Injection with Non-particulate Steroid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nde279dc9-1a57-41f4-8f80-1d7622f1f2e0

Introduction

Recent studies on the use of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) to treat lumbar radicular pain have highlighted controversies pertaining to the choice of corticosteroid agent utilized in lumbosacral TFESI, in terms of both safety and efficacy. The primary objective was to characterize the radicular pain response after a first transforaminal injection with dexamethasone. The secondary objective was to document the response of those who failed to respond to a dexamethasone injection when particulate steroid was utilized for a second injection.

Methods

It was a retrospective study of 94 consecutive patients undergoing transforaminal injection for lumbosacral radicular pain. At two-week follow-up, patients rated their pain response on a clinically oriented five-point survey. First injection non-responders were given a second injection with particulate steroid and again completed the survey.

Results

Approximately one-third (N = 31/94) of patients received no meaningful relief from a single injection with dexamethasone. No patients achieved lasting and complete pain relief after a single injection. Of initial non-particulate steroid non-responders, approximately two-thirds (N = 19/28) demonstrated a notable or complete response to a second injection with particulate steroid.

Conclusions

We are now able to better inform patients with regard to their anticipated pain response to an initial dexamethasone injection. Only one-third of patients realized more significant and lasting relief after a single injection. Of those who did not demonstrate a more meaningful response, a second injection with particulate steroid resulted in more pronounced pain relief in two-thirds of patients.

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<![CDATA[Let’s talk about pain catastrophizing measures: an item content analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0761d7d6-f628-497b-9302-933eb994db6c

Background

Concerns have been raised about whether self-report measures of pain catastrophizing reflect the construct as defined in the cognitive-behavioral literature. We investigated the content of these self-report measures; that is, whether items assess the construct ‘pain catastrophizing’ and not other theoretical constructs (i.e., related constructs or pain outcomes) using the discriminant content validity method.

Method

Items (n = 58) of six pain catastrophizing measures were complemented with items (n = 34) from questionnaires measuring pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability. Via an online survey, 94 participants rated to what extent each item was relevant for assessing pain catastrophizing, defined as “to view or present pain or pain-related problems as considerably worse than they actually are” and other relevant constructs (pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability).

Results

Data were analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical models. The results revealed that the items from pain-related worrying, vigilance, pain severity, distress, and disability questionnaires were distinctively related to their respective constructs. This was not observed for the items from the pain catastrophizing questionnaires. The content of the pain catastrophizing measures was equally well, or even better, captured by pain-related worrying or pain-related distress.

Conclusion

Based upon current findings, a recommendation may be to develop a novel pain catastrophizing questionnaire. However, we argue that pain catastrophizing cannot be assessed by self-report questionnaires. Pain catastrophizing requires contextual information, and expert judgment, which cannot be provided by self-report questionnaires. We argue for a person-centered approach, and propose to rename ‘pain catastrophizing’ measures in line with what is better measured: ‘pain-related worrying’.

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<![CDATA[Unintentional Drug-related Deaths in Cambridgeshire: A Retrospective Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1fa24fe6-2921-4cc3-b838-e14871d7286d

Background: Drug-related deaths are a growing public health problem in the United Kingdom, overtaking road fatalities and homicides in terms of annual deaths. In this study, we investigated the causes and circumstances of unintentional drug-related deaths occurring in the county of Cambridgeshire, with the objective of identifying the prevalence of physical, mental, and social health problems within this cohort.

Methods: We collected data on the demographics and mental and physical health of, and drugs contributing to, 30 consecutive unintentional drug-related deaths recorded by the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough County Council Coroners in 2017. A retrospective observational study was used, and data were collected by manual extraction from coroners’ files.

Results: Social isolation was identified as a recurring theme amongst the decedents, although homelessness was found in very few cases. Pharmacologically, multiple drug toxicity and opioid toxicity were highly prevalent, whilst prescription opioids were implicated in more cases than heroin. Chronic pain was also highly prevalent amongst the decedents, and a history of mental illness was found to occur in the majority of cases.

