ResearchPad - pancreatic-cancer https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A modified arginine-depleting enzyme NEI-01 inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11227 Arginine deprivation cancer therapy targets certain types of malignancies with positive result in many studies and clinical trials. NEI-01 was designed as a novel arginine-depleting enzyme comprising an albumin binding domain capable of binding to human serum albumin to lengthen its half-life. In the present work, NEI-01 is shown to bind to serum albumin from various species, including mice, rat and human. Single intraperitoneal administration of NEI-01 to mice reduced plasma arginine to undetectable level for at least 9 days. Treatment of NEI-01 specifically inhibited cell viability of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines, which were ASS1 negative. Using a human pancreatic mouse xenograft model, NEI-01 treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. Our data provides proof of principle for a cancer treatment strategy using NEI-01.

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<![CDATA[Retraction: A Functional Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Src and Stat3 Heteromeric Complex in Pancreatic Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe1cd5eed0c484e5b51c ]]> <![CDATA[Aberrant FAM64A mRNA expression is an independent predictor of poor survival in pancreatic cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff04d5eed0c484135981

FAM64A, a marker of cell proliferation, has been investigated as a potential biomarker in several cancers. In the present study, we examined the value of FAM64A expression in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer through bioinformatics analysis of data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The diagnostic value of FAM64A expression in pancreatic cancer tissue was deteremined through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and based on the obtained cut-off value, patients were divided into two groups (high FAM64A expression and low FAM64A expression). Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were applied to identify associations between FAM64A expression and clinical features. Moreover, the effect of FAM64A expression in the survival of pancreatic cancer patients was observed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox analyses. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using the TCGA dataset. Our results showed that high FAM64A expression in pancreatic cancer was associated with survival status, overall survival (OS), and recurrence. The area under the ROC curve was 0.736, which indicated modest diagnostic value. Patients with higher FAM64A expression had significantly shorter OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) times. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that high FAM64A expression was an independent risk factor for OS and RFS. GSEA identified mitotic spindles, myc targets, MTORC1 signaling, G2M checkpoint, E2F targets, DNA repair, glycolysis and unfolded protein response as differentially enriched with the high FAM64A expression phenotype. In conclusion, high FAM64A mRNA expression is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.

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<![CDATA[Acute Pancreatitis Accelerates Initiation and Progression to Pancreatic Cancer in Mice Expressing Oncogenic Kras in the Nestin Cell Lineage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d5ab0ee8fa60b65993

Targeting of oncogenic Kras to the pancreatic Nestin-expressing embryonic progenitor cells and subsequently to the adult acinar compartment and Nestin-expressing cells is sufficient for the development of low grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) between 2 and 4 months. The mice die around 6 month-old of unrelated causes, and it is therefore not possible to assess whether the lesions will progress to carcinoma. We now report that two brief episodes of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in 2 month-old mice causes rapid PanIN progression and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development by 4 months of age. These events occur with similar frequency as observed in animals where the oncogene is targeted during embryogenesis to all pancreatic cell types. Thus, these data show that oncogenic Kras-driven PanIN originating in a non-ductal compartment can rapidly progress to PDAC when subjected to a brief inflammatory insult.

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<![CDATA[Leukocyte DNA Methylation Signature Differentiates Pancreatic Cancer Patients from Healthy Controls]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6efeb

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC) is one of most difficult tumors to treat. Much of this is attributed to the late diagnosis. To identify biomarkers for early detection, we examined DNA methylation differences in leukocyte DNA between PaC cases and controls in a two-phase study. In phase I, we measured methylation levels at 1,505 CpG sites in treatment-naïve leukocyte DNA from 132 never-smoker PaC patients and 60 never-smoker healthy controls. We found significant differences in 110 CpG sites (false discovery rate <0.05). In phase II, we tested and validated 88 of 96 phase I selected CpG sites in 240 PaC cases and 240 matched controls (p≤0.05). Using penalized logistic regression, we built a prediction model consisting of five CpG sites (IL10_P348, LCN2_P86, ZAP70_P220, AIM2_P624, TAL1_P817) that discriminated PaC patients from controls (C-statistic = 0.85 in phase I; 0.76 in phase II). Interestingly, one CpG site (LCN2_P86) alone could discriminate resectable patients from controls (C-statistic  = 0.78 in phase I; 0.74 in phase II). We also performed methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTL) analysis and identified three CpG sites (AGXT_P180_F, ALOX12_E85_R, JAK3_P1075_R) where the methylation levels were significantly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate <0.05). Our results demonstrate that epigenetic variation in easily obtainable leukocyte DNA, manifested by reproducible methylation differences, may be used to detect PaC patients. The methylation differences at certain CpG sites are partially attributable to genetic variation. This study strongly supports future epigenome-wide association study using leukocyte DNA for biomarker discovery in human diseases.