Discussion: Our findings show that reports from the coronial system provide a rich narrative to understand the causes of drug-related deaths. We have identified that individuals who die from drug-related deaths frequently have multiple adverse physical, mental, and social problems. This implies that any attempt to reduce drug-related deaths requires a multi-faceted and multi-disciplinary approach.

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<![CDATA[Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 Following a Crush Injury to the Fifth Digit: A Rare Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe0eb686-cf4c-4000-bc8e-b0bfb38b6c90

This case report presents an application of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation to the left ulnar nerve to treat a patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 following a crush injury to the left fifth digit. Conventional treatment had failed to ameliorate the patient's condition. After a successful seven-day trial with an ulnar peripheral nerve catheter, which followed an unsuccessful capsulectomy of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the left fifth digit with tenolysis of the flexor tendons, the patient underwent an uneventful implantation of a percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator parallel with the trajectory of the left ulnar nerve just distal to the ulnar tunnel. Two weeks after implantation of the percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator, the patient reported a reduction in the pain, with the intensity score coming down from 7 out of 10 to 0-1 out of 10 on the numeric rating scale (NRS). The patient was able to initiate pain-free active motion of her left fifth digit. At the 3-month follow-up consultation, the patient reported maintenance of the reduction of pain in her left upper extremity with the implanted percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulator, as well as improved performance in her daily activities. Despite the success achieved in this particular case, further clinical series involving larger numbers of patients are warranted in order to assess the definitive role of percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain of the upper and lower extremities, which has been previously unresponsive to medical and/or surgical treatment.

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<![CDATA[Bilateral Parkinson’s disease model rats exhibit hyperalgesia to subcutaneous formalin administration into the vibrissa pad]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc1e56242-0f9e-4dec-b14c-0acf3482ec2d

We bilaterally injected 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle of rats and developed bilateral Parkinson’s disease (PD) model rats in order to experimentally investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the alteration of nociception in the orofacial region of patients with PD. We explored the effects of dopamine depletion on nociception by investigating behavioral responses (face rubbing) triggered by subcutaneous administration of formalin into the vibrissa pad. We also assessed the number of c-Fos–immunoreactive (c-Fos-IR) cells in the superficial layers of the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc). Subcutaneous formalin administration evoked a two-phase increase in face rubbing. We observed the first increase 0–5 min after formalin administration (first phase) and the second increase 10–60 min after administration (second phase). The number of face rubbing behaviors of 6OHDA–injected rats did not significantly change compared with saline–injected rats in both phases. Significant increase of c-Fos-IR cells in the Vc was found in 6-OHDA–injected rats after formalin administration compared with those in saline–injected rats after formalin administration. We also assessed expression of c-Fos-IR cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and significant decrease of c-Fos-IR cells in the PVN of 6-OHDA–injected rats was found. Taken together, these findings suggest that bilateral dopaminergic denervation evoked by 6-OHDA administration causes hyperalgesia in the trigeminal region and the PVN may be involved in the hyperalgesia.

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<![CDATA[Paravertebral Block with Compound Betamethasone in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc829cb3d-b73a-4c80-81f9-6f04630925aa

Backgrounds

The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of unilateral single injection thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) with and without the addition of betamethasone for the acute pain management of patient’s undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).

Methods

Eligible patients were allocated randomly to three groups: (A) general anesthesia followed by surgeon infiltration at port sites with ropivacaine (n = 48), (B) general anesthesia after single injection TPVB at right T7-8 level with ropivacaine only, Ropi_TPVB (n = 43), and (C) general anesthesia after single injection TPVB with ropivacaine plus betamethasone, Ropi_Betamet_TPVB (n = 45). Primary outcome was TPVB duration assessed by the number of dermatomes at regular intervals up to 72 hours (h). Secondary outcomes included pain scores, analgesics consumption, and perioperative functional outcomes.

Results

The addition of betamethasone to ropivacaine in TPVB resulted in similar onset but significantly slower block regression between 4 h and 72 h as compared to ropivacaine alone (P < 0.001). When compared to the surgeon infiltration group, Ropi_TPVB and Ropi_Betamet_TPVB group had significantly lower pain scores for 24 h and 48 h, respectively, P ≤ 0.001. Both TPVB groups had less frequency of analgesics administration for 72 h, P < 0.001, and earlier mobilization, P < 0.001.

Conclusions

The addition of betamethasone to TPVB significantly prolonged block duration as compared to local anesthetic alone. TPVB both with and without the addition of betamethasone resulted in better perioperative analgesia and improved functional status when compared to surgical site local anesthetic infiltration.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Method of Local Anesthesia for Optical Internal Urethrotomy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne28bc8c3-3f9b-4ff0-aec8-d96db5c4a154

Direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) is the treatment of choice for short anterior urethral strictures. It is performed under spinal or general anesthesia although it can also be done under local anesthesia. We describe a novel method of local anesthesia for internal urethrotomy. The technique described is feasible in morbid patients who are deemed unfit for spinal or general anesthesia and achieves good analgesia.

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<![CDATA[A Review of Lumbar Radiculopathy, Diagnosis, and Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8061684a-3264-4d96-bf57-f91713cf7f83

We review the epidemiology, etiology, symptomatology, clinical presentation, anatomy, pathophysiology, workup, diagnosis, non-surgical and surgical management, postoperative care, outcomes, long-term management, and morbidity of lumbar radiculopathy. We review when outpatient conservative management is appropriate and "red flag" warning symptoms that would necessitate an emergency evaluation. Diagnostic modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), contrast myelogram, electromyogram (EMG), and nerve conduction velocity (NCV), are involved in the diagnosis and decision-making are discussed. Treatment of lumbar radiculopathy requires a multimodal and multispecialty team. We review indications for the involvement of other professionals, including physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), physical and rehabilitation medicine (PMR), and pain management.

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<![CDATA[Successful Treatment of Scar Pain with Scrambler Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb514fb21-3934-4597-98e0-dca5bc2421c1

Scar pain from thoracotomy, hepatectomy, or similar operations is distressing and difficult to treat. Scrambler Therapy is a novel form of superficial neuromodulation that has been effective in treating different types of neuropathic pain. We report here two cases of dramatic relief from disabling scar pain with one or two sessions of Scrambler Therapy.

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<![CDATA[Ultrasound-guided Erector Spinae Plane Block for the Management of Herpes Zoster Pain: Observational Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf9553062-8630-4745-a20b-5816caad366a

Background

Herpes zoster is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus, which promotes acute and chronic pain that may interfere with daily activities and reduce the quality of life. Ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) blocks are used for a wide variety of indications in the management of acute, chronic, and postoperative pain. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane blocks for the management of pain in herpes zoster.

Methods

The medical records of 34 patients with acute or chronic pain during herpes zoster between May 2017 and June 2018 were investigated at two pain clinic centers. The patients received ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block: We performed a single injection for the patients having acute pain and a continuous block for the patients having chronic pain. Patient characteristics, block characteristics (needle insertion level, catheter, or single insertion), the volume of given local anesthetics, the intensity of pain before and after the block procedure using a numerical rating score (NRS) between 0 and 10, and the duration of analgesia were evaluated.

Results

All patients reported a remarkable and rapid resolution of pain immediately after the block procedure. Median (min-max) NRS score before the block procedure was 9 (4-10). The median (min-max) NRS score was 1.5 (0-7) after the block procedure. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). NRS score after the third month was 1 (0-3); the difference is statistically significant (p=0.002). The median value of analgesia time (min-max) was 18 (3-24) hours.

Conclusion

Our preliminary experience demonstrated that an ESP block provided sufficient analgesia in acute herpetic pain. A combination of ESP block, pregabalin, and tramadol was also effective within the three-months-period after the block performance.

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<![CDATA[Single-center retrospective study of the effectiveness and toxicity of the oral iron chelating drugs deferiprone and deferasirox]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9900fdd5eed0c484b95e7f

Background

Iron overload, resulting from blood transfusions in patients with chronic anemias, has historically been controlled with regular deferoxamine, but its parenteral requirement encouraged studies of orally-active agents, including deferasirox and deferiprone. Deferasirox, licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2005 based upon the results of randomized controlled trials, is now first-line therapy worldwide. In contrast, early investigator-initiated trials of deferiprone were prematurely terminated after investigators raised safety concerns. The FDA declined market approval of deferiprone; years later, it licensed the drug as “last resort” therapy, to be prescribed only if first-line drugs had failed. We undertook to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and toxicities of deferiprone and deferasirox in one transfusion clinic.