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<![CDATA[Improved Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Jaundiced and Non-Jaundiced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients through the Combination of Routine Clinical Markers Associated to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Pathophysiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8b64

Background

There is still no reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA 19–9) is a tumor marker only recommended for pancreatic adenocarcinoma follow-up. One of the clinical problems lies in distinguishing between this cancer and other benign pancreatic diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. In this study we will assess the value of panels of serum molecules related to pancreatic cancer physiopathology to determine whether alone or in combination could help to discriminate between these two pathologies.

Methods

CA 19–9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-reactive protein, albumin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 were measured using routine clinical analyzers in a cohort of 47 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 20 chronic pancreatitis and 15 healthy controls.

Results

The combination of CA 19–9, IGF-1 and albumin resulted in a combined area under the curve (AUC) of 0.959 with 93.6% sensitivity and 95% specificity, much higher than CA 19–9 alone. An algorithm was defined to classify the patients as chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with the above specificity and sensitivity. In an independent validation group of 20 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 13 chronic pancreatitis patients, the combination of the four molecules classified correctly all pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 12 out of 13 chronic pancreatitis patients.

Conclusions

Although this panel of markers should be validated in larger cohorts, the high sensitivity and specificity values and the convenience to measure these parameters in clinical laboratories shows great promise for improving pancreatic adenocarcinoma diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Irrelevance of Microsatellite Instability in the Epidemiology of Sporadic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf5ab0ee8fa60bc2c77

Background and Aims

Pancreatic cancer risk is increased in Lynch syndrome (LS) patients with mismatch repair gene defects predisposing to colonic and extracolonic cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, the frequency of MSI pancreatic cancers has never been ascertained in consecutive, unselected clinical series, and their contribution to the sporadic and inherited burden of pancreatic cancer remains to be established. Aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of MSI in surgically resected pancreatic cancers in a multicentric, retrospective study, and to assess the occurrence of pancreatic cancer in LS.

Methods

MS-status was screened by a panel of 5 mononucleotide repeats (Bat26, Bat25, NR-21, NR-24 and NR-27) in 338 consecutive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), resected at two Italian and one German referral centres. The personal history of pancreatic cancer was assessed in an independent set of 58 probands with LS and in 138 first degree relatives who had cancers.

Results

Only one PDAC (0.3%) showed MSI. This was a medullary type cancer, with hMLH1-deficiency, and no identified germ-line mutation but methylation of hMLH1. Pancreatic cancer occurred in 5 (2.5%) LS patients. Histological sampling was available for 2 cases, revealing PDAC in one case and an ampullary cancer in the other one.

Conclusions

MSI prevalence is negligible in sporadic, resected PDAC. Differently, the prevalence of pancreatic cancer is 2.5% in LS patients, and cancers other than PDAC may be encountered in this setting. Surveillance for pancreatic cancer should be advised in LS mutation carriers at referral centers.

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<![CDATA[Class I and Class II Histone Deacetylases Are Potential Therapeutic Targets for Treating Pancreatic Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab6ab0ee8fa60bacd5a

Background

Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with an extremely poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have shown promising antitumor activities against preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we sought to identify clinically relevant histone deacetylases (HDACs) to guide the selection of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) tailored to the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Methodology

HDAC expression in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells was determined by Western blotting. Antitumor interactions between class I- and class II-selective HDACIs were determined by MTT assays and standard isobologram/CompuSyn software analyses. The effects of HDACIs on cell death, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, and histone H4, alpha-tubulin, p21, and γH2AX levels were determined by colony formation assays, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting, respectively.

Results

The majority of classes I and II HDACs were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines, albeit at variable levels. Treatments with MGCD0103 (a class I-selective HDACI) resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, accompanied by induction of p21 and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In contrast, MC1568 (a class IIa-selective HDACI) or Tubastatin A (a HDAC6-selective inhibitor) showed minimal effects. When combined simultaneously, MC1568 significantly enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest, cell death/apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest, while Tubastatin A only synergistically enhanced MGCD0103-induced growth arrest. Although MC1568 or Tubastatin A alone had no obvious effects on DNA DSBs and p21 expression, their combination with MGCD0103 resulted in cooperative induction of p21 in the cells.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that classes I and II HDACs are potential therapeutic targets for treating pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, treating pancreatic cancer with pan-HDACIs may be more beneficial than class- or isoform-selective inhibitors.

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<![CDATA[A Potent Lead Induces Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae4ab0ee8fa60bbcceb

Pancreatic cancer is considered a lethal and treatment-refractory disease. To obtain a potent anticancer drug, the cytotoxic effect of 2-(benzo[d]oxazol-3(2H)-ylmethyl)- 5-((cyclohexylamino)methyl)benzene-1,4-diol, dihydrochloride (NSC48693) on human pancreatic cancer cells CFPAC-1, MiaPaCa-2, and BxPC-3 was assessed in vitro. The proliferation of CFPAC-1, MiaPaCa-2, and BxPC-3 is inhibited with IC50 value of 12.9±0.2, 20.6±0.3, and 6.2±0.6 µM at 48 h, respectively. This discovery is followed with additional analysis to demonstrate that NSC48693 inhibition is due to induction of apoptosis, including Annexin V staining, chromatins staining, and colony forming assays. It is further revealed that NSC48693 induces the release of cytochrome c, reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, generates reactive oxygen species, and activates caspase. These results collectively indicate that NSC48693 mainly induces apoptosis of CFPAC-1, MiaPaCa-2, and BxPC-3 cells by the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway. Excitingly, the study highlights an encouraging inhibition effect that human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver (HL-7702) cells are more resistant to the antigrowth effect of NSC48693 compared to the three cancer cell lines. From this perspective, NSC48693 should help to open up a new opportunity for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer.

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<![CDATA[Diagnosis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma and Chronic Pancreatitis by Measurement of microRNA Abundance in Blood and Tissue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf2ab0ee8fa60bc1a2a

A solid process for diagnosis could have a substantial impact on the successful treatment of pancreatic cancer, for which currently mortality is nearly identical to incidence. Variations in the abundance of all microRNA molecules from peripheral blood cells and pancreas tissues were analyzed on microarrays and in part validated by real-time PCR assays. In total, 245 samples from two clinical centers were studied that were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma or chronic pancreatitis and from healthy donors. Utilizing the minimally invasive blood test, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the corresponding area under the curve (AUC) analysis demonstrated very high sensitivity and specificity of a distinction between healthy people and patients with either cancer or chronic pancreatitis; respective AUC values of 0.973 and 0.950 were obtained. Confirmative and partly even more discriminative diagnosis could be performed on tissue samples with AUC values of 1.0 and 0.937, respectively. In addition, discrimination between cancer and chronic pancreatitis was achieved (AUC = 0.875). Also, several miRNAs were identified that exhibited abundance variations in both tissue and blood samples. The results could have an immediate diagnostic value for the evaluation of tumor reoccurrence in patients, who have undergone curative surgical resection, and for people with a familial risk of pancreatic cancer.

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<![CDATA[APE1/Ref-1 Regulates STAT3 Transcriptional Activity and APE1/Ref-1–STAT3 Dual-Targeting Effectively Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Survival]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa4ab0ee8fa60ba6fd6

Pancreatic cancer is a largely incurable disease, and increasing evidence supports strategies targeting multiple molecular mediators of critical functions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Intracellular redox state modulates the activity of various signal transduction pathways and biological processes, including cell survival, drug resistance and responsiveness to microenvironmental factors. Recently, it has been shown that the transcription factor STAT3 is under redox control, but the mechanisms involved in its regulation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that STAT3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity is directly regulated by the redox function of the APE1/Ref-1 endonuclease, using overexpression and redox-specific mutational strategies, and gene knockdown. Also, pharmacological blockade of APE1/Ref-1 by the redox-selective inhibitor E3330 abrogates STAT3 DNA binding. Since APE1/Ref-1 also exerts redox control on other cancer-associated transcription factors, we assessed the impact of dual-targeting of STAT3 signaling and APE1/Ref-1 redox on pancreatic cancer cell functions. We observed that disruption of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity synergizes with STAT3 blockade to potently inhibit the proliferation and viability of human PDAC cells. Mechanistically, we show that STAT3–APE1/Ref-1 dual targeting promotes marked tumor cell apoptosis, with engagement of caspase-3 signaling, which are significantly increased in comparison to the effects triggered by single target blockade. Also, we show that STAT3–APE1/Ref-1 dual blockade results in significant inhibition of tumor cell migration. Overall, this work demonstrates that the transcriptional activity of STAT3 is directly regulated by the redox function of APE1/Ref-1, and that concurrent blockade of STAT3 and APE1/Ref-1 redox synergize effectively inhibit critical PDAC cell functions.