Methods and findings

Under an IRB-approved study, we retrospectively inspected the electronic medical records of consented iron-loaded patients managed between 2009 and 2015 at The University Health Network (UHN), Toronto. We compared changes in liver and heart iron, adverse effects and other outcomes, in patients treated with deferiprone or deferasirox.

Results

Although deferiprone was unlicensed in Canada, one-third (n = 41) of locally-transfused patients had been switched from first-line, licensed therapies (deferoxamine or deferasirox) to regimens of unlicensed deferiprone. The primary endpoint of monitoring in iron overload, hepatic iron concentration (HIC), increased (worsened) during deferiprone monotherapy (mean 10±2–18±2 mg/g; p < 0.0003), exceeding the threshold for life-threatening complications (15 mg iron/g liver) in 50% patients. During deferasirox monotherapy, mean HIC decreased (improved) (11±1–6±1 mg/g; p < 0.0001). Follow-up HICs were significantly different following deferiprone and deferasirox monotherapies (p < 0.0000002). Addition of low-dose deferoxamine (<40 mg/kg/day) to deferiprone did not result in reductions of HIC to <15 mg/g (baseline 20±4 mg/g; follow-up, 18±4 mg/g; p < 0.2) or in reduction in the proportion of patients with HIC exceeding 15 mg/g (p < 0.2). During deferiprone exposure, new diabetes mellitus, a recognized consequence of inadequate iron control, was diagnosed in 17% patients, most of whom had sustained HICs exceeding 15 mg/g for years; one woman died after 13 months of a regimen of deferiprone and low-dose deferasirox. During deferiprone exposure, serum ALT increased over baseline in 65% patients. Mean serum ALT increased 6.6-fold (p < 0.001) often persisting for years. During deferasirox exposure, mean ALT was unchanged (p < 0.84). No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in the proportions of patients estimated to have elevated cardiac iron.

Conclusions

Deferiprone showed ineffectiveness and significant toxicity in most patients. Combination with low doses of first-line therapies did not improve the effectiveness of deferiprone. Exposure to deferiprone, over six years while the drug was unlicensed, in the face of ineffectiveness and serious toxicities, demands review of the standards of local medical practice. The limited scope of regulatory approval of deferiprone, worldwide, should restrict its exposure to the few patients genuinely unable to tolerate the two effective, first-line therapies.

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<![CDATA[Prescription medication use during pregnancies that resulted in births and abortions (2001-2013): A retrospective population-based study in a Canadian population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897711d5eed0c4847d23a9

We aimed to describe medication use in pregnancies that resulted in births and abortions, as well as use after a pregnancy-related visit to characterize the receipt of medication after knowledge of pregnancy. Abortions included both spontaneous and induced abortions. Rates of medication use among women with a pregnancy outcome (2001–2013) were described using the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Use was determined as ≥ 1 prescription filled during pregnancies that resulted in births (livebirth/stillbirth) and abortions. Rates were calculated at any time during pregnancy and after a pregnancy-related visit. Rates were additionally characterized by risk in pregnancy using Briggs classification (2017). Of 174,848 birth pregnancies, overall 64.9% filled ≥ 1 prescription during pregnancy (a significant increase from 62.3% to 68.8% from 2001–2013, p<0.0001); 55.4% filled ≥ 1 prescription after a pregnancy-related visit. Of 71,967 abortions, 44.7% filled ≥ 1 prescription (a significant increase from 42.6% to 46.8% from 2001–2013, p<0.0001). Only 3.7% of birth pregnancies had at least one prescription for a contraindicated medication (according to Briggs classification), whereas 10.8% of abortions filled a prescription for a contraindicated medication. The most common drugs used in pregnancy were amoxicillin, doxylamine, codeine combinations, nitrofurantoin, cephalexin, salbutamol and ranitidine. Fewer women filled prescriptions for undesirable medications according to Briggs classification during pregnancy after a pregnancy-related visit.

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