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<![CDATA[MUC1c Regulates Cell Survival in Pancreatic Cancer by Preventing Lysosomal Permeabilization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d8ab0ee8fa60b6676a

Background

MUC1 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein aberrantly overexpressed in various cancer cells including pancreatic cancer. The cytosolic end of MUC1 (MUC1-c) is extensively involved in a number of signaling pathways. MUC1-c is reported to inhibit apoptosis in a number of cancer cells, but the mechanism of inhibition is unclear.

Method

Expression of MUC1-c was studied in the pancreatic cancer cell line MIAPaCa-2 at the RNA level by using qRTPCR and at the protein level by Western blotting. MUC1-c expression was inhibited either by siRNA or by a specific peptide inhibitor, GO-201. Effect of MUC1-c inhibition on viability and proliferation and lysosomal permeabilization were studied. Association of MUC1-c with HSP70 was detected by co-immunoprecipitation of MUC1-c and HSP70. Localization of MUC1-c in cellular organelles was monitored by immunofluorescence and with immuno- blotting by MUC1-c antibody after subcellular fractionation.

Results

Inhibition of MUC1-c by an inhibitor (GO-201) or siRNA resulted in reduced viability and reduced proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, GO-201, the peptide inhibitor of MUC1-c, was effective in reducing tumor burden in pancreatic cancer mouse model. MUC1-c was also found to be associated with HSP70 in the cytosol, although a significant amount of MUC1 was also seen to be present in the lysosomes. Inhibition of MUC1 expression or activity showed an enhanced Cathepsin B activity in the cytosol, indicating lysosomal permeabilization. Therefore this study indicates that MUC1-c interacted with HSP70 in the cytosol of pancreatic cancer cells and localized to the lysosomes in these cells. Further, our results showed that MUC1-c protects pancreatic cancer cells from cell death by stabilizing lysosomes and preventing release of Cathepsin B in the cytosol.

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<![CDATA[The Tumor-Educated-Macrophage Increase of Malignancy of Human Pancreatic Cancer Is Prevented by Zoledronic Acid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab3ab0ee8fa60bac2f2

We previously defined macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic tumors as “tumor-educated-macrophages” (Edu) and macrophages harvested from mice without tumors as “naïve-macrophages” (Naïve), and demonstrated that Edu-macrophages promoted tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, Edu- and Naïve-macrophages were compared for their ability to enhance pancreatic cancer malignancy at the cellular level in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory efficacy of Zoledronic acid (ZA) on Edu-macrophage-enhanced metastasis was also determined. XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells in Gelfoam co-cultured with Edu-macrophages proliferated to a greater extent compared to XPA1 cells cultured with Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.014). XPA1 cells exposed to conditioned medium harvested from Edu culture significantly increased proliferation (P = 0.016) and had more migration stimulation capability (P<0.001) compared to cultured cancer cells treated with the conditioned medium from Naïve. The mitotic index of the XPA1 cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, significantly increased in vivo in the presence of Edu- compared to Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.001). Zoledronic acid (ZA) killed both Edu and Naïve in vitro. Edu promoted tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of the XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. ZA reduced primary tumor growth (P = 0.006) and prevented metastasis (P = 0.025) promoted by Edu-macrophages. These results indicate that ZA inhibits enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer induced by Edu-macrophages.

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<![CDATA[An Increased Total Resected Lymph Node Count Benefits Survival following Pancreas Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Resection: An Analysis Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Registry Database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db00ab0ee8fa60bc663a

Background

The therapeutic effect of lymph node dissection for pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) remains unclear. The study investigated whether cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) rates among invasive IPMN patients improve when more lymph nodes are harvested during surgery.

Study Design

The study cohort was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lymph node count was categorized into quartiles. The relationship between lymph node count and survival was analyzed using Kaplan–Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards model. The stage migration was assessed by Chi-square tests. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize confounding variables between groups.

Results

In total, 1,080 patients with resected invasive IPMNs from 1992 to 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate Cox models indicated that an increased lymph node count independently improves survival. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests identified 16 nodes as an optimal cut-off value that yielded a significant survival benefit for all invasive IPMN patients. The stage migration effect existed in this cohort. After PSM, the 5-year CSS increased from 36% to 47%, and the median survival rate increased from 30 months to 40 months by increasing the lymph node count to over 16, alone. The 5-year OS rate also provided additional support for this result.

Conclusion

Increased lymph node counts were associated with improved survival in invasive IPMN patients. One cut-off value of lymph node count was 16 for this improvement.

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<![CDATA[Grape Proanthocyanidin Inhibit Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro and In Vivo through Induction of Apoptosis and by Targeting the PI3K/Akt Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db05ab0ee8fa60bc7ea3

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy that is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage with poor prognosis. Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effects of bioactive proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPs) as assessed using In Vitro and In Vivo models. Treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells (Miapaca-2, PANC-1 and AsPC-1) with GSPs In Vitro reduced cell viability and increased G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle leading to induction of apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The GSPs-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells was associated with a decrease in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and an increase in the levels of Bax and activated caspase-3. Treatment of Miapaca-2 and PANC-1 cells with GSPs also decreased the levels of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of Akt at ser473. siRNA knockdown of PI3K from pancreatic cancer cells also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt. Further, dietary administration of GSPs (0.5%, w/w) as a supplemented AIN76A control diet significantly inhibited the growth of Miapaca-2 pancreatic tumor xenografts grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice, which was associated with: (i) inhibition of cell proliferation, (ii) induction of apoptosis of tumor cells, (iii) increased expression of Bax, reduced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and activation of caspase-3-positive cells, and (iv) decreased expression of PI3K and p-Akt in tumor xenograft tissues. Together, these results suggest that GSPs may have a potential chemotherapeutic effect on pancreatic cancer cell growth.

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<![CDATA[BART Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion by PKCα Inactivation through Binding to ANX7]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b898c0

A novel function for the binder of Arl two (BART) molecule in pancreatic cancer cells is reported. BART inhibits invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through binding to a Ca2+-dependent, phosphorylated, guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) membrane fusion protein, annexin7 (ANX7). A tumor suppressor function for ANX7 was previously reported based on its prognostic role in human cancers and the cancer-prone mouse phenotype ANX7(+/−). Further investigation demonstrated that the BART–ANX7 complex is transported toward cell protrusions in migrating cells when BART supports the binding of ANX7 to the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCα. Recent evidence has suggested that phosphorylation of ANX7 by PKC significantly potentiates ANX7-induced fusion of phospholipid vesicles; however, the current data suggest that the BART–ANX7 complex reduces PKCα activity. Knocking down endogenous BART and ANX7 increases activity of PKCα, and specific inhibitors of PKCα significantly abrogate invasiveness induced by BART and ANX7 knockdown. These results imply that BART contributes to regulating PKCα activity through binding to ANX7, thereby affecting the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, it is possible that BART and ANX7 can distinctly regulate the downstream signaling of PKCα that is potentially relevant to cell invasion by acting as anti-invasive molecules.

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<![CDATA[Kaempferol Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth and Migration through the Blockade of EGFR-Related Pathway In Vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db05ab0ee8fa60bc823c

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most appalling cancers with a pessimistic prognosis. Despite many therapies, there has been no improvement of survival rates. In this study, we assessed the anti-cancer effects of kaempferol, a well known flavonoid having functional bio-activity against various malignant tumors. Kaempferol had anti-cancer effects on Miapaca-2, Panc-1, and SNU-213 human pancreatic cancer cells. In a dose-dependent manner, kaempferol decreased viability of these pancreatic cancer cells by increasing apoptosis. In particular, kaempferol effectively inhibited the migratory activity of human pancreatic cancer cells at relatively low dosages without any toxicity. The anti-cancer effect of kaempferol was mediated by inhibition of EGFR related Src, ERK1/2, and AKT pathways. These results collectively indicate that kaempferol, a phytochemical ingredient reported to have anti-viability and anti-oxidant properties, can act as a safety anti-migration reagent in human pancreatic cancer cells, which provide the rationale for further investigation of kaempferol as a strong candidate for the potential clinical trial of malignant pancreatic cancers.

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<![CDATA[A miRNA Signature of Chemoresistant Mesenchymal Phenotype Identifies Novel Molecular Targets Associated with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d3c9

In this study a microRNA (miRNA) signature was identified in a gemcitabine resistant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line model (BxPC3-GZR) and this signature was further examined in advanced PDAC tumor specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. BxPC3-GZR showed a mesenchymal phenotype, expressed high levels of CD44 and showed a highly significant deregulation of 17 miRNAs. Based on relevance to cancer, a seven-miRNA signature (miR-100, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-21, miR-205, miR-27b and miR-455-3p) was selected for further studies. A strong correlation was observed for six of the seven miRNAs in 43 advanced tumor specimens compared to normal pancreas tissue. To assess the functional relevance we initially focused on miRNA-125b, which is over-expressed in both the BxPC3-GZR model and advanced PDAC tumor specimens. Knockdown of miRNA-125b in BxPC3-GZR and Panc-1 cells caused a partial reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced response to gemcitabine. Moreover, RNA-seq data from each of 40 advanced PDAC tumor specimens from the TCGA data base indicate a negative correlation between expression of miRNA-125b and five of six potential target genes (BAP1, BBC3, NEU1, BCL2, STARD13). Thus far, two of these target genes, BBC3 and NEU1, that are tumor suppressor genes but not yet studied in PDAC, appear to be functional targets of miR-125b since knockdown of miR125b caused their up regulation. These miRNAs and their molecular targets may serve as targets to enhance sensitivity to chemotherapy and reduce metastatic spread.

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<![CDATA[Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Mediates the Unfavorable Systemic Impact of Local Irradiation on Pharmacokinetics of Anti-Cancer Drug 5-Fluorouracil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3eab0ee8fa60b88e6d

Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely accepted for cancer treatment. However, the interactions between radiation and 5-FU remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the influence of local irradiation on the pharmacokinetics of 5-FU in rats. The single-fraction radiation was delivered to the whole pelvic fields of Sprague-Dawley rats after computerized tomography-based planning. 5-FU at 100 mg/kg was prescribed 24 hours after radiation. A high-performance liquid chromatography system was used to measure 5-FU in the blood. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) inhibitor I was administered to examine whether or not RT modulation of 5-FU pharmacokinetic parameters could be blocked. Compared with sham-irradiated controls, whole pelvic irradiation reduced the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of 5-FU in plasma and, in contrast, increased in bile with a radiation dose-dependent manner. Based on protein array analysis, the amount of plasma MMP-8 was increased by whole pelvic irradiation (2.8-fold by 0.5 Gy and 5.3-fold by 2 Gy) in comparison with controls. Pretreatment with MMP-8 inhibitor reversed the effect of irradiation on AUC of 5-FU in plasma. Our findings first indicate that local irradiation modulate the systemic pharmacokinetics of 5-FU through stimulating the release of MMP-8. The pharmacokinetics of 5-FU during concurrent chemoradiaiton therapy should be rechecked and the optimal 5-FU dose should be reevaluated, and adjusted if necessary, during CCRT.

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<![CDATA[Appraisal of Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy for Left-Sided Pancreatic Cancer: A Large Volume Cohort Study of 152 Consecutive Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da20ab0ee8fa60b7ea18

Background

The aim of this study was to appraise the value of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) for left-sided pancreatic cancer based on a large volume cohort study.

Methods

We reviewed data for all consecutive patients undergoing LDP for left-sided pancreatic cancer at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) between December 2006 and December 2014.

Results

A total of 91 male and 61 female patients, with a median age of 62.7 years were included in this study. The median operative duration was 234 minutes. Pathological reports revealed the following: a median tumor size of 3.0 cm (range, 0.4–10.0), T stages (T1 in 7.9%, T2 in 5.3%, T3 in 86.8%, and no T4), the tumor differentiation (well differentiated in 16.4%, moderately differentiated in 75.4%, and poorly differentiated in 8.2%), and R0 resection in 126 patients (82.9%). After pancreatectomy, 96 patients (63.2%) received adjuvant chemotherapy, and the median time to chemotherapy was 30 days. The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (range, 5–31), and the median time to diet resumption was 1 day. Grade B or C postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 14 patients (9.2%) and grade II or III complications occurred in 27 (17.7%). The median overall survival was 43.0 months. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that tumor size, N1 stage, combined resection, and incompleteness of planned adjuvant chemotherapy affect patient survival.

Conclusions

LDP for left-sided pancreatic cancer is reasonable within selected indications. An international consensus on laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic cancer would be desirable and timely.

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